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b/ 7.201 

gene:al.ogv  col.i_eci  .on 


3  1833  00827  5114 



OF    THE 


From  the  Earliest  Account  to  Its  Organization 
into  c(junties 



Member  of  The  American    Historical    A^shciatius.    The    New-England    Historic    GtiNEALociCAL 
Society,  The  '  Old  Northwest  '  Gesealiigical  Society,  The  Ohio  State  Akch- 


AND  Historical  Association.  Etc. 





To  His  Friends 

Of  Many    Years   Continuance 

This  Bool<  is  Dedicated 

By  ttie  Author 

Copyright,  1905, 

By  chares  ELIHU   SLOCUM. 

All  Rights  Reserved. 


For  reference  to  Illustrations  see  the  page  figures  followed  with  asterisk  (*)  in  the  In- 
dex at  the  close  of  this  volume.     For  Preface  see  page  vii. 


CHAPTER  I.      -»— ^  -i^^^rv  .   \j  p^^^ 

Introductory  with  Table  of  Counties  and  Statistics 1 

The  Maumee  River  Basin  distinguished  from  the  Maumee  River  Valley  — 
Situation,  Latitude  and  Longitude,  Extent  in  square  miles  —  The  former  Forest 
—  Topography  —  Climate  —  Products  —  Healthfulness  —  Counties,       Principal 

Towns,  Population. 


Geology  of  the  Maumee  River  Basin 6 

Source  of  the  Rocks — The  Geologic  Column  in  comparison  with  that  of 
other  parts  of  Ohio,  and  elsewhere  —  Chart  —  Lacking  in  several  strata  —  Tren- 
ton Limestone  —  Natural  Gas  and  Petroleum  and  theories  of  their  Origin  — 
Wells  and  their  Products  —  Process  of  Drilling  —  Rock  Water  supply  —  Eleva- 
tions and  Depressions  of  Rock  Strata —  Early  Surface  Conditions  —  Prehistoric 
Drainage  Channels  —  Age  of  Ice  and  Theories  of  Cause  —  Glacier  Markings  and 
Extent  of  —  Foreign  Rocks  brought  by  Glaciers  —  Glacier  Phenomena  and  Ef- 
fects—  Glacial  Lakes,  and  their  Drainage  Channels  —  Time  and  Duration  of 
the  Ice  Age  —  Benefits  of  the  Glaciation. 

The  Earliest  Evidences  Found  of  Prehistoric  Man 47 

Before,  during  and  subsequent  to  the  Age  of  Ice  —  Co-existent  with  the 
Mastodon  and  other  long-extinct  Animals.  Prehistoric  Stone  Implements  —  Pre- 
historic Mounds  and  Circles  of  Earth  —  The  Aborigines  as  first  described  —  the 
Fiercest  Savages  known  to  History. 

The  First  Explorers  and  Cartographers,   The  French   and  British      ...     75 

Champlain  —  French  Coureurs  de  Bois  —  Earliest  French  Maps — LaSalle 
--Later  French  Maps — The  British-French  wars.  Wars  with  the  Aborigines, 
and  the  Fur  Trade  as  an  ever-present  Incitement  —  Conspiracy  of  Chief  Nicholas 
against  the  French  —  British  and  French  purchase  each  other's  Scalps — The 
British  Succession  —  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac  against  the  British,  and  his  Capture 
of  the  western  Forts  —  Armies  of  Wilkins,  Bradstreet  and  Bouquet  against  the 
Aborigines — Captives  returned  to  Bouquet — Croghan's  successful  Peace  Mis- 
sion—  Fort  Miami  and  Detroit  described.      1(J14-17<J6. 

Hostilities  of  Aborigines  and  British  Against  the  Colonists 124 

The  Colonies  Impoverished  —  Rebel  against  British  Impositions  —  The  Rev- 
olutionary War  —  British  form  Savage  War-parties  against  Pioneer  American 
Settlements,  Furnish  them  Leaders  and  Supplies,  and  pay  for  American  Scalps 
brought  by  them  —  American  Deserters  and  British  Officers  often  with  the  Sav- 
ages in  their  Maraudings — British  remove  the  Less  Savage  Officers  —  American 
successes  in  the  Southwest,   and  Organizations  for  Civil  Government — Futile 


plans  of  Americans  against  Detroit  the  headquarters  for  this  Basin  —  Americans 
Massacre  reputed  Peaceful  Aborigines  —  Close  of  Revolutionary  War  —  Aborig- 
ines not  satisfied  without  continual  supply  of  Intoxicants  and  Excitement  —  Con- 
tinued Aggression  of  the  British.     170(5-1783. 

Organization  of  the  Territorv  Northwest  ok  the  Ohio  River 152 

Cessions  of  Claims  by  States  to  the  United  States — Jefferson's  plan  for  Div- 
ision of  the  West  Rejected  —  Desire  for  Land  in  the  Territory — Hostilities  of 
the  Aborigines  and  Expeditions  against  them  —  British  Refuse  to  surrender  the 
western  Forts  according  to  Treaty  at  Paris — Treaties  with  Aborigines  disregarded 
by  them  —  Unfriendly  action  of  the  Spanish  in  restricting  Navigation  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi leads  to  Disaffection  in  Ohio  and  Kentucky — Further  British  Aggres- 
sions—  Civil  and  Military  Activity  —  American  Efforts  for  Peace  with  the  Aborig- 
ines prove  futile — Gen.  Harmar's  Expedition  against  the  Hostiles  by  the  Mau- 
mee  and  his  Defeat  by  them  —  Further  unsuccessful  efforts  for  Peace  —  Gen.  St. 
Clair's  Expedition  against  the  Savages  and  his  overwhelming  Defeat.    1784-1791. 


Preparations  of  the  Aborigines,   Aided  bv  the  British,   to   Drive  the  Ameri- 
cans BACK  East  of  the  Alleghenies,  and  for  .Army  to  Resist  Them    .    .    .    170 

Aborigines  would  not  accept  Peace  —  Gen.  Wayne  chosen  to  command 
Northwestern  Army  —  Hamilton  County  extended  to  embrace  this  Basin — More 
unsuccessful  Efforts  for  Peace,  and  more  Savagery  by  the  Aborigines  —  The 
largest  Councils  ever  held  by  the  Aborigines,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Auglaise  River 
and  by  the  lower  Maumee,  for  Federating  them  under  Direction  of  the  British — 
Advance  of  Gen.  Wayne's  army  —  Further  Intrigues  of  the  Spanish  and  French 

—  Wayne  builds  Forts  Greenville  and  Recovery  —  British  build  Fort  Miami  by 
lower  Maumee  —  Battle  of  Fort  Recovery — Wayne's  successful  Expedition  to 
and  along  the  Maumee — Builds  Forts  Adams  and  Defiance — Great  daring  of 
American  Scouts  —  Yet  further  Efforts  for  Peace  prove  Unavailing — Battle  of 
Fallen  Timber,  a  wholesome  Defeat  of  the  Aborigines  and  British  —  Return  of 
army  and  the  Strengthening  of  Fort  Defiance  —  Fort  Wayne  built.      1792-17514. 

General  Wayne's  Reports  of  his  Maumee  Campaign  to  the  Secretary  of  War  207 

Report  of  his  March,  Forts  and  Efforts  for  Peace  —  of  Battle  of  Fallen 
Timber — of  Correspondence  with  British  Commandant  of  F'ort  Miami  —  Testi- 
mony of  Prisoners  Criminating  the  British — Needs  of  the  Northwestern  Army — 
of  his  and  Colonel  Hamtramck's  Diplomacy  in  turning  the  .\borigines  from  the 
British  and  Favorable  to  the  Americans  —  Letters  of  Colonel  Hamtramck  from 
Fort  Wayne  —  The  Aborigines'  first  Object-lesson  in  Fourth  of  July  Celebrating 

—  The  most  Important  Treaty  at  Greenville.      1794-179.1. 


Treaties,   Civil  Organizations,   Conspiracy  of  Tecumseh  and   the    British      .   230 

Treaty  with  Spain  counteracting  Tendency  to  Secession  from  the  Union  of 
Inhabitants  west  of  the  Alleghenies  —  Immigration  —  Colonel  Hamtramck's 
Letters  from  Fort  Wayne  concluded  —  Wampum  and  its  Uses  —  The  Military 
Stations — The  British  Surrender  their  Forts  in  American  territory — Scarcity 
of  Food — Wayne  County  Organized  —  Death  of  Gen.  Wayne — Gen.  Wilkinson 
succeeds   to    Command  of   Northwestern    Army  —  Court  at  Detroit  for  Wayne 


County  includingjthis  Basin  —  Further  Intrigues  of  France  and  Spain  cause  un- 
rest—  First  Territorial  Legislature  —  Ohio  and  Indiana  Territories  Organized  — 
Desire  for  Land,  and  Land  Offices  —  Ohio  Organized  as  a  State  —  The  Louisiana 
Purchase  quiets  Secession  tendencies  —  Fort  Industry  —  Further  Treaties  with 
Aborigines  —  Conspiracy  of  Tecumseh  and  the  'Prophet'  aided  by  British  against 
the  Americans  —  United  States  Trading  Agencies  among  Aborigines  —  Battle  of 
Tippecanoe.      17!t.')-]S12, 


The  First  Year  of  the  War  of  1812 268 

Gen.  William  Hull  chosen  to  command  Northwestern  Army  composed  of 
Ohio  Soldiers — Builds  Forts  M'.\rthur.  Necessity.  Findlay  and  Miami  (No.  6) — 
Despoiled  by  British  through  his  Thoughtlessness  —Surrenders  Army  to  British 
without  battle  —  Siege  of  Fort  Wayne  by  Aborigines  —  Relieved  by  Gen.  Har- 
rison—  Gen.  Winchester  appointed  commander  Northwestern  Army  —  British 
force  Retreat  before  him  —  Forts  Barbee,  Jennings,  Amanda,  Winchester,  Feree, 
Ball  and  Stephenson  built  —  Gen.  Harrison  succeeds  Gen.  Winchester  in  Com- 
mand and  appoints  him  Commander  of  Left  Wing  —  Winchester's  five  Camps  at 
Defiance  and  great  Scarcity  of  Food  and  Clothing  at,  with  much  Sickness  and 
Death — Gen.  Harrison's  Report  —  Winchester's  Advance,  and  Defeat,  with 
Massacre,  at  the  River  Raisin  —  Fort  Portage  built. 


The  Second  and  Third  (Final)  Years  of  the  War  of  1S12      .  ....   313 

The  Center  and  Right  Wing  of  Northwestern  Army  drawn  from  to  Protect 
the  Maumee  region  —  Fort  Meigs  built  —  Military  Supplies  increase  —  Difficulties 
in  keeping  Army  Recruited —  Large  gathering  of  Savages  by  British  —  Fort  Meigs 
Besieged  by  British  and  their  Savage  Allies-  Imprudence.  Defeat,  and  Massacre 
of  many  of  Col.  Dudley's  troops — Siege  of  Fort  Meigs  abandoned  by  British  — 
Incidents  of  Array  Life  at  Fort  Meigs  —  Supplies  —  Much  Sickness  and  Many 
Deaths  at  Fort  Meigs  —  Fourth  of  July  Observance  —  Fort  Seneca  built  —  Second 
(bloodless)  Siege  of  Fort  Meigs  —  Brilliant  repulse  of  British  at  Fort  Stephenson 

—  The  Naval  Squadrons  on  Lake  Erie  —  Battle  and  Capture  of  Entire  British 
Squadron  —  Advance  of  Northwestern  Army  into  Canada  —  Defeat  of  British 
Army  at  the  River  Thames  —  Gen.  Harrison  goes  to  Niagara  to  aid  the  Army  of 
the  Center,  Returns  to  Ohio  and  Resigns  Command  -  Proctor's  Selfishness  — 
Report  of  Gen.  Gano  —  More  Sickness  at  Fort  Miegs  with  short  Supplies  —  Re- 
port of  Gen.  M'Arthur  —  Treaty  closing  War  of  1812  —  All  Forts  in  this  Basin 
Abandoned  excepting  Fort  Wayne.      1813-1814. 

The  Aborigines,   Treaties  with,   Missionaries  Among,   and  Removal  of      .       .   304 

Again  turn  to  Americans  to  be  Fed  —  Important  Treaties  with — Expenditures 
for  —  Number  of  —  Difficulties  in  Civilizing  them  —  Their  Religion  —  Efforts  to 
keep  Intoxicants  from  —  Reservations  for  them  and  their  Captives — Agents  for 

—  Missionaries  among  the  Aborigines,  the  F'riends,  Presbyterians,  Methodists, 
and  Baptists  —  Great  Extent  of  Land  Claimed  by  Aborigines  —  Wisdom  in  Con- 
tracting their  Range  —  Further  Removal  Treaties — United  States  pays  Debts 
for  —  Vaccination  of  against  Smallpox  —  Descendants  of  the  Aborigines  in  Gen- 
eral and  in  Particular  —  Cannibalism  of  —Later  Characteristics  compared  with 
Former— Evil  influences  of  the  French  and  British  —  Many  Fictions  promulgat- 
ed and  perpetuated  regarding  —  Their  Misnaming  and  Mistraining — Linguistic 


Stocks  here  Represented  —  Tribes  —  Had  no  right  to  claim  Lands  for  their  Con- 
tinuance in  Savagery.      1812-1840. 


The  Present  Drainage  System   of  the  Maumee  River  Basin 443 

Peculiar  Courses  of  the  Nine  Rivers,  and  the  Causes  —  Character  of  the 
Water  —  The  Rivers  as  Early  Thorofares  —  River  Craft  -Service  of  the  Rivers 
to  the  Aborigines  and  Early  Settlers  as  Food  Supply  of  Fish  and  Fowl  —  Changes 
wrought  by  Clearing  the  Forest  and  by  Mills  —  Present  Service  of  for  Water- 
supply  and  as  Resorts  for  Recreation  and  Pleasure  —  Description  of  the  Maumee, 
Auglaise,  Little  Auglaise,  St.  Mary,  St.  Joseph,  Blanchard,  Ottawa  of  the  Au- 
glaise,  Ottawa  of  the  Maumee,  and  of  the  Tiffin  River —  Origin  of  their  Names  — 
Their  Rapids,  and  former  Mills  by  — Floods  —  Former  Portages  to  and  from  — 
Boat  building  by,  and  later  Commerce  along — Toledo  Harbor  the  Best  by  the 
Great  Lakes  -Its  Shipping,  and  Shipbuilding. 


The  First  American   Settlers,   and  the  Organization  of  Counties     .       .       .   512 

First  Settlers  by  the  lower  Maumee  were  Driven  away  by  War  of  LSI 2  — 
Reminiscences  of—  Claim  Damages  of  United  States  for  Destruction  or  Use  of 
Crops  in  the  War  —  Survey  of  the  United  States  Reservations  and  the  Beginning 
of  Towns  —  First  Masonic  Lodges  and  Churches — First  Newspapers — Wood  the 
first  County  Organized  Waynesfield  the  Mother  Township  —  Description  of 
Site  of  Defiance  in  1792  —  First  American  Settlers  at  Occupy  buildings  of  Fort 
Winchester — Organization  of  Williams  County  with  Defiance  as  seat  of  Govern- 
ment—  Taxes  paid  by  Bounty  on  Wolf-scalps — Center  of  Timber  Industry  in 
Clearing  the  Forest  —  First  Settlers  and  Organizations  at  Fort  Wayne  and  north- 
eastern Indiana,  and  elsewhere  throughout  the  Basin  —  The  Ohio-Michigan 
Boundary  Dispute.      17!>2-lS."iO. 

Development  of  Communication,  Public  Lands,  Schools,  Libraries  .  .  .  570 
First  United  States  Mailroutes  and  Postoffices  —  Public  Roads.  Ferries, 
Bridges — Survey  and  Platting  of  United  States  Lands  —  Land  Offices  —  The 
Private  and  Public  Schools  —Colleges  —  The  Miami  and  Erie  and  the  Wabash 
and  Erie  Canals  —  The  Struggles  for  their  Completion  -  Their  Water-supply 
from  the  River  St.  Joseph,  the  headwaters  of  the  Wabash  River,  of  Loramie  and 
Six-mile  Creeks  and  from  the  Maumee  River  —  Their  Junction — Altitudes  — 
Importance  of  in  Clearing  the  Forest  and  Developing  the  New  Country  —  Great 
amount  of  Freight  and  Passenger  Traffic  —  As  a  National  Military  Highway  — 
Enemies  of  —  Cost  and  Earnings  of  —Two  United  States  Surveys  for  their  En- 
largement—  Speculative  and  soon-abandoned  Towns  by  —  Abandonment  of  the 
Wabash  Canal — The  First  Railroads — Libraries,  Public  at  Toledo,  Perrys- 
burg.  Defiance,  Fort  Wayne,  Bryan,  Van  Wert,  Findlay,  Lima,  Paulding,  and 
Private  Libraries  at  Fort  Wayne,  Defiance,  and  Toledo. 

Iron,  five  inches  lony.     Found  in  Maumee  River  Basin  many  years  a^o.     Was  used  by  Aboriyines 
i'q  spearing  fish,  and  in  battle.     In  Author's  Collection. 


Every  river  basin  possesses  characteristics  that  endow  it  with 
special  interest,  and  such  is  particularly  the  case  with  The  Maumee 
River  Basin  which  is  peculiar  in  its  geology,  remarkable  in  its  past  his- 
tory, beautiful  in  its  landscapes  rivers  and  lakes,  and  interesting  in  its 
possibilities.  This  book  has  been  written  to  interest  and  inform  those 
dwellers  herein  who  are  not  already  well  informed  regarding  its  charac- 
teristics and  history,  and  that  all  consulting  it  may  be  better  enabled  to 
appreciate  the  interests  and  merits  appertaining  to  this  favored  region. 

From  the  dawn  of  its  history  in  the  seventeenth  century,  and  prob- 
ably throughout  the  existence  of  man  in  northeastern  America,  the 
principal  rivers  of  this  Basin  have  been  great  thoroughfares,  within  the 
Basin  itself  and  as  the  most  direct  route  between  the  northeastern 
Basin  of  the  Great  Lakes  and  the  Basin  of  the  Mississippi  River.  They 
have  also  often  been  the  scenes  of  much  strife  between  different  tribes 
of  Aborigines,  even  between  those  of  the  Iroquois  Confederacy  of  New 
York  and  the  Miamis  ol  the  Maumee  and  further  west,  the  giants  of  the 
Aborigines;  and  twice  in  the  history  of  the  United  States  this  Basin  has 
been  the  headquarters  of  armies  which  turned  the  current  of  events  fav- 
orably to  the  Union,  saving  to  it  from  the  tightening  grasp  of  Great 
Britain  the  invaluable  territory  west  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains,  to  the 
Mississippi  River  at  least. 

The  Aborigines  and  their  descendants  give  prominent  coloring  to 
the  most  part  of  the  chronicles,  through  the  efforts  of  the  Europeans  to 
involve  them  in  all  their  quarrels,  from  the  first  coming  of  the  French  in 
the  first  half  of  the  seventeenth  century,  through  the  long-continued 
British-French  warrings,  during  the  British  succession,  the  American- 
British  wars,  and  until  the  removal  of  the  tribes  beyond  the  Mississippi 
River  in  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century.  The  later  record  of 
these  people  here  as  elsewhere  is  far  from  being  a  pleasant  one.  It 
continued  to  be  full  of  savagery,  of  bloodshed,  and  of  rendings  of  the 
civilization  that  would  have  immeasurably  improved  their  condition  had 
they  accepted  it;  and  the  saddest  part  of  the  record  is  the  aiding,  abett- 
ing and  prolonging  of  this  savagery  by  the  French  and  the  British  partic- 
ularly, and  the  entailing  upon  the  United  States  of  an  evil  heritage  of 
gigantic  proportions  in  their  confirmed  evil  habits.  It  has  been  the  de- 
sire of  the  writer  to  treat  of  all  these  people  in  the  light  of  authentic 
history  rather  than  in  the  fictitious  war  of  the  sentimentalist.  The 
story  of  the  Aborigines,  for  the  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  as  told  on 
these  pages,  touches  every  phase  of  their  life,  including  every  phase  of 
individual  and  governmental  dealings  with  them;  and  the  thoughtful 
reader  will  readily  recognize  the  source  gf  the  impulses  actuating  and 

vu!  .      PREFACE. 

continuing  their  antagonism  to  civilization  and  the  source  and  transmis- 
sion of  the  habit  of  inebriety  which  has  been  the  prime  factor  in  the 
continuance  of  many  of  their  descendants  in  squalor  and  wretchedness. 
No  other  nation  has  done  so  much  for  the  amelioration  and  radical  bet- 
terment of  the  condition  of  barbaric  or  savage  people  as  the  United 
States  has  done  in  general  and  special  efforts  from  the  first  for  the  civ- 
ilization of  these  Aborigines,  the  worst  of  all  savages.  The  most  im- 
portant treaties  and  dealings  with  them  are  here  given  in  full  as  studies 
in  the  history  of  the  evolution  of  the  ever  magnanimous  dealings  with 
them  by  the  United  States.  These  records,  now  long  out  of  publica- 
tion, will  become  of  more  interest  and  of  greater  value  to  the  student 
of  Nations  and  Peoples  as  the  time  lengthens  into  the  past. 

The  previous  writings  regarding  some  of  the  more  common  events 
in  this  Basin  have  been  abundant  and  often  conflicting,  involving  diffi- 
culty in  discrimination.  There  has  not  been  any  desire  with  the  pres- 
ent writer  to  follow  anyone  among  the  vanities  of  fiction  or  undue  sup- 
position;  or  in  the  'graphic'  style  for  the  rounding  out  of  a  'good' 
or  oft  repeated  story  to  the  distraction  of  the  reader's  mind  from  the 
main  point,  or  to  the  impairment  of  accuracy.  So  far  as  practicable 
original  documents  and  reports,  not  readily  accessible  to  the  general 
reader,  are  literally  presented  as  possessing  a  value  that  no  recasting 
can  equal.*  When  necessary,  notes  or  inserts  are  used  to  elucidate 
obscure  places  in  the  documents  and  to  give  them  local  application. 
Full  references  to  authorities  are  given  for  the  enquiring  reader  who  de- 
sires to  confirm  the  statements  or  to  pursue  the  subject  further. 
Events  distantly  relative  are  briefly  treated. 

The  purpose  of  the  work  has  been  practical,  and  its  method  has 
been  largely  in  consonance  with  the  sentiment  of  Francis  Bacon  as  ex- 
pressed in  his  writing  on  the  Advancement  of  Learning,  that  "It  is  the 
true  office  of  history  to  represent  the  events  themselves  together  with 
the  counsels,  and  to  leave  the  observations  and  conclusions  thereupon 
to  the  liberty  and  faculty  of  every  man's  judgment." 

The  writer  gratefully  acknowledges  the  courtesy  shown  him  by  the 
elderly  people  and  those  in  charge  of  the  different  libraries  East  and 
West  from  whom  he  has  sought  data  for  this  work.  He  also  disclaims 
responsibility  for  its  long  rest  in  the  press  and  for  errors  that  have 
thereby  been  committed. 

The  photographs  reproduced  in  the  engravings  were  generally 
taken  by  the  writer  excepting  when  otherwise   mentioned. 

Defiance,  Ohio.  CHARLES  E.  SLOCUM. 

■'It  is  probable  that  many  other  records  of  interest  in  the  history  of  this  first  '  Northwestern  Terri- 
tory' will  yet  be  brought  to  lieht  from  the  British,  French  and  Spanish  archives,  and  possibly  from  the 
bundles  of  MSS.  saved  from  the  British  hre  gf  1814  and  now  held  by  different  departments  ^t  Washing- 



Situation  —  Extent  —  Climate  —  Surface  Features. 

The  Maumee  River  Basin  —  the  territory  within  the  watersheds 
draining'  through  the  Maumee  River — includes  all  the  regions  that  are 
drained  into  the  Maumee  River  through  distant  streams  as  well  as  the 
lands  drained  directly  by  the  Maumee  ;  in  other  words,  it  includes  the 
Maumee  River  Valley  and  the  valleys  of  all  streams  the  waters  of 
which  immediately,  and  remotely  through  other  streams,  debouch  into 
the  Maumee  River. 

It  embraces  Northwestern  Ohio,  Northeastern  Indiana,  and  contig- 
uous parts  of  Michigan,  being  situated  between  parallels  40°  23'  and 
42°  5'  North  Latitude,  and  between  Longitude  6°  20'  and  8''  15'  west 
from  Washington,  and  83°  20'  and  85°  15'  west  from  Greenwich, 

Its  greatest  length  and  breadth  are,  from  north  to  south  about  one 
hundred  and  ten  miles,  and  from  east  to  west  about  one  hundred  miles, 
with  less  extent  and  irregular  outline  between  these  points.  The  area 
embraced  within  these  limits  is  near  6500  square  miles. 

Previous  to  its  clearing  in  the  nineteenth  centurv,  this  Basin  was 
quite  generally  covered  with  dense  forest  growths  which,  from  the  size, 
solidity  and  variety  of  the  timber,  with  its  nearness  to  navigable  water, 
made  it  the  most  valuable  of  forest  regions. 

The  conditions  were  then  favorable  for  all  kinds  of  wild  animals, 
large     and      small,    then      abounding      in      this     latitude    in    America.'^ 

*  The  followlni:  is  a  list  of  the  animals  that  have  become  extinct,  and  the  dates  of  their  extinction : 
Badger,  Taxidea  americana.  lS7i):  Bear,  brown,  black  or  cinnamon,  Ursus  americanus,  1^72;  Beaver, 
Castor  fiber.  1837;  Bison,  'buffalo,'  Bison  americanus.  1812;  Cat,  Wild,  Lynx  rufus.  1866;  Deer,  red, 
Cariacus  virginianus.  ]dS9:  Deer,  larce.  Wapiti,  Cervus  canadensis  Erxleben.  1824;  Elk,  Alee  aices, 
1822;  Fox,  black  and  silver,  and  cross,  Vulpes  vulpes.  varieties  argentatus  and  decussatus.  1886;  Fox, 
gray,  Urocyon  cinereo-argentatus.  1896:  Lynx.  Lynx  canadensis.  1840;  Otter,  Lutra  hudsonica.  now  very 
nearly  or  quite  extinct;  Panther,  coujrar  or  puma,  Felis  concolor.  18,50;  Rat,  Wood.  Neotoma  floridana, 
1880;  Sable,  pine  martin.  Mustela  americana.  186.t;  Turkey,  Wild,  Meleagris  galiopavo,  1885;  Wolf, 
Canis  lupus,  1865;  Wolverine,  Gulo  gulo.  about  1825,  Probably  the  Moose  also  ranged  through  this 
region.  The  prehistoric  animals  will  be  mentioned  on  later  page,  See  the  writer's  check-lists  of 
mammals,  birds,  and  lishes  of  The  Maumee  River  Basin, 


There  are  no  hills  within  or  surrounding  this  Basin,  nor  do  its 
horizons  present  any  abrupt  lines.  The  general  surface  is  caljed  flat  by 
persons  coming  from  hilly  regions.  Its  glacial  plains  are,  however,  in- 
terspersed and  abutted  by  moraines  or  low  ridges  which  rise  graduall\- 
on  the  northwest  rim  of  the  Basin  to  an  altitude  of  six  hundred  and 
forty-seven  feet  above  Lake  Erie  which  liorders  it  on  the  northeast,  and 
into  which  it  drains,  while  on  the  east  the  highest  altitude  is  two 
hundred  and  forty-five  feet  ;  on  the  south  three  hundred  and  eighty-six 
feet  ;  and  on  the  west  three  hundred  feet  above  Lake  Erie,  which  is 
five  hundred  and  seventy-three  feet  above  tide  water.  The  varying 
altitudes  throughout  the  Basin,  shown  on  the  morainic  map  on  a  later 
page,  indicate  sufficient  slopes  for  thorough  drainage,  and  to  afford 
variety  of  tieautiful  landscapes  even  in  its  most  level   parts. 

The  climate  is  here  less  severe  in  winter  tlian  that  experienced  a 
few  miles  to  the  north,  and  less  variable  than  that  be\'ond  the  divide  to 
the  south.  Cold  waves  and  severe  storms  occasionally  announced  by 
the  United  States  Weather  Bureau  as  advancing  from  the  West  and 
Northwest,  do  not  regularly  extend  to  this  region:  and  when  they  are  felt 
it  is  in  moderated  degree.  The  prevailing  winds  come  from  the  South- 
west. The  snowfall  is  always  moderate  in  quantity,  a  foot  in  depth 
being  of  rare  occurrence  in  the  central  jiart  of  the  Basin,  and  fifteen 
inches  being  the  greatest  de]3th  experienced  within  the  last  third  of  a  cen- 
tury at  least.  Occasionally  the  fall  has  been  greater  near  Lake  Erie. 
Within  this  period  of  time  there  have  been  several  weeks  of  fair  sleigh- 
ing from  frequent  light  snowfalls  in  some  winters,  with  ice  on  the  deeper 
waters  in  extreme  to  the  thickness  of  thirty  inches,  succeeded  by  other 
winters  when  sleighs  could  be  used  liut  little  if  at  all,  and  some  of  these 
winters  so  mild  that  ice  did  not  form  in  sufficient  thickness  for  storing 
for  summer  use.  The  temperature  observed  some  years  ago  for  a  period 
of  ten  years  showed  a  mean  of  49.55  degrees  Fahrenheit,  average. 
The  mean  average  fall  of  rain  and  snow  ( melted  )  during  ten  years 
observation  has  been  3H.90H7  inches.  The  last  few  years  the  precipita- 
tion has  not  been  so  great.  Careful  observations  during  a  great  num- 
ber of  years  may  vary  these  records,  as  long  cycles  of  time  ma\-  be 
necessary  to  show  all   the  extremes  in  any  region. 

The  earlier  tillers  of  the  soil  found  it  very  wet.  The  clav  and  solid 
subsoil,  which  abound  in  many  parts,  retained  the  water  without  ditches 
and  in  forest  shadows  a  long  time,  often  throughout  the  year.  On  this 
account  much  of  this  Basin  was  termed  the  Black  Swamp,  a  name 
which  was  in  common  ap]ilication  to  all  of  the  more  level  surfaces 
until  the  last  few  years.  The  clearing  of  the  land  and  the  digging  of 
large  ditches  with  tributary  tile  drains,  have  dried  and  aerated  the  soil 
and    brought   it   into   good    condition    for    profitable   cultivation.      The 


constituents  of  the  soil  are  such  as  to  make  this  a  region  of  threat  and 
durable  fertility,  with  quite  uniform  jiroduction  of  the  varied  crops  usu- 
alh'  cultivated  in  this  latitude,  winter  wheat,  maize  (corn),  hav, 
potatoes,  oats,  rye,  and  barley  beinj;-  the  principal  crops.  Flax, 
tobacco,  broom-corn,  sori^hum,  sugar  beets,  etc.,  have  also  been  proved 
profitable  for  cultivation. 

Good  apples,  peaches,  pears,  plums,  and  grapes  are  produced  in 
large  quantities,  and  increasing  attention  is  being  given  to  the  cultiva- 
tion of  various  kinds  of  smaller  fruits  ;   also  to  market  gardening. 

A  goodly  number  of  cattle,  horses,  hogs,  sheep,  and  latterly  goats, 
have  been  bred,  and  the  numbers  are  increasing  Irom  vear  to  vear, 
showing  that  the  soil  and  other  conditions  are  well  adajitc-d  to  stock 
raising.  Defiance,  the  central  part  of  the  liasin,  has  also  become  one 
of  the  shipping  points  of  the  largest  amount  ot  i)oultr\-  to  the  New  York 

Swamp  miasms  were  rife  from  the  first  records  of  this  Maumee 
region  and  during  the  period  of  clearing  awa}'  the  forest,  the  opening 
of  the  ground  to  the  direct  rays  of  the  sun,  during  the  earlier  turnings 
of  the  soil  in  its  cultivation,  and  in  ]uiblic  works.  Ague  -  intermittent 
fever  —  in  its  different  forms,  and  the  severer  remittent  fevers,  were 
quite  general  and  severe  until  the  year  1875  in  most  parts  of  the  Basin  ; 
and  in  the  less  develojied  parts  these  diseases  continued  for  several 
years  later.  The  writer,  in  the  practice  of  his  profession,  has  treated 
virulent  types  of  these  affections  in  many  families  where  there  was  not 
a  member  in  good  health  to  nurse  those  dangerously  sick.  These 
diseases  were  most  prevalent  and  severe  in  dry  summers  ;  and  the  fol- 
lowing winters  inflammatory  diseases  were  numerous  and  virulent  on 
account  of  the  weakened  condition  ot  the  people  from  the  malaria. 
The  death  rate,  although  no  higher  than  in  other  places  throughout  the 
country,  was  greater  those  years  than  it  has  since  been.  In  fact,  since 
the  passing  of  the  swamps  and  their  miasms  the  healthfuluess  of  this 
Basin  ranks  very  favorably  with  that  of  any  region  in  America.  Most 
parts  have  been  comparatively  free  from  the  severer  forms  of  contagi- 
ous diseases,  including  tuberculosis.  In  later  years  longe\'it\  has 
attained  a  high  standard.  The  death  rate  averages  comjiarativelv  low, 
it  being  by  the  thousand  inhabitants  in  the  year  1901  or  19()-  as  follows: 

In  Ohio  for  1901:  Ada,  I'lAr.',  :  Bryan,  14.H7  ;  Ottawa.  K.«0  ; 
Maumee,  9.16:  Lima,  1;130  :  Delphos,  14.17:  Grand  Raiiids,  9.11: 
Napoleon,   7.97;    Wauseon,    7.91:    Fayette,    15.80:    St.    Marys,     13.25. 

In  Ohio  for  1902:  Defiance,  8.50:  Van  Wert,  9.87 '2:  Findlay, 
11.381;    Toledo,  11.54,-J;   Waytakoneta,  15.33'3. 

In  Indiana  for  1902:      Angola,  8.84ttt:   Fort  Wayne,  11,50, 



From  Whom  or 
What  Named 

From  What  Taken 

Attached  to  for 

























Adams.  Ind, 
Allen,  Ind. 
Allen,  Ohio 
Auglaize.  Ohio 
Defiance,  Ohio 
De  Kalb,  Ind. 
Fulton,  Ohio 
Hancock,  Ohio 
Hardin,  Ohio 
Henry.  Ohio 
Hillsdale.  Mich. 
Lenawee,  Mich. 
Lucas,  Ohio 
Mercer,  Ohio 
Noble,  Ind. 
Paulding'.  Ohio 
Putnam,  Ohio 
Seneca.  Ohio 
Shelby,  Ohio 
Steuben,  Ind. 
Van  Wert,  Ohio 
Wells,  Ind. 
Williams,  Ohio 
Wood.  Ohio 
Wyandot.  Ohio 

Pres.  John  Adams 
Col.  John  Allen 
Col.  John  Allen 
Auglaize  River 
Fort  Defiance 
Baron  De  Kalb 
Robert  Fulton 
John  Hancock 
Col.  John  Hardin 
Patrick  Henry 
Gov.  Robert  Lucas 
Gen.  Hugh  Mercer 

John  Paulding 
Gen.  Israel  Putnam 
Aborigine  Tribe 
Gen.  Isaac  Shelby 
Baron  Steuben 
Isaac  Van  Wert 
William  Wells 
Daniel  Williams 
Col.  Eleazer  D.  Wood 
Aborigine  Tribe 


Dec.   17,  1823 
April  1.  1830 


March  4,  1845 


Feby.  28,  1850 
April  1.  1820 
April  1,  1820 
April  1.  1H20 

Randolph  and  Allen  Counties 

Randolph  and  Delaware 

Aborigine  Territory 
Allen,  Logan.  Darke,  Shelby, 
Mercer  and  Van  Wert 

Williams,  Henry  and  Paulding 

Allen  and  Lagrange 

Lucas.  Henry  and  Williams 

Aborigine  Territory 

Aborigine  Territory 

Aborigine  Territory 

Allen  County 

Mercer  County 

Wood  County 
Logan,  Champaign 
Wood.  Williams 

June      ,  1H35 
April  1,  1820 

Wood  County 
Aborigine  Territory 

Darke  County 

April  1,  1820 
April  i,  1820 
April  1.  1820 



April  1.  1820 

Aborigine  Territory 
Aborigine  Territory 
Aborigine  Territory 
Miami  County 
Allen  County 
Aborigine  Territory 

Wood,  Williams 
Wood,  Williams 

Darke  and  Mercer 

April  1,  1820 
April  1,  1820 
Feby.  3,  1845 

Aborigine  Territory 

Aborigine  Territory 
Crawford,    Hancock,    Hardin 
and  Marion  Cos. 

Wood  County 


M^'-^^^  ^ 











W^'  ''iM  /^ 






AMERICAN   BISON  [Bison  americanus). 
Became  extinct  in  this  Basin  about  the  year  1812. 























11, .383 








Dec.  17,  1»33 










Fort  Wayne 



June      ,  1831 
























March  4,  1845 























Feby.  28.  1850 











April  7,  1828 










Find  lay 



J  any.  3,  1833 





































131,, 822 










I -5th 


June      ,   1835 











April  17,  1824 















































April  1.  IHH 









































I. .577 








Van  Wert 














April    .  1824 













April  1.  1820 










I -3rd 

Bowling  Green 



Feby.  3,  1845 





21  732 



I'p'r  Sandusky 





Its  Ge<ilogv — Peculiarities-^Valuable  Features. 

It  is  not  within  the  limits  of  this  book  to  treat  of  the  geology  of  the 
Maumee  River  Basin  in  detail  as  discussed  technically  by  geologists. 
The  object  of  the  writer  is  to  briefly  outline  the  subject  so  that  the  local 
reader,  for  whom  this  work  is  undertaken,  even  though  he  be  as  yet  un- 
interested and  uninformed,  may  get  somewhat  of  a  desire,  an  impetus, 
and  A  bibliography  for  further  reading. 

The  historic  period  of  this  region  occupies  but  a  brief  time  in  chro- 
nologv  in  comparison  with  the  great  length  of  time  which  must  have 
elapsed  during  the  formation  of  the  topography  as  seen  by  the  first 
European  explorers  in  the  latter  half  of  the  seventeenth  century. 

The  ocean  is  the  mother  of  continents.  The  inland  State  of  Ohio 
bears  unmistakable  evidence  of  having  been  covered  by  the  sea  during 
the  long  geologic  periods  that  the  rocks  of  her  underlying  strata,  so  far 
as  explored,  were  formed.  The  character  of  these  rocks,  including  the 
fossils  found  embedded  by  them,  in  common  with  similar  formations  in 
other  parts  of  the  earth,  plainly  bespeak  their  epoch  in  the  earth's  geo- 
logic historv.  Animal  life  in  the  sea  varied  in  different  epochs  as  well 
as  life  on  the  land.  The  remains  were  subjected  to  the  continued  action 
of  the  waves,  in  the  more  shallow  ]iarts,  which  washed  some  shells  and 
bones  into  plastic  recesses,  there  to  become  petrified,  while  others  were 
ground  into  powder  to  be  deposited  and  cemented  to  the  accretion  of 
rock  strata.  The  study  and  classification  of  the  varying  strata  and  their 
fossils  have  shown  results  sufficient  to  enable  geologists  to  name  the 
period  of  formation  of  even  dislocated  fragments  of  strata  wherever 
found.  All  the  rock  strata  of  this  Basin  were  deposited  from  the 
waters  of  a  sea  which  is  understood  as  having  been  an  extension  of  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico,  as  its  most  fossiliferous  strata,  the  Upper  Helderberg 
or  Corniferous  Limestone  for  example,  bear  evidences  of  having  been 
deposited  from  clear  waters  of  tropic  warmth.'^ 

Study  of  the  accompanying  Chart  will  show  the  geologic  relations 
of  the  Maumee  River  Basin  to  the  more  complete  parts  of  Ohio,  to 
those  of  other  parts  of  North  America,  and  of  Europe.  This  Chart 
shows    that   the   geological    column    of    this    Basin  is  the  shortest  of  the 

*  See  the  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio.  ISW.  pane  45. 



Its  Geolhgy  —  Peculiartties-^Valuable  Features. 

It  is  not  within  the  limits  of  this  book  to  treat  of  the  geology  of  the 
Maumee  River  Basin  in  detail  as  discussed  technically  by  geologists. 
The  oliject  of  the  writer  is  to  briefl\-  outline  the  subject  so  that  the  local 
reader,  for  whom  this  work  is  undertaken,  even  though  he  he  as  yet  un- 
interested and  uninformed,  may  get  somewhat  of  a  desire,  an  impetus, 
and  .a  bibliography  for  further  reading. 

The  historic  period  of  this  region  occupies  but  a  brief  time  in  chro- 
nology in  comparison  with  the  great  length  of  time  which  must  have 
elapsed  during  the  formation  of  the  topography  as  seen  by  the  first 
European  explorers  in  the  latter  half  of  the  seventeenth  century. 

The  ocean  is  the  mother  of  continents.  The  inland  State  of  Ohio 
bears  unmistakable  evidence  of  having  been  covered  Iiy  the  sea  during 
the  long  geologic  periods  that  the  rocks  of  her  underlying  strata,  so  far 
as  explored,  were  formed.  The  character  of  these  rocks,  including  the 
fossils  found  embedded  by  them,  in  common  with  similar  formations  in 
otht-r  parts  of  the  earth,  plainly  besjieak  their  epoch  in  the  earth's  geo- 
logic history.  Animal  life  in  the  sea  varied  in  different  epochs  as  well 
as  life  on  the  land.  The  remains  were  sul:)jected  to  the  continued  action 
of  the  waves,  in  the  more  shallow  parts,  which  washed  some  shells  and 
bones  into  plastic  recesses,  there  to  become  petrified,  while  others  were 
ground  into  powder  to  be  deposited  and  cemented  to  the  accretion  of 
rock  strata.  The  study  and  classification  of  the  varying  strata  and  their 
fossils  have  shown  results  sufficient  to  enable  geologists  to  name  the 
period  of  formation  of  even  dislocated  fragments  of  strata  wherever 
found.  All  the  rock  strata  of  this  Basin  were  deposited  from  the 
waters  of  a  sea  which  is  understood  as  having  been  an  extension  of  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico,  as  its  most  fossiliferous  strata,  the  Upper  Helderlierg 
or  Corniferous  Limestone  for  example,  bear  evidences  of  having  been 
deposited  from  clear  waters  of  tropic  warmth.'^ 

Study  of  the  accompanying  Chart  will  show  the  geologic  relations 
of  the  Maumee  River  Basin  to  the  more  complete  parts  of  Ohio,  to 
those  of  other  parts  of  North  America,  and  of  Europe.  This  Chart 
shows   that  the   geological   column   of   this   Basin  is  the  shortest  of  the 

*  See  the  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio.  1H90,  pawe  4f). 















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comparatively  short  structure  of  Ohio.  The  principal  rock  strata  miss- 
ins^  in  this  Basin  are  the  Sub-Carboniferous,  the  Carboniferous,  Permian, 
Triassic,  Jurassic,  Cretaceous,  and  the  Tertiary.  The  cause  for  the  ab- 
sence here  of  the  rocks  of  those  periods  in  geolog"ic  history  is,  that  at, 
or  soon  following,  the  close  of  the  rock  period  now  represented  here, 
this  region  was  elevated  above  the  sea  by  some  internal  agencv  and 
could  not  receive  any  more  deposits  therefrom,  while  other  parts  of  the 
continent  with  later  rock  strata,  remained  relatively  longer  submerged. 
Exposures  of  the  rock  floor  by  water  erosions  and  by  excavations,  and 
of  the  various  underlying  strata  by  quarrying,  and  by  deep  drillings  for 
water,  oil  and  gas,  have  demonstrated  the  absence  here  of  the  strata 
elsewhere  formed  during  the  later  geologic  periods,  and  determined  the 
strata  here  existing. 

These  rock  explorations  have  also  brought  to  light,  and  to  the  con- 
sideration of  geologists  and  chemists,  features  and  characteristics  of  the 
rock  strata  here  existing  that  have  opened  new  pages  in  their  marvelous 
history.  It  is  thus  demonstrated  that  they  have  been  subjected  to  vary- 
ing changes,  not  alone  by  pressure  and  chemic  action,  but  by  elevation 
and  depression,  during  the  epochs  since  their  deposition,  as  is  shown 
by  varying  densities,  crystallizations,  by  the  fossillization  of  the  shells 
and  bones  that  escaped  comminution  in  whole  or  in  part,  and  bv  the 
irregularity  observed  in  the  strata. 

The  lowest  rock  formation  in  Ohio  exposed  in  quarrv  is  supposed 
to  be  at  Point  Pleasant,  Clermont  County.  Latterl\-  the  rock  of  this 
quarry  has  been  classed  as  of  the  Trenton  Period.* 

The  discovery  of  unquestioned  Trenton  Limestone  in  Ohio,  how- 
ever, was  made  by  drillings  in  this  Basin  where  it  lies  from  1000  feet 
on  the  east  to  2000  feet  on  the  northwest  below  the  surface.  The 
Trenton  is  the  lowest  stratum  that  has  been  entered  in  Ohio.  Wells 
have  been  drilled  into  it  in  nearly  every  county  in  the  Basin  with  varying 
results  as  to  depth  and  product.  The  results  of  these  drillings  to  the 
depth  of  and  into  the  Trenton  stratum  have  also  been  the  source  of 
surprises  to  geologists  from  their  yield  of  Petroleum  and  Natural  Gas,  as 
in  other  particulars.  The  comparatively  level  surface  of  most  parts  oi 
this  Basin  had  led  to  the  belief  that  the  underlying  rock  strata  were 
also  level:  but  these  drillings  have  revealed  the  surprising  fact  that  they 
are  characterized  by  a  far  greater  irregularity  of  structure,  and  by 
greater  suddenness  and  steepness  of  dip  than  the  strata  of  any  other 
portion  of  Ohio.  The  most  marked  irregularities  have  thus  far  been 
found  toward  the  east  side  of  the  Basin  where  the  well  records  show 
that  the  strata  dip  at  some  points  at  the  rate  of  three  hundred  feet  to 

*  See  the  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio.  vol.  i,  paue  437,  and  vol,  vi,  page  5. 


the    mile.       The    entire    rock    floor    of    this    region    bears    evidence    of 
changed   conditions   from  the  elevations  and   depressions  to  which  this 

Lookintr  east  of  north  from  the  Baltimore  and  Oliio  Railway,  and  between  Sections  25  and  26.  Dela- 
ware Township,  Defiance  County,  Ohio,  October  .SOth,  1901.  The  white  building  to  the  left  of  the  tall 
tree  is  a  United  Brethren  Church,  and  the  building  near  the  central  distance  is  a  School  House,  both 
about  1%  miles  distant.  The  Maumee  River  flows  from  left  to  right  on  the  proximal  side  of  the  large 
building  on  the  left  in  a  channel  about  forty  feet  in  depth.  The  road  in  the  foreground  is  a  private, 
farm  wagonway. 

Basin  has  been  subjected.  It  is  not  uncommon  to  find  the  strata 
descending  at  an  angle  of  from  two  to  ten  degrees,  but  the  descent  is 
not  generally  long  continued,  and  all  irregularities  are  included  in  the 
main    dip  to  which  they  are  subordinate.* 

The  data  '  of  drillings  given  on  another  page  afford  some 
measurements  for  study  of  the  irregularities  of  the  rock  strata  in 
dip  and,  also,  in  surface  abrasion.  The  lower  strata  decline  toward 
the  westward  and  the  upper  strata  are  exposed,  mostly  in  water 
courses  and  quarries,  in  the  eastern  half  of  the  Basin.  On  the  rim 
of  the  Basin  to  the  east,  south  and  south-east,  the  Niagara  or  Lower 
Helderberg  formation  is  uppermost.  Along  the  course  of  the  Maumee 
River  to  the  western  line  of  Lucas  County,  Ohio,  and  thence  north- 
easterly into  Michigan  the  Hamilton  Group,  or  Upper  Devonian,  is 
uppermost.  To  the  south  of  the  Maumee  for  a  varying  width  of  from 
twenty-five  to  thirty  miles  on  the  west  to  two  or  three  miles  on  the 
north,  the  Corniferous  Limestone,  or  l^pper  Helderberg,  is  the  first 
exposed.  To  the  north  and  west  of  the  Hamilton  Group,  overlying 
all  others  is  the  Ohio  Shale,  the  Huron  Shale  of  the  early  geologic 
surveys,  and  this  is  covered  directly  by  the  Glacial  Drift  of  the 
Quarternary    Period. 

*  See  the  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio.  1890,  page  46. 


High   pressure  Natural  Gas  was   discovered   in   the  Trenton   Lime- 
stone at  Findlav  while   drilling   for  water  in  November,    1884.* 

Edge  of  the  Petroleum  District,  Findlay,  Ohio,  one  mile  north  of  the  Blanchard  River.  Looking 
southeast  1st  May,  1903.  The  Lake  Erie  &  Western  Railway  in  fore^;round.  Manufactory  of  Fire-clay 
Pots  on  riyht.  Petroleum  wells  beinu  pumped  under  the  Derricks  whicll  serve  as  supports  for  the  Drills. 
Ward  Scliool  Buildint;  to  riyht  of  center,  and  tower  of  Findlay  Colletje  between  cluster  of  Derricks  and 
teletirapli  pole  to  left  of  center. 

In  May,  1885,  Petroleum  was  first  obtained  in  quantity  at  Lima, 
also  in  the  Trenton  Rock,  and  soon  thereafter  both  gas  and  oil  were 
found  in  great  quantity.  These  products  had  been  found  before 
in  various  strata,  but  not  with  sufficient  pressure  and  cjuantit}'  in 
this  Basin  for  profit.  This  large  quantity  of  gas  and  oil  from  a  Lower 
Silurian  Limestone  was  unexpected.  Geologists  in  common  with  the 
well-drillers  were  surprised  at  the  discovery. t 

It  was  sujiposed  that  the  deep  h'ing  rocks  were  too  dense  to  con- 
tain any  quantity  of  fluid.  The  drills,  however,  demonstrated  high 
degrees  of  porosity  in  places,  which  were  estimated  as  equal  to  one- 
tenth  to  one-eighth  of  the  volume  of  the  rock.+ 

'^Natural  Gas  pressure  has  been  registered  as  hi>.'h  as  HiX)  pounds  to  the  s>iuare  incli;  and 
other  wells  estimated  as  hiyh  as  1000  pounds. 

t  See  the  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio.  1890,  page  106. 

tThe  Rock  Waters  of  Ohio,  Nineteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey.  1897-98. 
Part  IV.   Hydrography,  page  &40. 


This  porosity  is  due  to  chemic  reaction  and  crystallization  in  the 
rock,  the  later  conditions  requiring  less  space.  Thus  jiorosities, 
caverns  or  pockets  are  formed,  and  their  size  or  extent  governs  the 
quantity  of  gas,  oil  or  water  obtainable.  The  drillers  'gas  sand  '  and 
'oil  sand'  is  com]iosed  largely  of  fragments  of  this  changed  rock. 
The  elevations  and  depressions  to  which  the  rocks  have  been  subjected 
have,  also,  contributed  fissures  and  cavities  in  which  these  products 
mav  be  stored  ;  but  generally,  in  this  Basin  at  least,  these  products  are 
found  in  the  natural  (crystalline)  porosities  of   the  rock. 

The  great  quantitv  and  value  of  Petroleum  and  Natural  Gas  found 
in  this  Basin  have  endowed  them  and  the  Trenton  Limestone  with  such 
great  interest  and  importance  that  further  points  in  their  story  will  be 
briefly  given.  This  limestone  was  given  the  name  of  the  place  of  its 
most  picturesquely  eroded  outcrop  at  Trenton,  New  York.  It  gener- 
allv  lies  deeply  buried,  but  it  has  outcrops  in  different  States.  When 
disintegrated  l)v  natural  causes,  such  as  rain,  frost,  heat,  wind,  etc.,  it 
produces  ver\-  fertile  soil — the  Blue  Grass  region  in  Kentucky  being  a 
well  known  illustration.  The  numerous  deep  drillings  in  this  Basin 
have  demonstrated  that  Petroleum  and  Natural  Inflammable  Gas  are 
very  widely  distributed  in  the  porosities  of  the  different  strata  of  its 
rocks,  as  is  the  case  in  other  countries.  Gas  is  exhaled  from  shallow 
water  wells,  and  from  the  surface  of  the  ground  in  numerous  places, 
even  where  the  uppermost ,  stratum  of  rock  is  deeply  buried.  These 
products  have,  however,  as  yet  been  found  in  this  Basin  in  sufficient 
quantitv  for  profit,  onlv  in  the  Trenton  Limestone,  and  at  the  north- 
eastern, eastern,  and  southern  parts  of  the  Basin — in  Lucas,  Wood, 
Hancock,  Allen,  Auglaize,  Mercer,  and  Van  Wert  Counties.  It  is  dif- 
ferent in  other  parts  of  Ohio,  and  in  other  States.  In  Fairfield  County 
gas  is  obtained  with  high  pressure  from  the  Clinton  Limestone  ;  in 
Pennsvlvania  oil  and  gas  are  obtained  from  the  Devonian  formations  ; 
and  the  Tertiary  formations  yield  these  products  in  large  quantity  in 
California,  Italv,  the    Island    of  Trinidad,   and    al^out   the  Caspian  Sea. 

These  products  of  the  rocks  are  not  of  recent  origin,  nor  of  rapid 
accumulation.  Their  formation  has  been  going  on  during  long  geologic 
periods,  in  different  parts  of  the  earth.  The  ruins  of  Babylon,  Nineveh, 
and  many  other  places,  evidence  by  the  asphaltic  mortar  there  found, 
that  Petroleum  was  known  to  the  ancient  builders  thousands  of  years 
ago.  Marco  Polo,  the  Venetian  traveler,  was  probably  the  first  to 
mention,  in  his  writings  of  the  early  part  of  the  fourteenth  century. 
Natural  Inflammable  Gas  ;  and  others  soon  thereafter  described  '  fire- 
wells  '  in  the  far  east.  The  early  white  settlers  in  our  .\ppalachian 
Mountain  regions  and  elsewhere  were  astonished,  and  apjialled,  by 
occasional  explosive  conflagrations  when   starting  their  fires  in  ra\ines, 


and  by  '  springs  of  water  that  would  burn  '  from  the  exhalation  of  gas 
or  oil,  the  origin  and  nature  of  which  was  not  then  understood.  These 
strange  exhibitions  were  productive  of  superstitious  fear,  and  served 
to  more  deeply  fix  superstitious  legends. 

The  discovery  of  high  pressure  Gas  and  Petroleum  in  great  quan- 
tities in  America,  and  their  extensive  application  to  the  use  of  man, 
however,  are  of  recent  years.  The  increased  supply  and  application 
of  the  oil  began  in  Pennsylvania  about  the  year  1H60,  and  in  West  Vir- 
ginia, Ohio,  and  California,  from  1870  to  1875. 

The  Natural  Gas  of  some  regions  is  closely  associated  with  Petro- 
leum and  consists  largely  of  marsh  gas  (CH4),  varying  in  different 
localities  from  varying  temperatures  and  its  more  or  less  association 
with  the  lighter  ingredients  of  the  oil.  The  Gas  from  the  Trenton 
Limestone,  however,  presents  more  uniformity  of  constituent  parts, 
and  It  generally  contains  hydrogen  sulphid  (HS)  which  is  indicative 
of   bituminous   origin. 

Petroleum  Refinery  and  Stora^'e  Tanks  at  Lima,  Oliio.  Looking  south  of  west  1st  May.  19U2.  The 
Petroleum  is  transferred  to  and  from  the  Refinery  and  Tanks  through  under-ground  Pipe  Lines. 

Several  theories  have  been  advanced  regarding  the  origin  of 
Petroleuin  and  Natural  Gas.  A  few  persons  have  thought  thev,  or  the 
Petroleums  particularly,  are  the  jiroduct  of  chemic  action  among  inor- 
ganic substances  under  great  pressure  ■J''  others  have  contended  that 
they  originate  from  chemic  reactions  of  the  ingredients  of  animal  re- 
mains ;  and  yet  others  have  held  that  the  chemic  reactions  producing 
them  are  among  vegetable  remains.  There  are  additional  theories 
regarding  their  origin.  It  seems  most  probable  that  thev  result  from 
primary  or  secondary  decomposition  through  Nature's  process  of 
destructive  distillation  of  both  vegetable  and  animal  matter  that  was 
stored  with  the  rocks  at  the  time  of  their  deposition. t     The  full   nature 

*  See  the  writings  of  the  French  and  Russian  chemists  Berthelot  and  Mendel^jeif. 

t  See  the  writings  of  Hans  Hoefer  of  the  Royal  School  of  Mines,  Leoben,  Austria:  of  J.  S. 
Newberry,  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio,  vol.  i;  of  S.  F.  Peckham  in  the  if.  S.  Census  Reports  1880;  of 
T.  Sterry  Hunt:  and  G.   P.  Wells  Report  of  the   Trinidad  Asphalt. 


and  detail  of  this  process  is  not  understood,  nor  the  influences  that 
inorganic  substances  exert  in  the  process,  if  any.  The_v,  or  the 
Petroleums,  are  complex  combinations  of  chemic  elements  resulting 
from  the  decomposition  and  transformation  of  organic  matter  probably 
in  connection  with  the  inorganic,  possibly  as  catalvtics.*  They  belong 
to  the  bitumens  and  the  hydrocarbons,  with  an  average  proportion  of 
the  two  elements  in  the  mixture  of  carbon  eighty-five  and  h\drogen 
fifteen  to  the  one  hundred.  Petroleum  is  thought  to  be  the  first  pro- 
duced in  Nature's  laboratory  in  the  rocks.  It  is  more  complex  and 
unstable  in  composition  than  gas  although  the  elements  carbon,  hydro- 
gen and  oxygen  in  var^'ing  combinations  form  both,  with  occasion- 
ally small  quantities  of  nitrogen,  sulphurous  gas,  (HS)  and  other 
elements   attending. 

The  present  Petroleum  business  in  northwestern  Ohio  has  been 
summarized  as  follows  :T 

During  the  first  week  in  June,  1903,  the  number  of  wells  com- 
pleted in  Wood  County  was  24;  production  of  Petroleum  from  these 
wells  for  the  fragmentary  part  of  the  week,  710  barrels;  number 
of  non-i)roducing  wells,  2;  in  Hancock  County,  21-H70-1  ;  Allen,  27- 
910-1;  Auglaize,  1-20^0;  Sandusky,  6-180-1;  Lucas,  4-20-0;  Mercer, 
5-120-1;  Van  Wert,  12-310-1;  Seneca,  2-45-0;  Wyandot,  2-15-1; 
Ottawa,  3-300-1.  Total,  107  wells,  yielding  in  the  part  of  week  of 
their  completion,  3480  barrels,  with  9  'Dry  Holes.' 

Omitting  Wyandot  County,  the  activity  in  this  field  during  the  last 
week  in  June  was:  Wells  completed,  129;  product  of  these  wells, 
4197  barrels:  non-productive  wells,  9.  During  this  week  Allen 
County  led  with  28  wells  with  two  dry,  and  1120  barrels  initial  pro- 

During  the  first  week  in  July  the  report  shows  Wood  County,  23 
wells,  745  barrels,  2  dry  holes;  Hancock,  26-835-2;  Allen,  32-1210-2; 
Auglaize,  3-60-0:  Sandusky,  17-310-2;  Lucas,  5-105-0;  Mercer,  8- 
245-0;  Seneca,  2-15-1;  Van  Wert,  12-390-2;  Wyandot,  2-40-1;  Otta- 
wa, 3-110-1.     Total,  133-4065-13. 

For  the  second  week  of  July,  1903:  Wood,  40-610-4;  Hancock, 
35-1180-5;     Allen,   31-960-2;     Auglaize,    1-15-0:     Sandusky,    8-65-1; 

*  Sabatier  and  Senderens  reported  to  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  26th  May.  1902,  a  theory  of  subter- 
ranean chemical  action  amoni;  inorganic  substances  alone  as  the  possible  origin  of  Petroleum.  In  their 
laboratory  experimentations,  startiny  with  acetylene  (C2  H2l  and  hydroijen  (H)  they,  by  the  aid  of  finely 
divided  nickel  and  its  related  metals,  obtained  a  liquid  similar  to  Petroleuni.  It  is  only  necessary  to 
admit  that  in  the  depths  of  the  earth  are  found,  diversely  distributed,  alkaline-earthy  metals,  as  well  as 
the  carbids  of  these  metals.  Water,  coming  in  contact  with  the  former,  sets  hydrotjen  free;  and  with 
the  carbids  acetylene  is  set  free.  These  two  tases.  in  variable  proportions,  meet  nickel,  cobalt,  and  iron 
—  metals  widely  diffused  in  nature  —  and  fjive  rise  to  reactions  that  produce  the  various  kinds  of  Petro- 
leum. This  explanation  is  in  harmony  with  the  theories  of  Berthelot  and  Mendel<?jeff  referred  to  above. 
See  Cosmos,  23rd  May.  1903. 

t  From  The  Toledo  Bee.  June  7,  1903.  and  the  Toledo  Blade,  of  various  dates  in  June  and  July. 


Lucas,  3-45-0;  Mercer,  6-120-1 :  Seneca,  1-25-0;  Van  Wert,  8-205-1 ; 
Wyandot,  2-15-0;  Ottawa,  2-60-0.  Total,  137  wells  completed,  with 
8800  barrels  initial  flow  of  Petroleum,  and  14  wells  non-productive. 

The  process  of  drilling^  wells  for  Natural  Gas  and  Petroleum,  is  as 
follows:  A  derrick  is  erected  (see  illustration  on  page  9),  and  the 
'big  hole  bit'  is  used  to  open  the  way  through  the  Glacial  Till  to  the 
rock,  when  the  '  drive  pipe  '  incasing  this  hole  is  settled  on  the  rock. 
The  heavy  drill  is  now  set  at  work,  it  being  elevated  and  dropped  by  a 
rope  working  over  a  pulley  at  the  top  of  the  derrick  and  connected 
with  a  beam  near  the  ground  which  is  worked  by  a  steam  engine  some- 
what removed  from  the  well  to  avoid  igniting  the  Gas  and  Petroleum 
that  may  be  found.  Water  is  added  to  the  hole  from  time  to  time  if  it 
be  too  dry:  and  the  drill  is  removed  and  the  bailor  is  used  as  often 
as  desirable  to  take  the  comminuted  rock  from  the  hole.  If  a  great 
flow  of  water  is  encountered,  or  large  opening  in  or  between  the 
strata,  a  casing-pipe  about  six  inches  in  diameter  is  intruded  to  make 
the  well  whole  and  exclude  the  water,  and  the  drilling  is  continued. 
When  the  crystalline  rock,  forming  the  '  oil-bearing  sand'  and  Petro- 
leum are  found,  and  the  flow  is  not  satisfactory,  the  well  is  'shot'  with 
nitro-glycerine.  This  explosive  is  lowered  carefullv  to  the  bottom  of 
the  well  in  from  three  to  fifteen  tin  '  shells'  each  usually  containing 
twenty  quarts.  A  heavy  iron,  shaped  for  the  purpose,  and  stvled  a 
go-devil  '  by  the  operators,  is  then  dropped  upon  these  shells.  The 
explosion  which  ensues,  and  which  usually  causes  but  little  eruption 
of  water,  stones,  mud.  Gas  and  Petroleum  above  ground,  fissures  the 
rock  and  enlarges  the  chamber  at  the  bottom  of  the  well.  This  is 
often  followed  by  a  good  flow  of  Petroleum.  Occasionally  the  gush  is 
so  great  as  to  throw  the  casing  out  and  demolish  the  derrick,  in  which 
case  a  great  flood  of  Petroleum  accumulates  on  the  ground  before  the 
well  can  l:)e  recased  and  a  head  put  on  the  casing  to  control  the  flow. 
Generally,  however,  it  is  necessary  to  use  a  pump  to  obtain  the  Petro- 
leum, even  from  many  profitable  wells. 

The  Petroleum  and  Gas  Fields  present  a  weird  appearance  at  night 
from  the  many  large  Gaslights,  burning  from  pipes  and  casting  deep 
shadows  of  the  derricks  and  their  appurtenances.  These  lights  often 
burn  during  the  day,  also,  from  neglect,  or  want  of  convenient  stops. 

The  magnitude  of  the  Petroleum  business  of  the  Buckeve  Pipe 
Line  Company  from  all  of  their  wells  in  northwestern  Ohio  during 
the  first  five  months  of  1903,  is  reported  as  follows:  Januarv,  1,551,- 
215  barrels  shipped,  1,353,408  barrels  run  through  pipes;  February, 
1,498,194-1,250,337;  March,  1,526,041-1,393,348:  April,  1,507,108- 
1,803,415;  May,  1,597,693-1,386,866.  Total,  7,680,252  barrels  of  ship- 
ments, and  6,687,374  of  runs. 


About  15,000  Petroleum  and  Gas  wells  have  been  drilled  in  Wood 
County.  Some  of  these  were  non-productive,  and  many  were  soon 
apparently  exhausted.  In  March,  1903,  about  HOOO  of  these  wells 
remained  productive  and  yielding  owners  of  the  land  at  the  rate  of 
^2,000,000  per  year  in  royalties.  The  capital  invested  is  about  $10,000,000. 

The  numerous  drillings  for  Gas  and  Oil  have  developed  in  places 
excellent  water  supi)ly.  It  is  regretted  that  more  careful  observation 
and  record  were  not,  and  are  not,  made  of  the  character  of  the  rock 
waters  and  of  the  varying  depths  and  conditions  of  their  flow.  Most 
of  these  favorable  opportunities  for  observation  regarding  water  supply 
were  unsought,  and  the  flow  of  water  was  a  hindrance  to  be  overcome 
by  casing  as  soon  as  possible.  Rock  strata  to  be  water  i:)roducing  must 
be  porous,  with  large  caverns  or  subways  connected  with  porosities 
or  joints  ;  and  a  large  supply  of  water  at  a  higher  level  is  necessary  for 
flowing  fountains,  and  for  continuous  supply  at  the  well.  The  Niagara 
Limestone  often  affords  a  liberal  supply  of  stored  water.  It  has  numer- 
ous seams  and  joints  open  sufficiently  for  this  purpose.  The  Onondaga 
Limestone,  however,  accommodates  some  of  the  most  noted  springs 
from  its  larger  channels.  The  Devonian  series  also  affords  in  places  a 
good  quantity  of  water,  but  it  is  often  highly  mineralized  by  solution  of 
iron  pyrites  firon  sulphid,  FeS),  calcium,  sodium,  aluminum,  mag- 
nesium, and  potassium,  carbonates  and  sul^jhates.  The  iron  in  the 
Corniferous  Limestone  usually  comes  from  the  overlying  Ohio  Shale. 
At  greater  depths,  below  100  feet,  and  generally  below  1000  feet  for 
quantity,  the  water  often  contains  chlorids,  sodium  chlorid  (table  salt) 
predominating  in  such  quantity  as  to  make  the  water  unpotable.  Par- 
ticularly is  this  the  case  in  the  Trenton  Limestone.  Such  water  flowing 
in  quantity-,  formerly  stopped  the  drilling  in  quest  of  Petroleum  ;  but 
pumping,  or  casing  off  the  water,  and  deeper  drilling  sometimes  secures 
a  good  oil  well.  In  the  Gas  and  Oil  regions  the  upper  surface  of  the 
Trenton  Rock  varies  from  about  1000  to  about  140(.)  feet  below  the 
surface  of  the  ground  ;  and  many  productive  wells  extend  but  a  com- 
paratively few  feet  into  this  rock  —  from  "200  to  450  feet  below  the  sur- 
face of   tide  water  (the  level  of   the  Atlantic  Ocean). 

The  great  increase  in  the  number  of  Petroleum  and  Gas  wells 
about  the  city  of  Findlay,  and  particularly  above  and  along  the  Blan- 
chard  River  from  which  the  water  sui)])l\-  has  been  largely  obtained, 
has  led  to  intolerable  pollution  of  the  water  in  the  ditches,  creeks,  and 
river,  by  the  pumpings  from  these  deep  wells  of  great  quantities  of 
water  highly  charged  with  the  mineral  salts  before  mentioned,  and  by 
impure  Petroleum. 

This  pollution  became  so  general  that  a  new  source  of  potable 
and  culinary  water  supply  became  imperative.      Upon  consideration  of 


the  subject,  the  'Limestone  Ridj^e  '  about  ten  miles  southeast  of 
Findlay  was  chosen  as  the  most  practicable  and  desirable  source  for 
this  supply  :  and  in  the  sisrinsj;  of  1903,  work  began  foi  the  laying  of  a 
line  of  glazed  cla\-  pipe,  thirty  inches  in  diameter,  from  the  F"indlav 
Water  Works  southeastward  to  this  Limestone  Ridge  for  the  pur- 
pose of  conducting  to  the  cit\',  liv  gravity,  water  from  wells  at  this 

This  Limestone  Ridge,  which  extends  northeast-southwest 
through  Amanda  and  Big  Lick  Townships,  Hancock  County,  as  part 
of  the  irregular  spurs  between  the  Defiance  and  St.  Mary  Moraines,  is 
but  a  few  feet  above  the  country  to  the  eastward,  and  somewhat  more 
above  the  land  to  the  westward  and  northwestward  which  was  formerlv 
swampy.  It  is  based  on  the  Niagara  Limestone  which  is  here  upper- 
most and  affords  good  potable  water,  constantly  flowing  from  springs 
near  the  base  of  the  Ridge  and  from  wells  on  the  Ridge  of  varx'ing 
depths,  from  those  to  the  level  of  the  land  to  the  west  down  to  150 
feet.  The  water  supply  here  is  supposed  to  be  sufficient :  but  the 
place  of   its  source,  or  fountain    head,  is  unknown. 

In  the  year  1S75  a  persistent  drilling  for  artesian  water  in  the  Court 
House  Square,  Fort  Wayne,  Indiana,  penetrated  the  following  strata, 
viz:  Drift,  88  feet;  Niagara  Limestones,  8()2  :  Hudson  Shales,  gray, 
260  ;  Utica  Shales,  black,  260  ;  and  into  the  Trenton  Limestone,  1590 
feet.  The  surface  of  the  ground  here  is  772  feet  above  sea  level,  and 
this  well  of  3000  feet  dejjth  e.xtends  2228  feet  below  sea  level.  Good 
drinking  water  was  obtained  by  means  of  a  strong  pump.  From  a  later 
well  of  far  less  depth  drilled  near  the  Maumee  River,  there  has  been  a 
constant  flow  of  good  potable  water.  Neither  Gas  nor  Oil  was  obtained 
from  these  wells.* 

A  well  drilled  in  the  }'ear  1886,  in  the  Coe  Run  Glen  at  Defiance, 
the  center  of  the  Basin,  has  the  following  strata  record  :  Drift,  18  feet; 
Ohio  Shale,  60  ;  Devonian  and  Upper  Silurian  Limestones,  850 ; 
Niagara  Shale,  52  :  Clinton  Limestone,  60 :  Medina,  Hudson  River 
and  Utica  Shales,  630  ;  Trenton  Limestone  struck  at  1670  feet,  or 
about  975  feet  below  tide  water.  A  small  quantity  of  Gas  and  Oil  was 
yielded.  There  has  since  been  constant  and  full  flow  of  clear,  potable 
water,  slightly  sulphureted.  At  Deshler,  twenty-five  miles  east,  a  well 
drilled  in  1^86-87  ran  through  the  strata  as  follows  :  Drift,  71  feet  ; 
Limestone,  610  ;  Niagara  Shale,  5  ;  Clinton  Limestone,  95  ;  Shales, 
700  ;  Trenton  Limestone  found  at  1485  feet,  765  below  tide  water. 
This  well  was  continued  115  feet  into  the  Trenton  Rock  with  but  slight 
vield  of   Gas.t 

*  See  Sixteenth  Annual  Report  Indiana  Geology,  page  127. 
t  See  Geological  Survey  of  Otiio.  vol.  vi.  pages  253,  253. 


Later  wells  have  shown  but  little  variation  in  thickness  of  strata 
other  than  of  Drift  or  Glacial  Till  which  averages  from  forty  to  fifty 
feet  in  thickness  in  the  central  part  of  the  Basin. 

The  varying  composition  of  the  rocks  may  be  stated  as  follows  : 
Calcium  (lime)  carbonate  from  50  to  95  per  cent;  Magnesium  carbon- 
ate, from  0  to  50  per  cent  ;  Silica  (sand)  generally  physically  blended, 
and  in  cherty  cryptocrvstalline  (flinty)  form,  from  0  to  25  per  cent; 
Iron  and  Alumina  from  0  to  7  per  cent ;  Insoluble  Residue,  from  a 
trace  to  10  per  cent. 

Following  its  elevation  from  the  sea  this  Basin  evidently  attained 
a  considerable  altitude,  estimated  at  from  three  hundred  to  four  hundred 
feet  or  more,  higher  than  it  is  at  present  ;  and  it  remained  thus  ele- 
vated during  a  great  length  of  time,  as  evidenced  by  deep  erosions  in 
the  rock  —  probably  through  the  periods  before  mentioned  to  the 
Ouarternary  period.'' 

Whether  these  geologic  periods  occupied  sixty  million  of  years  or 
but  fifty  million,  is  material  to  us  in  this  connection  only  to  impress 
our  minds  with  the  immensity  of  geologic  time,  and  the  consequently 
great  amount  of  rock  disintegration,  and  erosion,  that  the  elements  had 
time  to  effect.  There  were  probably  several  elevations  and  depressions 
during  these  and  succeeding  periods.! 

As  vet  but  little  has  been  determined  regarding  the'  character  and 
conditions  of  the  surface  of  this  Basin  during  the  changing  periods  of  its 
elevations  and  subsidencies,  and  of  the  system  of  drainage  channels. 
Many  careful  and  intelligent  observations,  and  records,  must  needs  be 
made  of  drillings  throughout  the  Basin,  through  the  overlying  mantle  of 

*  See  the  Geologic  Chart  facing   page  7. 

t  The  many  and  marked  changes  in  altitude  that  have  occurred  in  different  parts  of  the  earth 
have  led  to  the  theory  that  the  exterior  of  the  earth  is  but  a  comparatively  thin  crust,  variously  esti- 
mated at  from  twenty-five  to  fifty  or  one  hundred  miles,  surrounding  a  molten  interior  ;  and  that  the 
cooling  of  the  inner  surface  of  this  crust  causes  its  contraction  which,  in  turn,  produces  depressions  in 
some  parts  of  the  exterior  surface,  and  uplifts  in  other  parts  from  lateral  pressure.  Other  ceologists 
hold  to  the  theory  that  the  earth  is  a  solid.  This  process  of  corrugation  is  usually  slow,  but  it  is  much 
faster  in  some  places  and  under  certain  conditions  than  others.  Changes  in  tlie  relative  altitude  of 
different  parts  of  the  earth's  surface  is  still  being  effected  as  formerly,  sinking  in  some  parts  and  rising 
in  others.  It  is  estimated  that  the  rock  strata  at  the  eastern  end  of  Lake  Erie  are  yet  rising  and  that 
the  Lake  is  thereby  inceasing  in  depth.  It  is  evident  that  the  Lake  is  now  higher  than  formerly  from 
the  fact  of  the  submerged  caves  of  its  islands  containing  bones  of  land  animals  that  undoubtedly  once 
lived  therein  ;  and  from  the  deep  mouths  of  drowned  river  tributaries,  the  channels  of  which  bear  evi- 
dence of  running  water  erosions  that  could  only  have  occurred  at  a  lower  stage  of  the  Lake  or  during 
elevation  of  the  river  valleys.  (See  articles  regarding  earth  movement  in  this  region  by  B.  F.  Taylor 
in  Proceedings  of  the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  vol.  48,  1897;  by  G.  K. 
Gilbert  in  the  18th  Annual  Report  of  the  U.  S.  Geological  Survey,  etc.)  The  land  south  of  Hudson 
Bay  is  now  higher  than  when  lirst  records  were  made.  The  preglacial  elevation  of  the  Saguenay 
region,  Canada,  appears  from  the  depth  of  its  fiord  to  have  been  at  one  time  at  least  one  thousand  feet 
higher  than  now.  The  depth  of  the  submarine  fiord  at  the  mouth  of  the  Hudson  River  indicates  that 
the  vicinity  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia  at  one  time  stood  two  thousand  and  eight  hundred  feet  above 
the  present  sea  level,  and  that  they  afterward  sank  sixteen  hundred  feet.  See  the  Appendix  to  The  Ice 
Age  in  North  America  by  G.  Frederick  Wright,  1891;  American  Journal  of  Science,  June.  18R,i.  For 
account  of  remarkable  upliftings  of  land  in   Europe,  see   Prof.  James   Geikie's  Prehistoric  Europe, 


earth  and  into  the  underlying  rocks  before  sufficient  and  satisfactory 
evidence  regarding  this  subject  can  be  accumulated.  The  discovery  of 
large  quantities  of  Petroleum  in  the  southern  part  of  the  Basin,  and  the 
impetus  thereby  given  to  well-drilling,  has  opened  up  the  subject  of 
such  early  or  pre-glacial  drainage  and  its  deep-channel  erosions,  in  a 
most  interesting  way  by  demonstrating  the  fact  of  a  deeply  eroded 
channel  in  the  rocks  underlying  Shelby,  Auglaize  and  Mercer  Counties, 
Ohio,  and  Adams,  Jay  and  Blackford  Counties,  Indiana. '  This  deep 
channel  probably  has  further  extensions  to  be  determined  in  the  future; 
and  other  like  channels  will  doubtless  be  discovered,  and  it  is  hoped 
that  most  careful  observations  will  be  noted  at  every  opportunity.  The 
northern  branch  of  this  buried  channel  is  found  at  Anna  south  of  Wapa- 
koneta,  with  depth  of  five  hundred  and  fourteen  feet  below  the  surface 
of  the  ground,  and  in  places  about  three  hundred  and  seventy  feet 
deeper  than  the  upper  face  of  the  rock  within  a  mile  to  the  north  and 
south  of  the  channel.  A  southern  branch  exists  a  little  west  of  Berlin. 
Following  their  course  northwestwardly,  they  are  found  to  unite 
under  the  large  Canal  Reservoir  in  Mercer  County,  and  thence  to  continue 
as  one  channel  northward  to  Rockford  on  the  St.  Mary  River,  thence  west 
into  Adams  County,  Indiana,  thence  southwest,  crossing  under  the 
Wabash  River  at  about  a  right  angle,  and  under  Geneva,  and  thence 
near  Pennville,  and  on  to  near  the  center  of  Blackford  County  where  a 
tributary  is  received.  The  rock  floor  of  this  channel  varies  from  about 
fifty  feet  below  the  present  water  level  of  Lake  Erie  to  something  over 
one  hundred  feet  below  in  the  channel's  western  explored  part.  There 
may  be  several  causes  for  the  variation  of  this  channel's  apparent  bed. 
Rocks  carried  before  the  glacier  the  detritus  of  which  filled  this  channel, 
may  have  been  taken  as  its  true  bottom;  something  of  a  pothole  may- 
have  been  entered  by  the  drill  in  other  parts,  or  a  fissure  of  the  dis- 
turbed strata;  or  the  floor  of  the  channel  mav  have  been  unevenly 
raised  or  depressed  by  the  changes  of  the  earth's  crust.  The  walls  of 
this  channel  are  generally  sloping;  but  the  drill  discovered  a  nearU' 
vertical  wall  near  the  City  of  St.  Marys.  The  width  of  the  channel 
could  be  only  approximately  determined  by  the  places  drilled;  but  it 
appears  to  be  about  one  mile — with  no  place  narrower  than  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile — and  widening  to  one  mile  and  a  half  under  the  Grand 
Reservoir  and  at  Rockford.  The  erosion  of  this  channel  at  Anna 
extends  entirely  through  the  Niagara  and  Clinton  Limestones,  and  into 
the  Medina  or  Hudson  Shales. t 

*See  the  article  on  "A  Deep  Pre-Glacial  Channel  in  Western  Ohio  and  Eastern  Indiana."  by  J.  A. 
Bownocker.  in  The  American  Geologist  for  March.  1899,  vol.  xsiii.  page  178.  Also  the  pamphlet 
entitled  The  Preglacial  Drainage  of  Ohio,  Special"  Print  No.  3,  Ohio  State  Academy  of  Science, 
December,  1900. 

t  For  mention  of  buried  river  channels  in  other  parts  of  Ohio,  see  the  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio, 
volumes  i  and  ii. 


This  ancient  water-way  bears  evidence  of  long-time  erosion  by  a 
considerable  stream  of  rapid  flowing  water,  and  some  data  has  been 
adduced  indicating  that  this  was  the  ancient  channel  of  the  Kanawha 
River.  Water  well  drilling  indicate.s  a  similar  channel  in  the  rock  in 
Delaware  Township,  Defiance  County.* 

The  depth  of  soil  accumulated  within  the  territory  of  the  present 
Maumee  River  Basin  in  preglacial  times,  by  the  decomposition  of  the 
rock  surface  from  water,  frost,  sun,  wind  and  other  of  Nature's  agencies, 
and  the  full  character  and  extent  of  vegetable  and  animal  life  that  existed 
here  during  those  long  periods  of  time,  will  never  be  known. 

In  the  Quarternary  or  Post  Tertiary  Period,  a  most  remarkable  and 
important  change  occurred  which  again  subjected  different,  and  some- 
what variant,  parts  of  the  earth's  crust  to  like  geologic  conditions. 
This  Basin,  in  common  \\  ith  the  northern  and  southwestern  jiarts  of  Ohio, 

Glacial  Groovinyb  in  the  Bed  Rock  of  Kelley  Island.  Lake  Erie.     This  small  part,  with  uverlying 
Drift,  was  saved  from  Rock  Quarriers  by  the  Western  Reserve  Historical  Society,  Cleveland.  Ohio. 

many  other  parts  of  North  America,  and  of  the  Eastern  Continent,  was 
overrun  by  heavy  masses  of  ice.  There  is  abundant  evidence  of  this 
powerful  ice  invasion  in  the  vast  quantities  of  finely  ground  and  mixed 
rock  material  of  different  kinds,  in  scratchings  and  groovings  still 
existing  in  the  rock  floor,  in  the  presence  of  scattered  granite,  igneous, 
or  archaean  boulders  which  are  foreign  to  all  rocks  native  to  Ohio,  yet 
exposed  as  shown  on  the  Chart   facing  page  7.      These   erratic,  lost,  or 

*  Persons  desiring  to  study  the  effects  of  lon^;  continued  action  of  water,  and  weather,  on  rocks 
should  visit  the  plateau  and  canyons  of  the  Colorado  River,  in  Arizona.  Before  makini:  this  visit  one 
should  read  Explorations  of  the  Colorado  River  of  the  West,  by  Messrs.  Ives  and  Newberry.  1861  ;  Ex- 
ploration of  the  Colorado  River  of  the  West,  by  ].  W.  Powell,  K7^:  and  Tertiary  History  of  the  Grand 
Canyon  of  the  Colorado,  by  Captain  Dutton  in  Monograph  II  U.  S.  Geological  Survey.  1883.  Also  The 
Preglacial  Drainage  of  Ohio.  Special  Paper  No.  3,  Ohio  State  Academy  of  Science,  December.  1900, 



foreign  boulders  are  recosnized  as  haviny;  been  transported  hundreds 
of  miles  from  the  north  and  northeast.  The  most  extensive  and 
remarkable  groovings  yet  found  in  the  rocks  near  this  Basin,  evidenc- 
ing movement  of  a  glacier  bearing  hard  rocks  firmly  embedded  in  its 
substance,  is  on  Kelly  Island  in  Lake  Erie.  But  a  small  section  of 
these  groovings  has  been  preserved  bv  the  Western  Reserve  Historipal 
Society,  Cleveland,  from  the  destructive  hands  of  rock  quarriers.  These 
deep  and  extensive  grooves  may  have  been  partlv  formed  by  water 
erosions,   and   the   effects   of   the   glaciers  were  to   enlarge,    mold    and 

Glacial  Grooves  in  Granite   Buulilei    in  lii^^h   Channel   ot    Mauniee   River.  Detiance   County.  Ohio. 
Lookins  southeast.  18th  October,  1901. 

polish  them  to  produce  the  remarkable  result  shown  in  the  accompany- 
ing engraving.  Numerous  other  scratchings  of  less  depth  and  extent, 
and  with  varying  bearings,  have  been  exposed  in  the  rock  floor  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  Basin;  and  many  of  the  erratic  boulders  found  above 
and  within  the  ground-up  mixed  drift,  still  bear  evidence  of  the  great 
grindings  and  scratchings  to  which  they  were  subjected. 

Six  Glacial  Epochs,  with  alternating  Interglacial  Epochs,  charac- 
terize the  past  glacial  succession.  Ice  Period  or  Age,  of  Europe.* 

*  The  Great  Ice  Age.  by  James  Geikie.  3rd  Edition.  189fi.  pace  607.  In  the  United  States  Geolog- 
ical Survey.  Monograph  XLI.  Washinnton.  19('2.  Eleven  Epochs  or  Stages  of  the  Glacial  Period  are 
enumerated  as  having  occurred  in  and  surrounding  this  Basin. 



These  are  evidenced  by  different  glacial  groovins's  in  the  rocks, 
water  channel  erosions  between  layers,  changes  in  flora  and  fauna 
according  to  the  alternations  of  climate  shown  in  buried  forests  and 
animal  remains  in  varying  strata,  peat  bogs,  etc.  American  geologists 
are  not  entirely  agreed  regarding  the  number  and  character  of  the 
Glacial  Epochs  in  North  America,  particularly  regarding  the  time  and 
extent  of  deglaciation  in  the  interglacial  epoch  or  epochs.  The 
area  covered  by  the  ice  is  vast,  and  the  field  work  has  been  limited. 
More  time  must  be  given  to  active  workers  in  which  to  accumulate  and 
fully  consider  the  evidences  found  in  all  parts  of  the  glaciated  area. 
Much  has  already  been  accomplished,  however,  in  a  general  way,  and 
careful  work  has  been  done  in  some  local  areas.  The  following  group- 
ings of  Glacial  Epochs,  by  Prof.  T.  C.  Chamberlin,"^  embrace  different 
interpretations  entertained  by  experienced  geologic  field  workers  who 
believe  in  the  differentiation  of  the  Glacial  Drift  series.  The  upper 
layer,  at  least,  of  the  Drift  in  the  Maumee  River  Basin  has  been 
assigned  to  a  dependency,  glacial  lobe,  or  retreatal  oscillations,  of  the 
Wisconsin  stage,  reference  to  which  will  be  again  made  : 



1.  Concealed  under-series  (theoretical) 

2.  Kansan  stage  of  glaciationt 

3.  First  interval  of  deglaciation 

4.  East-Iovvan  stage  of  glaciation 

5.  Second  interval  of  deglaciation 

6.  East-Wisconsin  stage  of  glaciation 

7.  Retreatal  oscillations  of  undetermined  importance 

■  Early  glacial  epoch 

Chief  interglacial  epoch 


-  Later  glacial  epoch 



1.  Concealed  under-series  (theoretical) 

2.  Kansan  stage  of  glaciation 

3.  First  interval  of  deglaciation 

4.  East-Iowan  stage  of  glaciation 

5.  Second  interval  of  deglaciation 

6.  East-Wisconsin  stage  of  glaciation 

7.  Retreatal  oscillations  of  undetermined  importance 


Earlj'  glacial  epoch 

Chief  interglacial  epoch 



(-  Later  glacial  epoch 






L     Concealed  under-series  (theoretical). 

2.  Kansan  stage  of  glaciation. 

3.  First  interval  of  deglaciation. 

4.  East-Iowan  stage  of  glaciation. 
5.*  Second  interval  of  deglaciation. 

6.  East-Wisconsin  stage  of  glaciation. 

7.  Later  oscillations  of  undetermined 


First  (represented)  glacial  epoch 
First  interglacial  epoch 
Second  glacial  epoch 
Second  interglacial  epoch 
Third  ylacial  epoch 
embracing  possibly 
a  fourth  glacial  epoch 


*  The  Great  Ice  Age.  by  James  Geikie,  pages  773  and  774. 

t  This  first  stage  is.  probably,  more  properly  termed  the  Illinoian.  It  reached  its  most  southern 
limit  in  that  State.  See  T.  C.  Chamberlin's  article  in  the  Journal  of  Geology,  vol.  iv,  ISOG.  pa^es 
872  to  876. 


The  general  conclusions  regarding  the  Ice  Age  in  America  and 
Europe,  harmonize,  and  the  above  grouping  of  the  ice  period  in 
America  on  a  three-fold  basis  runs  quite  closely  parallel  to  the  evidences 
of  successive  stages  of  glaciation  apparent  in  Europe.  In  both  coun- 
tries the  maximum  glaciation,  in  extent,  occurred  at  an  early  stage  of 
the  Period. "^ 

Louis  Agassiz,  late  of  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  was  the  first  to 
announce  a  past  Glacial  Period  in  geologic  history.  This  he  did  be- 
fore the  Helvetic  Society  of  Natural  History  in  1837.  In  1840  he  pre- 
sented the  subject  before  the  British  Association  for  the  Advancement 
of  Science  and,  later  in  the  same  year,  before  the  Geological  Society  of 
London.  Since  that  time  geologists  have  generally  agreed  regarding 
the  former  existence  of  such  Period  in  parts  of  the  earth  which  have 
long  since  been  of  temperate  climate,  and  been  sustaining  large  popu- 
lations. Professor  Edward  Hitchcock,  in  April,  l841,t  was  the  first  in 
America  to  accept  and  apply  the  glacial  theory  to  the  Eastern  United 

There  have  been,  however,  diversity  of  opinions  regarding  the 
cause  of  the  climate  that  jiroduced  the  glaciers  that  overran  these 
regions.  That  eminent  English  geologist,  Sir  Charles  Lvell|  advanced 
the  theory  of  changes  in  the  distribution  of  land  and  water,  and  eleva- 
tion of  great  expanses  of  land  at  or  toward  the  North  Pole,  as  the 
cause  of  glaciers.  Sir  John  Herschel  in  1832,  M.  Adhemar  in  1840, 
and  notably  Doctor  James  Croll  in  1864,  suggested  astronomic  causes 
for  the  variations  in  glacier  accumulations  and  dissipations.  The  ele- 
vation of  the  Northern  lands  that  was  in  progress  during  the  Tertiary 
era  is  naturally  a  favorite  theory  with  geologists  in  general  in  explan- 
ation of  the  cause  of  the  great  glaciers  that  overran  Ohio  and  other 
States  ;  and  adherents  to  the  theor\-  have  probably  been  increasing  in 
number  during  late  years  that  oscillations  of  the  earth's  surface  was  the 
chief  cause  of  the  oscillations  of  these  Doctor  James  Croll, § 
Professor  James  Geikie,!  and  Sir  Robert  Ball,*"^  hold  that  it  is  more 
probable  that  the  relative  changes  in  the  land  and  sea  level  were  due  to 
the  alternate  appearance  and   disappearance  of    the    great   snow-fields 

*  The  Great  Ice  Age.  bj'  James  Geikie,  pape  774. 

t  In  his  address  as  retiring  President  at  the  second  annual  ineetine  of  the  Association  of  American 
Geologists  and  Naturalists,  held  in  Philadelphia. 

t  Principles  of  Geology.  1830,  chapters  vii  and  viii.  and  Elements  o;  Geology,  sixth  edition.  1868, 
chapters  xi  and  xii. 

II  See  the  Ice  Age  of  North  America,  third  edition.  1891,  by  G.  Frederick  Wright;  also  his  smaller 
book  on  Man  and  the  Glacial  Period,  second  edition,  1896.    D.  Appleton  &  Co.,  New  York. 

§  In  his  books  on  Climate  and  Time,  and  Climate  and  Cosmology. 

1i  The  Great  Ice  Age.  third  edition,  1896. 

**  The  Cause  of  an  Ice  Age.  1897.     D.  Appleton  &  Company,  publishers. 


and  ice-coverings  ;  that  it  is  improbable  that  such  vast  portions  of  the 
earth's  crust  were  uplifted  thousands  of  feet  and  equally  depressed 
again  and  again  with  sufficient  frequency  to  account  for  the  complex 
alternation  of  cold  and  warm  ejiochs,  as  is  shown  to  have  been  the  case 
by  the  northern  deposits  of  southern  marine  and  other  animal  life,  and 
the  growth  of  forests,  during  the  interglacial  epochs.  In  brief,  their 
theory  is  that  the  climatic  changes  of  the  glacial  epochs  resulted  from 
the  combined  influence  of  the  precession  of  the  equinoxes  and  secular 
changes  in  the  eccentricity  of  the  earth's  orbit. 

According  to  the  theory  and  comimtations  of  Doctor  Croll,  the  last 
great  cvcle  of  eccentricity,  to  which  he  assigned  the  Glacial  Period,  be- 
gan about  2-40,000  year?  ago  and  lasted  160,000  years,  thus  terminating 
about  80,000  years  ago  for  the  more  strongly  contrasted  glacial  and 
interglacial  epochs.  Others  have  varied  but  little  from  these  computa- 
tions. G.  K.  Gilbert,  G.  Frederick  Wright,  Warren  Upham  and  others 
incline  to  the  opinion,  however,  that  the  last  ice  sheet  disappeared  from 
the  lower  lake  region  about  six  thousand  to  ten  thousand  years  ago, 
judging  from  the  Niagara  River  Gorge,  other  gorges,  the  character  of 
certain  glacial  deposits,  etc.;  and  that  this  recent  time,  together  with 
the  want  of  evidence  of  glaciation  in  the  Tertiary  and  former  Eras, 
militates  against  the  astronomic  theory  of  causation.  Sir  Robert  Ball, 
on  the  other  hand,  exploits  the  astronomic  theory  as  the  most  complete 
explanation  of  the  cause  and,  in  corroboration,  advances  an  accurate 
law'  by  which  the  distribution  and  retention  of  heat  is  regulated  in  the 
alternation  of  climatic  zones  between  the  earth's  hemispheres.  By  this 
law  he  'corrects  and  supplements'  the  theories  of  Sir  John  Herschel 
and  Doctor  James  Croll.  None  of  the  more  definite,  and  more  exclus- 
ive, theories  of  causation,  however,  have  fully  borne  the  test  of  general 
consideration.  It  is  probable  that  the  various  elements  affecting 
climate,  geographic,  atmospheric  and  astronomic,  are  so  well  balanced 
that  untoward  influences  affecting  and  holding  a  comparatively  slight 
change  or  maladjustment  might  produce  serious  climatic  effects,  even 
to  a  period  of  ice  in  our  present  temperate  zone.* 

All  agree  that  a  simple  low  temperature  will  not  produce  a  glacier. 
Snow  in  great  quantity  is  necessary  for  such  formation;  in  addition  to 
the  shortened  summer  and  increased  length  of  winter  there  was  a  cold 
under-current  of  air  passing  from  North  to  South,  and  currents  of 
warmer,  mist-laden  upper  strata  of  air  passing  from  the  South  to  the 
North,  causing  an  unusually  great  amount  of  snow  —  a  quantity  in  ex- 
cess of  melting  power  of  the  sun,  but  which  melted  sufficiently  during 
the  short  summer  of  each  year  to  aggregate  the  glaciers,  and   this   great 

*  See  Professor  Herman  L.  Fairchild's  Address,  Proceedings  of  the  Amerioan  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science.  1898.  vol.  xlvii,  pate  270  et  sequentia. 


amount  of  moisture  thus  congealed  on  the  land,  produced  a  change  in 
the  ocean  level  by  depressing  the  land  or  attracting  the  ocean  from 
southern  latitudes,  or  both.  Great  accumulation  of  snow  and  ice  from 
its  partial  melting  and  its  weight,  has  been  in  progress  towards  the 
South  Pole  for  many  years,  and  theories  of  grave  results  to  present 
temperate  latitudes  have  been  adduced  therefrom. 

The  area  covered  by  these  ice  sheets  is,  in  North  America,  about 
four  million  square  miles,  and  in  Europe  about  one-half  this  extent. 
Beginning  in  Labrador  and  south  of  Ffudson  Bay,  as  probable  chief 
centers  of  the  American  ice  distribution,  the  general  course  of  the  prin- 
cipal glaciating  mass  was  to  the  south  and  east  in  the  Eastern  States, 
extending  as  far  south  as  Long  Island,  to  New  York  City,  then  the 
extreme  southern  limit  in  the  East,  excepting  narrow  extensions  down 
drainage  channels,  and  assuming  a  general  northwesterly  course  through 
New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania  to  near  Southwestern  New  York,  thence 
in  a  general  southwesterly  course  through  Pennsylvania  and  the  south- 
ern edge,  ranging  through  Ohio  near  Canton,  Danville,  Newark,  Chilli- 
cothe  and  Winchester  to  near  the  Ohio  River,  which  is  crossed  from 
Clermont  County;  thence  extending  near  this  river  to  Cincinnati,  thence 
southwest  in  a  varying  line  which  is  crossed  and  recrossed  by  the  Ohio, 
to  near  Louisville,  where  the  boundary  turns  to  the  northward  at  about 
a  right  angle  and  extends  to  within  a  few  miles  of  Indianapolis,  where 
it  again  turns  to  the  southwest,  crossing  the  Wabash  River  at  New 
Harmony  into  Illinois  and  reaching  the  most  southern  limit  about  fifty 
miles  north  of  Cairo,  whence  it  again  turns  to  the  northwest,  extending 
nearlj-  parallel  to  the  Mississippi  River  and  a  few  miles  distant  from  it, 
to  within  a  few  miles  of  St.  Louis,  where  it  crosses  this  river  and  ex- 
tends westward  along  or  within  a  few  miles  of  the  Missouri  River,  en- 
tering Kansas  a  little  south  of  Kansas  City  and  continuing  nearly  west 
a  hundred  miles  to  near  Topeka,  thence  northward  across  Nebraska 
approximating  the  Missouri  River,  and  crossing  the  south  line  of  South 
Dakota  near  the  mouth  of  the  Niobrara  River,  thence  along  the  west 
bank  of  the  Missouri  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cheyenne  River,  and  thence 

The  marks  of  the  glacier,  and  rocks  transported  by  it,  are  found 
near,  if  not  quite  on,  the  top  of  Mount  Washington,  the  present  high- 
est point  in  New  England,  6347  feet  above  the  sea,  also  at  the  tops  of 
the  other  highest  mountains  in  its  course.  The  question  of  the  force 
necessary  to  propel  the  ice  over  these  great  heights,  if  they  were  so 
high  at  the  time  of  the  glaciers,  and  to  propel  it  so  far  from  the  north- 
ern places  of  distribution,  has  given  rise  to  interesting  inquiries  regard- 

*  See  The  Ice  Age  in  North  America,  by  G.  F.  WriKht,  third  edition,  1891,  page  120  et  seq. 


ing  the  thickness  of  the  ice  sheets  and  the  character  of  the  propelling 
force.  About  the  year  1861  Professor  Louis  Agassiz,  in  a  conversation 
with  Professor  J.  P.  Lesley,  stated  as  his  opinion,  from  studies  of  the 
movements  of  existing  glaciers,  that  such  masses  of  ice  could  not  go 
over  a  barrier  unless  its  extent  above  the  crest  of  the  barrier  be  at  least 
one-half  of  the  height  of  the  barrier.*  It  is  readily  seen  that  moun- 
tains which  bear  on  their  summits  glacial  markings  or  rocks  foreign  to 
the  locality,  serve  as  glaciometers,  and  are  among  the  best  means  of 
approximating  the  thickness  of  the  ice  sheet.  This  evidence  with  the 
hundreds  of  miles  distance  to  the  terminal  moraines  and  glacial  mark- 
ings south  and  west  from  the  northern  centers  of  the  glacier  distri- 
bution, signify  a  necessary  thickness  of  thousands  of  feet  to  the 
northern  ice.  Estimated  from  slopes  of  existing  glaciers,  the  thickness 
of  the  glacier  over  Lake  Erie  has  been  computed  to  have  been  about 
eleven  thousand  feet,  and  that  part  north  of  Lake  Superior  thirty  thou- 
sand feet.t  Ice  will  move  of  its  own  weight,  and  particularly  glaciers 
composed  of  crystals  or  'glacier-grains'  formed  as  thej'  are,  from 
snow.  When  the  most  solid  parts  of  ice  are  exposed  in  a  glacier  to  a 
peculiarly  violent  strain,  its  limited  plasticity  necessitates  the  formation 
of  countless  minute  rents,  and  the  internally  bruised  surfaces  are  forced 
to  slide  over  one  another,  simulating  a  fluid  character  in  the  motion  of 
the  parts  so  affected.  Reconsolidation  of  the  bruised  glacial  substance 
into  a  coherent  whole  may  be  more  or  less  effected  by  pressure  alone 
similar  to  its  effect  upon  granular  snow,  and  upon  ice  softened  by  im- 
minent thaw  into  a  condition  more  plastic  than  ice  at  lower  tempera- 
ture.! Doctor  Heimll  has  estimated  that  the  average  annual  flow  of 
the  glaciers  of  Switzerland  and  Norway,  and  the  smallest  of  the  Green- 
landic  glaciers,  ranges  between  one  hundred  and  thirty  and  three  hun- 
dred and  thirtj-  feet.  The  great  glacial  tongues  that  are  protruded  from 
the  inland  ice  of  Greenland  move  on  an  average  in  summer  not  less 
than  fifty  feet  in  twenty-four  hours  with  often  great  declivity  to  the  land 
and  the  open  sea  as  a  strong  frontal  attracting  force.  In  mountainous 
countries  the  movement  is  accelerated  by  the  declivity.  Undoubtedly 
the  movement  of  the  glaciers  that  invaded  this  level  region  was  far 
slower  than  the  minimum  above  given.  Doctor  Geikie  states  that  'in 
many  cases  glaciers  flow  no  faster  than  from  three  or  four  to  eighteen 
inches  a  day,  while  in  others  the  rate  exceeds  four  feet  in  twenty-four 

*  Second  Geological  Survey  oj  Pennsylvania,  vol.  Z.  page  xiv.     Wright's  The  Ice  Age  of  North 
America,  pace  167. 

"t   The  Ice  Age  of  North  America,  3rd  edition,  page  173. 

*  See  ]!Lmei  D.  Forbes' Occasional  Papers  on  the  Theory  of  Glaciers,  page  svi;    The  Great  Ice 
Age.  by  James  Geikie,  page  31 ;   The  Ice  Age  in  North  America,  by  G.  F.  Wright,  etc. 

11  Handbuch  der  Gletscherkunde.  quoted  in  Geikie's  The  Great  Ice  Age.  page  36. 


The  phenomena  attending  the  formation  and  movements  of  glaciers 
are  endowed  with  several  of  Nature's  laws  of  great  interest.  They 
have  been  studied  by  many  geologists  and  physicists  during  later  years 
not  only  in  the  effects  of  the  past  glaciers,  but  in  the  active  processes 
of  existing  glaciers  in  Alaska,  Greenland,  the  Alps,  and  others.  From 
these  studies  we  understand  that  the  center  for  the  formation  of  the 
glaciers  that  overran  this  region  was  on  the  most  elevated  points  to  the 
north  and  eastward;  that  during  their  formation  they  became  firmly  at- 
tached to  the  earth  and  rocks,  which  in  much  of  the  movements  of  the 
ice  worked  upward  through  its  heights;  that  as  the  ice  volume  increased 
and  advanced,  filling  the  valleys  and  creeping  up  the  hills  and  moun- 
tains, the  accumulation  of  crushed  and  resisting  rocks  increased;   that 

A  Front  of  the  Muir  Glacier  in  Alaska  a  few  years  asjo.     From  Gates'  Tours. 

avalanches  from  the  higher  peaks  and  ridges  brought  frequent  and 
material  additions  of  snow,  ice,  earth  and  rocks  down  upon  its  surface; 
that  it  amassed  to  thousands  of  feet  in  thickness  and,  with  its  enor- 
mous wxight,  it  was  irresistibly  impelled  forward,  carrying  before  and 
under  it  ridges  and  hills  of  earth;  grinding  and  mixing  the  softer  rocks 
into  their  component  parts  of  lime,  sand,  gravel  and  clay;  smoothing 
and  grooving  furrows  in  and  by  the  more  solid  parts  ;  filling  deep  water 
ways  with  this  broken  and  ground  material  and  thus  changing  the  for- 
mer drainage  systems :  creeping  up  and  over  the  hills  and  mountains 
that  withstood  its  force;  dipping  and  scouring  the  bed  of  Lake  Erie; 
moving  along  over  the  rocky  elevations  to  the  south  and   westward   and 

26  THE  MAUMEE  RIVER  BASIN.       " 

leaving  in  its  course  a  litter  of  detritus  from  its  mill-like  and  mixing 
action,  much  being  loosened  by  friction  and  by  the  melting  of  the  ice 
and  by  the  water  that  trickled  through  its  crevices,  but  principally  by 
the  arrest  of  the  glacier's  progress  and  its  dissipation  by  climatic 
changes,  as  the  forward  part  of  the  glaciers  in  level  regions  possessed 
the  greatest  amount  of  detritus  from  their  plowing  and  pushing  every- 
thing movable  before  them,  and  from  the  constant  dropping  of  the  ac- 
cumulations from  the  melting  ice  above. 

Ridges  of  this  ground  up  or  transported  material  left  by  glaciers 
are  called  Moraines;  and  it  is  readily  understood  from  the  former  state- 
ment that,  later  action  of  water  being  equal,  the  Terminal  Moraine  or, 
rather,  the  place  where  the  front  of  the  glacier  rested  the  longest, 
would  be  the  highest.  The  last  glacier,  usually  connected  with  the  last 
(often  called  Wisconsin )  stage,  that  covered  the  Huron-Erie  region 
was  divided  along  its  southern  border  into  five  lobes,  tongues  or 
fingers,  which  projected  from  the  main  mass.*  The  Western  Erie  or 
Maumee  and  Wabash  lobe,  which  covered,  and  formed,  the  Maumee 
River  Basin,  moved  in  a  southwesterly  direction  as  shown  by  scratch- 
ings  and  groovings  in  the  bed  rocks.  Markings  of  four  distinct  ice 
movementst  have  been  observed  on  the  islands  in  the  west  part  of 
Lake  Erie,  but  only  those  attributed  to  the  third  movement  will  be 
mentioned  here,  further  than  a  few  intersecting.  The  direction  of 
these  grooves  vary  somewhat  according  to  the  obstructions  met  and 
the  flexibility  of  the  ice.  The  table  on  opposite  page  shows  location 
and  direction  of  the  principal  groovings  observed  by  members  of  the 
Ohio  Geological  Corps.  + 

The  Terminal  Moraine  of  this  Erie  or  Maumee  Basin  Glacier  was 
thought  bv  G.  K.  Gilbert  in  1871  to  be  the  St.  Joseph-St.  Mary 
Moraine  ||  shown  on  the  map  page  28;  but  Professor  T.  C.  Chamber- 
lin's  survey  §  locates  the  Terminal  Moraine  proper,  or  extreme  limit  of 
this  glacial  lobe,  near  the  southwestern  border  of  Indiana.  The  highest 
moraines  near  the  Maumee  River  Basin  are  those  forming  its  north- 
western and  western  borders,  in  Hillsdale  County,  Michigan,  and  in 
Steuben  and  De  Kalb  Counties,  Indiana.  There  are  in  this  region  a 
confusion  of  moraines  from  the  contact  and  blending  of  the  northwest 
side  of  the   Erie  Glacial    Lobe  with  the  southeast  side  of  what  has  been 

*  These  glacial  lobes  have  been  yiven  the  names  of  the  rivers  now  coursiny  most  nearly  in  the 
direction  of  their  trend,  viz:  1.  The  Grand  and  Mahoning  at  the  east;  '2.  The  Sandusky  and  Scioto;  3. 
The  Great  Miami  —  all  in  Ohio;  4.  The  White  River  in  Indiana,  and  5.  The  Maumee  and  Wabash.  See 
T.  C.  Chamberlin's  Preliminary  Paper  on  the  Terminal  Moraine  of  the  Second  Glacial  Epoch. 

t  See  The  Ice  Age  in  North  America.  3rd  edition,  pages  235,  236. 

^  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio.  vol.  i,  pajje  53S:   vol.  ii,  pases  9,  10. 

II  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio.  vol.  i,  page  .542. 

S  United  States  Geological  Survey,  Third  Annual  Report,  pane  291. 






No.  OF 



Kelly  Island 

Corniferous  Limestone 




S.  78°  W. 
S,  80°  W. 
S.  60°  W. 


Putin-Bay  Island 



S.  80°  W. 



S.  15°  W. 

South  Bass  Island 


S.  80°  W. 



S.  15°  W. 

West  Sister  Island 



S.  80°  W. 








S.  50°  W. 




S.  62°  W. 

Fish's  Quarry 



S.  55°  W. 




S.  50°  W. 



Ohio  Shale 


S.  45°  W. 



Corniferous  Limestone 


S.  45°  W. 






S,  35°  W. 
S.  35°  W. 

Van  Wert 



S.  15°  W. 





S.  45°  W. 
S.  40°  W. 



S.  33°  W. 





S.  28°  W. 

Suuar  Creel< 


S.  50°  W. 




S.  48°  W. 





S.  23°  W. 



S.    5°E. 




S.  20°  W. 
S.    5°  W. 




S.  10°  W. 

S,  10°  E. 

N.  S. 





S.  50°  W. 




S.  68°  W. 
S.  60°  W. 


termed  the  Saginaw  Glacial  Lobe,  thus  forming  the  Erie-Saginaw  Inter- 
lobate  Moraine.*  The  Saginaw  Glacier  is  recognized  as  having  been 
the  lesser  lobe  or  edge  of  these  two,  and  the  first  to  disappear.  The 
survey  of  the  western  and  northwestern  border  of  this  Basin,  shows 
considerable  complexity  in  its  glaciation.  The  accompanving  map 
shows  five  morainic  loops  of  the  Maumee-Wabash  Glacial  Lobe,  divided 
into  North  and  South  sections  by  the  Maumee  River  and  the  Wabash 
and  its  tributaries,  viz:  the  Defiance  Moraine,  the  St.  Joseph-St.  Marv, 
the  Wabash-Aboite,  the  Salamonie  and  the  Mississinewa.  The  two  last 
named   are  so  blended   in   northeastern    Indiana  with   the  Saginaw  as  to 

*  See  the  16lh  Report  of  Indiana  Geology,  1888,  pages  119.126,  and  the  17th  Report.  181)2    pages 
115  lo  118. 





'|H»:  nnUKEis.  OTHr-K  THAN  OATKN,  INI.H« 

KNORAvri)  FOR  Dr.  Ciias.  K.  Slocum's 

UlifTORT   OF   THF    MaL-MEK  RfVEB    B*81M 


be  indistinKuishabk-  to  other  than  skilled  Lclaciaologists.  North  of 
Maumee  Bay  there  are  two  other  moraines  extending  northward. 

It  is  still  an  unsettled  question  whether  the  different  glacial  evi- 
dences were  separated  by  long  intervals  of  mild  climate,  marking 
distinct  glacial  epochs,  or  whether  there  were  a  continuity  of  oscilla- 
tions—  advances  and  recessions  —  of  the  ice  with  only  a  modifiud 
glacial  climate  during  its  recessions  of,  perhaps,  one,  two,  three  hun- 
dred years,  or  more.  Both  theories  have  able  advocates..!  A  further 
description  of  these  moraines  will  be  given  in  the  chapters  on  the 
Glacial  Drift,  and  the  rivers. 

The  causes  leading  to  the  melting  of  the  glaciers  were  but  the 
reversal  of  the  causes  that  produced  them.  Theories  of  the  subsidence 
or  great  depression  of  the  glaciated  area  ( perhaps  from  the  great  weight 
of  the  ice  )  and  theories  of  ocean  elevation,  and  of  astronomic  varia- 
tions, have  been  ad\-anced  as  causes  of  the  modification  of  the  glacial 

Wherever  the  drainage  ways  in  front  of  an  advancing  glacier 
were  not  sufficient  at  lower  levels,  bodies  of  water  formed  and  accumu- 
lated in  relative  quantity  from  the  constant  melting  of  the  ice.  As  the 
glacier  advanced  from  the  northeast  the  drainage  channels  of  the  areas 
of  the  present  great  lakes  and  tributaries,  were  dammed  and  the  accu- 
mulating waters  from  them,  and  from  the  glacier,  found  outlet  through 
the  preglacial  channels  to  the  southward  and  southwestward.  When 
the  glacier  finally  stopped  on  the  borders  of  the  present  Maumee  River 
Basin  the  waters  from  the  melting  ice  were  discharged  through  the  St. 
Joseph  River  which,  cutting  through  the  moraines  southwestward  from 
its  present  mouth,  flowed  into  the  Wabash  River  near  Huntington,  In- 
diana. Other  points  of  discharge  were  southeastward  into  the  Scioto 
River  and  southward  into  the  Miami.  As  the  glacier  receded,  by  melt- 
ing, there  was  formed  between  its  front  and  sides  and  the  St.  Joseph- 
St.  Mary  Moraines,  a  body  of  water  which  constantly  increased  in 
extent  as  the  ice  disappeared.  This  body  of  water  has  been  designated 
as  the  Maumee  Glacial  Lake.  It  had  outlets  southeastward  through 
the  Tymochtee  Gap,  912  feet  above  tide  water,  to  the  Scioto  River  ; 
southward  near  Lima  and  Wapakoneta,  at  an  elevation  of  about  900 
feet  and  later,  at  the  formation  of  the  River  St.  Marj-  and  its  junction 
with  the  St.  Joseph  at  P'ort  Wayne,  southwestward,  at  present  erosion 

t  For  a  discussion  of  the  latter  theory  see  The  Ice  Age  in  North  America.  -Srd  edition,  1891,  and 
P4an  and  the  Glacial  Period.  2nd  edition,  1896,  both  by  G.  Frederick  Writ;ht.  Reparding  the  former 
theory  see  The  Qreat  [ce  Age  in  which  the  author,  James  Geikie,  discusses  six  distinct  glacial  epochs 
in  Europe.  In  1899  Dr,  Albrecht  Penck,  in  a  pamphlet  published  in  Vienna,  recognizes  four  distinct 
epochs  of  placiation  in  the  Alps,  instead  of  three  as  heretofore  recorded.  This  subject,  as  well  as  others 
may  be  found  more  fully  discussed  in  the  proceedings  of  geological  and  other  scientific  societies,  and 
serial  publications,  a  number  of  which  are  referred  to  by  name  in  this  work. 



level  of  767  feet,  to  the  Wabash  River:  and  still  later,  until  the  glacial 
ice  dam  melted  in  the  Mohawk  River  Valley,  New  York,  and  in  the  St. 
Lawrence  Valley,  the  drainage  of  the  Maumee  Glacial  Lake  was  north- 
ward to  the  Thumb  of  Michigan,  and  thence  southwestward  south  of 
Saginaw  Bay,  at  an  altitude  of  something  over  700  feet  above  tide 
water,  through  the  Grand  River  to  Lake  Michigan,  and  thence  through 
the  Illinois  River  to  the  Mississippi. 

With  the  melting  of  the  ice  the  great  number  of  granitic  boulders, 
large  and  small,  the  immense  quantity  of  finely  ground  rock  material 
of  different  kinds,  forming  clay,  gravel,  sand,  and  lime,  and  all 
kinds  of  debris  and  detritus  that  had  been  received  and  gathered  in 
its    course,    became    liberated   to    settle   to    the   bottom   of  the  water   or 



■  -i  ■ 




/A  idy 


^^w*~    • ' 

* '  '^^ 


I'ehance  Glacial  Bay  Beach  in  Foret;rouii(l,  and  Crest  of  Dehance  Moraine  in  the  liistance.  Look- 
ing east,  24th  October,  1902,  in  Richland  Township,  three  miles  east  of  the  Defiance  Court  House,  and 
one  mile  south  of  the  Maumee  Water  Gap.     A  very  fertile  country. 

drifted  to  the  shores.  Iceliergs  and  icefloes  were  broken  from  the 
glacier  b\'  the  processes  of  fissuring  and  undermining,  and  either  soon 
became  fixed  on  the  bottom  to  melt  and  deposit  their  loads  of  earthy 
material  in  a  limited  area,  or  were  drifted  about  to  its  wider  disperse- 
ment.  The  Maumee  Glacial  Lake  gradually  subsided  into  the  present 
Lake  Erie. 

As  the  lake  level  declined  the  waters  of  the  Rivers  St.  Joseph 
and  St.  Mary  followed  the  receding  lake,  thus  originating  and  forming 
the  Maumee  River.  Following  its  continued  recession  the  Defiance 
Mcwaine  became  the  western  and  southwestern  shore  of  the  Maumee 
Glacial  Lake,  leaving  to  the  westward  and  southward  a  baj-,  named 
Defiance  Glacial  Bay  in  the  year  1899  by  Frank  Leverett  assistant  in 
the  United  States  Geological  Survey,  at  the  suggestion  of  Charles  E. 
Slocum    of    Defiance.      This    Bav   in    its   full    e.xtent   was   about    1100 


square  miles  in  area,  somewhat  crescentic  in  form  with  its  north  and 
south  points  and  concave  shore  lines  to  the  eastward,  with  altitude  of 
near  170  feet  above  the  present  level  of  Lake  Erie,  and  743  feet  above 
the  sea.  Much  of  its  shore  lines  may  now  be  seen  with  more  or  less 
distinctness  at  or  near  the  following  named  places  :  Beginning  at 
Ayersville,  five  miles  southeast  of  Defiance  and  at  the  Bay's  principal 
connection  with  the  receding  Lake  Whittlesey,  and  extending  north- 
ward along  the  convex  west  side  of  the  Defiance  Moraine  to 
Archbold,  Fulton  Count}',  Ohio,  the  most  northerlj'  point  ;  thence 
irregularly  in  a  general  southwesterly  course  along  the  slope  east  of 
Bryan,  Williams  County,  and  of  Hicksville,  Defiance  Countv,  to 
Antwerp,  Paulding  County,  where  it  turns  southeast  to  Scott,  and 
near  Delphos,  Allen  County,  thence  in  a  curving  northeasterly  course 
to  near  Columbus  Grove  and  Pandora,  Putnam  County,  thence  north 
to  Leipsic  and  Belmore,  and  thence  northwest  through  Henry  County 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Bay  opposite  Ayersville.  Its  deepest  part  was  at 
Defiance.  Four  lake  beaches  have  been  noted  in  this  Basin  by  G.  K. 
Gilbert,*  by  whom  it  was  first  surveyed.  The  first  beach,  the  western 
shore  of  Glacial  Lake  Maumee,  marks  a  water  level  of  220  feet  above 
the  present  level  of  Lake  Erie  ;  the  second  at  195  feet,  and  the  third 
at  170  feet,  being  the  level  of  Defiance  Glacial  Bay,  and  Lake  Whittle- 
sey on  the  east  side  of  the  Defiance  Moraine.  The  fourth  beach  lines 
record  a  slow  descent  from  the  eastern  shore  of  Lake  Warren,  90  feet 
to  65  and  60  feet  above  the  fifth  beach  or  present  shore  of  Lake  Erie, 
which  is  recorded  as  573  feet  above  tide  water. 

With  the  subsidence  of  the  glacier  and  its  waters,  the  Maumee 
River  Basin  became  defined;  and  it  was  quite  well  drained  before  the 
present  Niagara  River  had  origin.  It  was  not  until  the  breaking  away 
of  the  glacial  ice  dams  in  the  Mohawk  River  Valley,  and  in  the  valley 
of  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  and  the  settling  of  Lake  Ontario  below 
the  level  of  the  land  thirty-eight  feet  above  the  present  Lake  Erie,  that 
the  Niagara  River  began  to  form  a  channel;  and  as  that  level  of  Lake 
Ontario  subsided,  the  Falls  of  Niagara  had  a  beginning  at  the  escarp- 
ment of  Lewiston.  With  the  erosions  of  the  overlying  till  and  the 
softer  underlying  eighty  feet  of  shale,  the  upper  eighty  feet  of  lime- 
stone was  undermined  and  broken  to  fall  in  fragments  and  be  carried 
down  the  channel  by  the  increasing  height  and  force  of  the  Falls  and 
current.  Thus  the  Falls  receded  and  the  Gorge  was  formed  accord- 
ingly. This  Niagara  Gorge  has  been  recognized  by  geologists  for 
several  years  as  the  best  practical  measure  of  the  time  that  has  elapsed 
since  the  subsidence  of   the   glacial  waters   that   is   convenient   for   their 

'  Ohio  Geological  Survey,  vol.  i.  page  549.    Also  see  Map.  page  28. 


studv.  From  the  studies  given  to  the  erosions  by  the  Falls,  diverse 
opinions  have,  however,  been  advanced.  R.  Bakewell,  jr.,  in  the  j-ear 
1H29,  after  consulting  residents  of  the  vicinity  of  forty  years  duration, 
estimated  the  recession  of  the  Falls  at  three  feet  a  year.  E.  Desor 
later  estimated  the  recession  as  probably  nearer  three  feet  a  century 
than  three  feet  a  year,  making  the  time  for  the  wearing  of  the  Gorge 
1,232,000  years.  Prof.  James  D.  Dana*  estimated  the  more  probable 
time  as  380,000  years.  Sir  Charles  Lyellt  concluded  that  '  the  aver- 
age of  one  foot  a  year  would  be  a  much  more  probable  conjecture'  or 
35,000  years.  American  geologists  of  later  years  have,  also,  variously 
read  this  chronometer,  some  deducing  a  period  of  time  for  the  erosion 
as  low  as  7000  years,  while  Professor  James  W.  Spencer  in  1894, 
sums  up  the  time  necessary  for  this  stupendous  work  of  water  at  32,000 
j-ears.  In  this  estimation  it  is  necessary  to  take  into  account  different 
facts  and  agencies  once  potent,  but  not  now  apparent  in  the  local 
stud\'.  There  was  far  more  moisture  in  the  air  and  the  ground,  for- 
merly than  now,  and  then  for  a  long  period  (estimated  by  Professor 
Spencer  at  over  17,000  years)  the  upper  lakes  were  drained  through 
Georgian  Bay  and  the  French  River  to  the  Ottawa  and  St.  Lawrence, 
and  onl}'  about  three-elevenths  of  their  water  passed  through  Lake 
Erie  and  over  Niagara  Falls.  It  is,  also,  probable  that  more  water 
passed  over  the  Falls  during  the  Champlain  periodll  than  at  present. 
And  again,  little  of  definite  evidence  has  been  obtained  regarding  the 
extent  of  the  preglacial  erosions  above  the  occluded  whirlpool  channel 
and  their  effect  on  the  present  erosions.  In  this  connection  it  is  inter- 
esting to  note  that  N.  H.  Winchell's  studies  of  the  post  glacial  erosion 
of  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony,  Minnesota,  have  led  him  to  the  opinion 
that  it  has  required  a  period  of  8000  years  for  the  results  there  shown. 
The  Ohio  River  is  a  preglacial  stream,  with  its  present  bed  at  least  one 
hundred  and  fifty  feet  above  its  preglacial  bed,  the  channel  having 
been  much  filled  during  the  glacial  period  and  since  then  eroded,  in  a 
somewhat  wandering  course  to  the  present  level.  The  trough  of  the 
Ohio  River  affords  interesting  opportunity  for  further  study  in  this 
inquiry,  and  in  fluvial  history.  S 

*  Manual  of  Geology.  2nd  edition,  1875.  pane  591.  Dr.  Dana,  in  his  last  (4th)  edition,  1896,  con- 
tents himself  with  quotinK  the  deductions  of  later  ceoloirists,  and  inclining  to  lower  estimates  than 

t  Travels  in  North  America,  vol.  i,  pace  32;  vol.  ii,  pace  93;  Principles  of  Geology,  vol.  i,  page 

II  See  Geological  Chart,  facing  page  7. 
%  See  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio.  vol.  ii,  page  13. 

A  writer  in  McClure's  Magazine  for  .August,  190',  vol.  xvii,  page  304,  estimates  the  age  of  tho 
earth  in  vears,  counting  from  the  surface  downward  so  far  as  known,  as  follows : 
•      Recent,  Post  Glacial,  and  Glacial  .         500.000 

Pliocene,  Miocene,  Eocene         ....        2.8tX*,000 

Chalk,  Jura,  Trias 14,300.000        (Continued  on 

Permian,  Cambrian,  Laurentian  .        .        100,000,000  page  55.) 


It  is  to  the  Glaciation  and  the  Drift  or  Glacial  Till  that  this  Basin, 
in  common  with  other  glaciated  regions,  is  indebted  for  its  admirable 
topography,  from  an  agricultural  and  commercial  standpoint,  and  for 
its  variety  of  fertile  soils.  Its  study  in  connection  with  unglaciated 
regions  will  place  this  highly  favored  Basin  in  pleasing  contrast.  The 
more  uneven  parts  of  Southeastern  Ohio  and  contiguous  parts  of  West 
Virginia,  Kentucky  and  Pennsylvania,  that  are  south  of  the  glaciers' 
course,  although  interesting  in  their  relation  to  this  subject,  do  not 
afford,  in  their  additional  geologic  strata  and  their  relation  to  the  Appa- 
lachian chains  of  mountains,  good  illustrations  of  the  topography  that 
would  now  be  exhibited  in  this  region  but  for  the  mountains  of  ice  that 
were  moved  over  it.  There  is  a  limited  unglaciated  area  embracing  the 
northwestern  part  of  Illinois,  the  northeastern  part  of  Iowa,  and  the 
southeastern  part  of  Minnesota,  which  presents  in  comparison  with 
contiguous  and  other  glaciated  regions  of  these  States,  excellent  illus- 
trations of  the  great  benefit  now  being  derived  from  the  results  of  the 
glaciers.  Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  ice  passed  around  the  cor- 
ners of  the  three  States  here  mentioned,  an  area  of  several  hundred 
square  miles  in  extent,  and  for  several  hundred  miles  beyond  it, 
there  are  no  well  marked  evidences  of  glaciation  within  its  borders,  nor 
of  till,  to  obscure  the  contrast  with  other  parts  of  those  States;  but  it 
did  receive  a  flow  of  loess  or  porous  clay  rich  in  carbonate  of  lime, 
from  one  of  the  later  sheets  of  ice  drift  thus  being  modified,  and  im- 
proved, by  the  near  passing  of  the  glacier. 

Although  the  diggings  and  borings  through  the  Till  with  careful 
notings,  have  not  been  numerous  enough  thus  far  to  demonstrate  the 
system  of  preglacial  drainage,  it  is  probable  that  this  Basin,  being  the 
first  of  its  vicinity  elevated  above  the  sea  and  therefore  the  oldest  on 
the  surface  in  its  preglacial  history,  became  deeply  and  sharply  chan- 
neled in  the  rock  by  the  larger  streams,  and  latterall}'  by  their  tribu- 
taries. Gorges  of  great  breadth  and  depth  must  have  abounded  in  the 
rock  beside  multitudinous  and  diverse  inequalities  from  the  unequal 
decomposition  and  wear  of  the  layers  of  varied  and  varying  degrees  of 
hardness  of  the  rocks,  by  the  rains,  the  drouths,  the  sun,  the  freezings, 
the  thawings  and  by  the  floods.  There  were  not  only  rugged  cliffs 
abutting  the  streams  and  their  vallevs,  but  narrow  gorges,  isolated  high 

Still  greater  length  of  time  has  elapsed,  in  the  estimation  of  others.  See  McClure's  Magazine  for 
I  October.  1900.  vol.  xv,  page  514. 

"On  the  contrary,  the  present  tendency  both  among  astronomers  and  geologists,  is  to  diminish 
estimates  of  geological  time  in  almost  every  period.  The  hundreds  of  millions  of  years  claimed  not 
long  ago  as  necessary  for  the  deposition  and  metamorphism  of  geological  strata,  and  for  the  elevating  and 
eroding  forces  to  produce  the  present  contour  of  the  earth's  surface  have  on  geological  evidence,  been 
reduced  to  much  more  moderate  limits.  Thirty  million  years  is  now  shown  to  be  ample  for  the  deposi. 
tion.  by  forces  still  in  operation,  of  all  the  sedimentary  strata  of  which  we  have  knowledge."  The  Icq 
Age  of  North  America,   by  G.   F.  Wright.  D.  Appleton  &  Co.,  .Srd  ed.   page  449, 



points  of  harder  rock,  and  a  general  ruggedness  throughout  the  entire 
surface.  The  comparative  short  time  that  has  elapsed  since  the  melt- 
ing of  the  last  glacier  has  sufficed  for  our  sluggish  streams  to  erode 
considerable  valleys  through  the  Glacial  Drift,  and,  in  many  places, 
through  the  shale  and  several  feet  into  the  rock.  The  far  greater 
length  of  the  preglacial  time  during  which  the  rocks  were  probably  ex- 
posed to  the  changes  mentioned  above,  must  have  resulted  in  producing 
a  topography  rougher  than  our  imaginations  can  well  portray  it.  Trav- 
eling" across    such    an    irregularly   eroded    region,  if   possible,  would    be 

Glaciated  Granite  Boulders  in  ilicll  channel  of  Mamnee  River,  south  part  of  Section  :il',  Noble 
Township,  Defiance  County,  Ohio.  Looking  eastward,  IHth  October,  1901.  This  reyion,  and  the  low 
channel  half  a  mile  below,  afford  the  best  display  of  such  boulders  in  tlie  lart;er  streams  of  the  Maumee 
River  Basin.     Small  and  more  or  less  polished  pieces  are  found  alontr  all  streams. 

attended  with  at  least  many  difficulties  and  inconveniences.  Tlie  way 
would  be  verv  tortuous  and  exhausting  from  man}-  descendings  and  as- 
cendings,  and  with  many  bridgings  of  chasms.  Cultivation  of  the  soil, 
where  possible,  would  be  in  restricted  areas,  uncertain  on  account  of 
the  drouths,  and  laborious  to  prevent  undue  washings  of  the  soil  in  wet 
seasons.  The  glaciers  were  like  huge  planes  in  their  effects,  leveling  ' 
the  high  points,  pushing  everything  breakable  and  movable  before 
them,  or  crushing,  grinding  and  triturating  all  between  the  basic  rocks 
and  the  ice  floors  studded  with  granitic  and  softer  rocks,  and  leaving 
all  the  old  channels  filled   that   were   not  otherwise   obliterated.      Here 



was  the  comminuting  and  commingling  processes  of  the  different  rocks 
—  of  the  argillaceous,  the  limestones,  the  feldspars  of  the  granites 
with,  generally,  just  enough  of  their  silica  to  preserve  the  good  degree 
of  congruitv  that  distinguishes   much   of  the    inexhaustible   soil    of   this 

Basm.  1113275 

During  the  melting  of  the  glaciers  and  the  deposition  of  the  Drift, 
the  effect  of  water  was  great  upon  the  superglacial  and  englacial  Till ; 
and  the  subglacial  was  more  or  less  washed  and  reasserted  in  the  loca- 
tions   of    subglacial   streams    of    water.      Above   the    First    Beach,  west 

Looking  do^vn  the  Auylaize  River  in  Jackson  Township.  Putnam  County,  Oliio,  :28tli  May.  19lt2,  in 
low  stage  of  water.  The  Corniferous  Limestone  Boulder  seen  beyond  the  boat  is  the  largest  seen  in 
the  river  channels  of  the  Basin.  Before  it  was  drilled  and  blasted  into  three  pieces  a  few  years  ai,'0. 
its  height  above  the  ground  was  fifteen  feet. 

and  northwest  particularly,  Erie  Clay  still  lies  in  undulations,  un- 
changed only  by  subsecjuent  natural  washings,  showing  that  the 
Maumee  Glacial  Lake,  if  it  really  covered  this  region  following  the 
subsidence  of  the  glacier,  must  have  soon  receded  to  the  First  Beach, 
a  distance  in  some  places  of  twenty  miles  with  a  fall  of  about  two 
hundred  feet.  The  glacial  deposits  within  the  beach  lines  were  sub- 
jected to  great  and  continued  washings  by  which  there  was  much  of 
sortings,  rearrangings  and  levelings  of  the  inequalities.  The  present 
surface  is  largely  independent  of  the  underlying  native  rock  surface, 
which  is  of   itself  irregular  and  the  thickness  of   the  Drift  varying   from 


nothing  to  550  feet,  varies  both  from  irregularity  of  its  deposition  and 
irregularity  of  its  sulisequent  washings.  The  chief  constituent  of  the 
Drift  is  a  finely  laminated  clay,  the  Erie  Clay  of  the  earlier  geologists, 
containing  generally  more  or  less  sand,  gravel  and  boulders.  The 
latter  are  of  various  kinds  and  sizes  up  to  twenty  feet  in  diameter, 
many  of  them  being  smoothed  on  one  side  and  showing  straight  and 
nearlv  parallel  scratches  received  from  their  fellows  during  the  move- 
ments of  the  glaciers.  The  channels  of  the  larger  rivers  afford  the 
best  exhibition  of  these  boulders,  though  some  fields  contain  occasional 
outcroppings  of  them.  The  Drift  or  Till  is  best  seen,  for  study  of  its 
irregularlv  stratified  and  specially  washed  conditions,  in  the  precipitous 
banks  of  the  rivers  and  in  the  deeper  and  more  extensive  cuttings  for 
private  and  public  works.  Examination  of  a  goodly  number  of  small 
stones  found  in  different  later  washings  and  in  different  parts  of  the  Till, 
leads  to  the  conclusion  that  the  Laurentian  rocks  (  metamorjihic  rocks, 
those  intruded  or  foreign  to  Ohio  in  their  origin  and  brought  by  the 
glaciers)  are  most  numerous  in  the  upper  portions  of  the  Drift,  and  the 
sedimentary  rocks  (of  the  character  of  those  native  to  this  Basin)  pre- 
dominate in  the  lower  portions,  while  the  middle  portion  exhibits  a 
more   even   division   of   both   kinds.' 

Flowing  water  is  the  best  of  separators.  Wave  action  sejiarated 
the  sand  and  cast  much  of  it  upon  the  shores  of  the  glacial  lakes  and 
ba\s.  The  finer  material  of  the  Drift,  generally  free  from  sand  and 
much  of  it  known  as  Lacustrine  Clay,  settled  to  the  bottom  and  now 
forms  the  level  country  between  the  ridges  or  lake  and  bay  beaches. 

Another  form  of  clay,  more  delicately  assorted,  is  found  in  defined 
areas,  of  considerable  extent.  Its  character  is  attractive  on  account  of 
its  smooth  and  unctious  surface  when  cut  with  a  sharp  instrument;  its 
compactness,  being  susceptible  of  a  glass-like  polish;  its  great  tenacity 
when  wet  to  a  certain  consistency  ;  and  its  impalpableness,  being  suit- 
able as  a  fine  polishing  agent.  Its  color  is  generally  light  gray,  dark- 
ening a  little  on  exposure  to  the  air.  This  is  of  the  finest  comminutions 
of  the  glacial  grindings.  Its  chemic  composition  is  quite  like  that  of 
the  coarser  sediment  above  mentioned,  viz:  Silica  37.32  per  cent; 
Alumina  29.85;  Calcium  carbonate  15.00;  Combined  water  11.47; 
Ferric  oxid  4.52;    and  Magnesium  carbonate  1.84  per  cent.  (Dryer). 

The  Till,  or  Drift  in  general,  is  often  peculiar  in  its  arrangement, 

*  The  erratic  stones,  or  those  brought  from  a  trreat  distance  from  the  north  and  east  by  the  glaciers 
and  distributed  here,  are  denominated  chlorite  schist,  'inartzite  (  of  which  there  are  white,  gray  and 
flesh  colored),  Kneiss  (in  color  eray  to  pink,  with  less  mica  than  hornblende  \  and  greenstone.  Those 
belonging  to  the  Ohio  column  of  rocks  have  been  detached  from  the  upper  layers,  including  the  Ohio 
Shale  with  varying  size  nodules  of  crude  iron  pyrites,  or  iron  sulphid,  Corniferous  Limestone  with  some 
chert  or  impure  flint,  Waterlime  near  and  below  its  exposures,  and  some  Sylvania  Sandstone  near  the 
Michigan  line  in  Lucas  County,  Ohio.    See  Geologic  Chart,  pag-e  7. 


affording  cause   for  several   tfieories   regarding  tfie   mode  of   its   deposi- 
tion, none  of  which  is  entirely  satisfactory  to  all   geologists. 

Several  haltings  of  the  Maumee-Wabash  (lobe  of  the  last)  Glacier 
are  marked  by  Moraines  within,  bordering  on,  and  near  to  the  southern 
and  western  sides  of  this  Basin.  These  several  Moraines  were  probably 
each  deposited  by  the  glacier,  not  altogether  in  its  advance  movement 
but  when  arrested  in  its  recession  by  melting  by  a  return  for  a  time  of 
the  glacial  climate.  This  being  the  opinion,  they  will  be  mentioned  in 
the  order  of  their  formation  from  the  west  towards  the  east.  The 
Mississinewa  Moraine  lies  along  the  right  (  north  )  bank  of  the  river  of 
like  name,  and  the  Salamonie  Moraine  along  the  right  bank  of  the 
river  of  its  name.      North  of  the  Wabash  River  these  two  moraines  are 

Luokint;  soulh  of  west,  8th  June,  1902.  across  the  Valleys  of  Little  River  and  of  the  Wabash  one- 
half  mile  above  their  junction,  from  the  slope  of  the  Wabash  Aboite  Moraine  to  the  Salamonie  Moraine, 
See  Map,  pa^ie  '2H.     This  was  the  great  early  drainakre  channel  of  the  Maumee  Glacial  Lake. 

intimately  blended  with  a  moraine  of  the  Saginaw  Glacial  Lobe,  thus 
exhibiting  a  confused  Interlobate  Moraine.  The  culmination  of  this 
impingement  and  blending  is  seen  at  the  head  of  James  Lake  in 
Jamestown  Township,  Steuben  County,  Indiana,  and  eastward  there- 
from for  twenty  miles.  The  United  States  surveying  corps  erected  a 
column  near  the  northeastern  angle  of  this  high  point,  the  ground 
having  an  altitude  here  of  114L5  feet  above  the  sea  —  it  being  about 
the  highest  point  in  Indiana;  and  northeast  in  Hillsdale  Countv,  Mich- 
igan, near  Reading,  is  the  highest  point  in  the  lower  peninsula  of 
Michigan.  The  Grass  Lake  region  to  the  west  of  these  points  is 
thought  to  mark  the  boundary  between  the  Mississinewa  and  the  Sag- 
inaw Moraines,  but  no  distinctness  exists.  The  western  slope  of  this 
Interlobate  Moraine  drains  into  the  St.  Joseph  River  of  Lake  Michigan, 
and  the  eastern  slope  north  of  Allen  County,  Indiana,  drains  into   the 



St.  Joseph  River  of  the  Maumee  Basin.  The  next  moraine  to  the 
eastward  is  the  Wabash-Aboite  Moraine,  lying  along  the  north  (right) 
bank  of  the  headwaters  of  the  Wabash  'River  and,  from  St.  Marys, 
Ohio,  northwestward,  forming  the  southwestern  boundary  of  the 
Maumee  River  Basin.  North  of  Fort  Wayne  this  moraine  lies  west  of 
the  St.  Joseph  River  into  which  it  drains.  The  most  prominent  parts 
of  the  Wabash-Aboite  Moraine  are  near  the  line  between  Hillsdale  and 
Branch  Counties,  Michigan,  and   the  two  tiers  of  the  eastern  townships 

The  Crest  of  Moraine  dividing  the  Headwaters  of  llie  River  St.  Joseph  of  the  Maumee  from  those 
of  the  St.  Joseph  of  Lake  Michit'an,  between  Hillsdale  Cit,v  and  Bankers  Villat-e.  Michiiian,  Lookjnii 
soiitltwest,  6th  June,  1902.  In  addition  to  the  Stone  Fence  alone  the  Public  Hiyhway  in  tlie  foretiround. 
two  others  are  seen  dividint;  the  fields  in  the  distance.  These  fences  are  composed  of  t'ranite  boulders 
fathered  from  the  Glacial  Till  here.  A  small  section  of  country  here  and  another  in  Steuben  County. 
Indiana,  are  the  only  parts  of  this  Basin  where  such  Stones  can  be  found  in  sufficient  quantities  for 

of  Steuben  County,  Indiana.  The  irregularity  and  variety  of  the 
physical  features  of  these  chief  morainic  regions  invest  them  with  much 
of  beauty  and  charm.  The  numerous  lakes  —  over  one  hundred  on  the 
map  of  Steuben  County  alone  —  varying  in  size,  depth  and  setting,  and 
abounding  with  fish  of  good  quality,  often  with  good  bottoms  for  bath- 
ing, with  pure  atmosphere  and  wholesome  material  surroundings, 
make  this  otherwise  interesting  morainic  region  a  healthful  and  choice 
summer  resort  which  will  become  more  and  more  appreciated  as  the 
years  go  by. 


These  lakes  resulted  from  the  irregular  depositions  of  the  glacial 
clay  till,  leaving  ridges  and  depressions.  Where  the  till  or  wash  was 
of  a  gravelly  or  sandy  character,  permitting  the  waters  of  wet  season 
to  percolate,  the  depressions  are  dry.  Occasionally  kettle  holes'  or 
drv,  round  holes  are  seen."^  One  th<*ory  of  their  formation  is  the 
grounding  of  clear  icebergs  or  fragments  of  the  glacier,  and  the  wash- 
ing" and  forming  of  the  gravel  and  sand  around  them  to  so  remain 
after  the  melting  of  the  ice.  The  obliteration  of  glacial  ponds  and 
lakes  of  clav  or  non-leaking  bottoms  bv  washings,  bv  the  encroachmt'nt 




JSk^.  .„_ 


- "  1. 1  .•■  •■■'  ■■  ■"  '.'',■■■ 

L. -'^-i-^^ 

-'     .1 



A  Vicnv  of  Commingled  Moraines  June  tUli,  11HI2,  lonkinn  noitli  in  the  nnrtluvest  ]iat  t  nf  \'o[-k  Tuwn- 
sliip,  Steuben  County,  Indiana.  The  tree  at  the  Crest  to  the  right  of  the  Road,  one  and  three-fourths 
miles  distant,  is  at  Page  Postofifice.  beyond  which  the  drainage  is  into  the  River  St.  Joseph  of  Lake 

and  decay  of  vegetation  and  the  formation  of  peat,  with  other  of 
Nature's  accumulations,  is  a  subject  of  interesting  study.  The  moraines 
}'et  afford  many  instructive  illustrations  of  Nature's  ways  of  forming, 
and  reforming,  such  features  of  the  earth.  The  last  stage  of  such  lakes 
is  often  a  cranberry  marsh  or  a  tamarack  swamp.  The  areas  of  differ- 
ent lakes  are  now  undergoing  the  final  stages  of  transformation  into 
excellent  farms  in  Farmer  and  Milford  Townships,  Defiance  Countv, 
Ohio.      In  some  of  these   small   lakes  of   great   depth,  a  great   length  of 

*  Kettle  holes  may  yet  be  seen  in  the  St.  Joseph  Moraine,  particularly  in  the  southwestern  part  of 
Williams  County.  Ohio. 



time  is  necessary  for  the  solidifying  by  nature's  process  of  the  deep 
strata  of  the  filling.  The  companies  building  railways  over  and  along 
these  moraines  have  encountered  'sink  holes'  which  required  great 
quantities  of  gravel  and  earth  to  be  deposited  for  the  necessary  stability 
of  the  tracks.  The  builders  of  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railway  through 
Eastern  Indiana,  met  with  such  difficulty  in  1873,  those  of  the  Wabash 
Railway  near  Montpelier,  Ohio,  in  1901,  and  the  other  companies  were 
anno}'ed  more  or  less  at  the  time  of  their  building.  It  has  even  been 
thought  necessary  to  change  the  line  and  build  on  one  side  of  the 
sink  hole.' 

The  first    moraine   fully  within  this   Basin,   and   which    has    been 
probabh'    improperly   called  the    Terminal  Moraine,   is   the   St.    Mary- 

Clear  Lake,  Clear  Lake   Townsliip.  Steuben  County,    Indiana.     Looking   north   of  west  6th   June, 
1902,  in  the  rain.     There  are  summer  hotels  on  the  Commin^jled  Moraine  of  the  distant  shore. 

St.  Joseph  Moraine,  lying  along  the  right  (north)  bank  of  the  River  St. 
Mary,  and  along  the  left  (south)  bank  of  the  River  St.  Joseph.  In 
Hillsdale,  and  part  of  Lenawee  County,  Michigan,  it  is  blended  with 
the  Saginaw  Moraine  before  mentioned,  and  forms  the  beginning  of  the 
Interlobate  Moraine  that  increases  in  volume  to  the  southwestward.* 
The  next  moraine  to  the  east  is  the  Defiance  Moraine  with  northern 
point  near  Adrian,  Michigan,  curving  southwestward  and  forming  the 
eastern  side  of  the  Valley  of  the  Tiffin  River.  It  is  cut  through  at  the 
apex  of  its  curve  by  the  Maumee  River  three  miles  below  Defiance, 
and  thence  curves  southeastward  forming  the  east  valley  of  the  lower 
Auglaize  River  and,  eastward,  the  north  valley  of  the  Blanchard  River. 

*  For  a  more  detailed    description  of  these    moraines  see  Dr.  Charles  R.  Dryer's  survey  in  the 
ixteenth  Report  of  Indiana  Geology,  page  119  e(.  set;. 



All  of  these  moraines  are  nearly  ^parallel,  and  much  curved  with  the 
concave  sides  to  the  eastward,  facing  the  direction  of  the  advent  and 
departure  of  the  glacier.  At  the  northern  inlets  of  Maumee  Bay,  in 
the  northern  part  of  the  Basin,  is  the  point  of  a  small  moraine  extend- 
ing northward,  being  parallel  outside  the  Basin  to  a  like  moraine. 
Reference  to  figures  on  the  map  on  page  'IH  will  show  the  altitudes  of 
these  moraines,  and  of  many  of  the  intervening  parts.  The  highest 
point  is  568  feet  above   Lake   Erie   at  a   distance   from    Maumee  Bay  of 

Hamilton  ( Fish )  Lake,  Olsetio  Township,  Steuben  County,    Indiana.      Looking    northwest  from 
top  of  tobocEan  slide  at  Cold  Sprintr.  early  and  wet  mornint-  7th  June.  1902.     Moraine  on  distant  shore. 

75  miles  in  direct  line;  but  the  waters  of  this  high  point  flow 
three  times  this  distance  or  more.  The  approach  to  the  moraines  is  of 
such  gradual  ascent  that  they  scarcely  impress  the  traveler  —  in  fact 
the  average  traveler  crosses  and  recrosses  the  moraines  within  the 
Basin  without  thought  of  the  elevation  or,  at  most,  of  there  being  but 
'a  slight  ridge.'  The  crest  of  the  several  moraines  vary  materially-  in 
their  width.  A  popular  public  road  'the  evolution  of  an  early  trail 
through  the  forest)  still  winds  along  the  crest  of  the  Defiance  Moraine 
for  much  of  its  exteqt,  both  north  and  south  of  the  Maumee  River,  and 
is    commonh'    known    as    the    North   and   the    South    Ridge    Road.      In 



places  along  this  crest  the  ground  declines  perceptibly  from  both  sides 
of  the  narrow  roadway,  but  in  most  of  its  course  the  travelers'  view  is 
over  a  level  country.'  A  continuous  series  of  undulations,  of  very 
moderate  variation  in  altitude,  exist  in  the  St.  Joseph  Moraine  and 
still  higher  on  the  watershed  west  of  the  St.  Joseph  River,  and  to 
lesser  heights  in  other  moraines  within  the  Basin;  but  the  inequalities 
are  more  marked  to  the  northwest  just  without  these  limits.  The  soil 
of  these  moraines  is  very  fertile.  It  is  generallv  of  sandy  loam,  and 
quick  to   res]iond   to   the   worthy   husbandman's  efforts   with   bounteous 

Luokim;  south  at  Bankers,  Cambria  Townshiu  Hillsdale  County.  Miciiiuan.  Jnne  tl,  I'.Xli.  Bit;  Bear 
Lake,  one  of  the  sources  of  the  River  St.  Joseph.  cHmpsed  in  the  distance.  The  middle  ground  shows 
vegetation  that  is  fast  encroachine  upon  and  tiHini.  in  the  upper  part  of  this  lake.  The  greatest  altitude 
in  lower  Michigan  is  but  a  few  miles  to  the  rifht. 

returns.  It  is  of  a  good  degree  of  thickness,  easy  to  cultivate,  not 
prone  to  wash  away  and,  on  account  of  the  favorable  subsoil,  it  never 
misses  a  crop.  In  wet  seasons  the  surplus  water  readily  disperses, 
largely  through  the  subsoil,  and  in  seasons  of  drouth  the  ground  water 
is  well  attracted  to  the  needs  of  vegetation.  Proper  underdraining  and 
tilling  are  rapidly  producing  these  favorable  and  certain  results  in  the 
more  distinctive  clay  soils  of  all  levels. 

There  are,  further,  some  ridge  and  mound   formations  bv  the  last 
glacier,  or  deposited   in  and  by  its  crevicing  or  its   supra  or  sub-water- 



ways,  called  osars  or  eskars,  and  kames.'''  A  numbt-r  of  these  interest- 
ing formations  are  found  on  the  westerly  part  of  the  St.  Mary  Moraine 
and  near  its  southwestern  border.  The  first  eskar  to  be  mentioned 
forms  the  western  wall  of  the  Six-Mile  Creek  Gap  in  Section  l."i,  Adams 
Township,  Allen  County,  Indiana.!  It  is  composed  of  gravel  in  anti- 
clin?.l  stratification,  is  20  feet  high,  about  330  feet  wide,  and  half  a  mile 
long.  An  eskar  and  kame  are  situated  on  the  crest  of  the  St.  Marv 
Moraine  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  City  of  Fort  Wayne.  The  eskar 
was  a  broad,  sandy  ridge  extending  from  the  east  line  of  Section  7, 
Adams  Township,  westward  one  and-  a  quarter  miles.  The  freight 
yards  of  the  Penns^'lvania  Railroad  occupy  a  leveled  portion  of  it. 
The  kame  is  just  west  of  this  point  and  rises  conically  to  a  height  of 
30   feet.      A    little    to    the    north    of    this   eskar,    and   parallel  with    it,  is 

Lony  Lake.  lookiriL' north  of  oa^^t   tioin   Cioar    Lake   Township.    Steuben   (.ount.v,    Indiana,    to   the 
Michigan  shore,  Hillsdale  County.  0th  June.  ]9<>3.     This  lake  is   near   the   highest   altitude   in  these  two 

another  of  symmetrical  form  and  one-fourth  mile  in  length.  Another 
extends  from  near  the  crossing  of  the  River  St.  Mary  by  the  N.  Y.,  C. 
&  St.  L.  Railwa\-  (the  'Nickel  Plate'.)  to  the  southward  one  and  one- 
half  miles  as  a  massive  ridge.  It  has  been  much  excavated  as  a  gravel 
supply.  Another  rises  30  feet  as  the  west  river  bank  and  curves  and 
branches   irregularly  across    the   Allen    Countv    Infirmary   farm    to   the 

"^  There  has  been  much  confusion  in  tiie  use  of  these  names,  and  mucn  discussion  recardint:  the 
process  of  formation  of  the  prominences  thus  named.  Qsar  is  the  old  European  name  for  ridges  of 
gravel  and  sand  of  varying  lengths  that  cannot  be  attributed  to  the  action  wholly  of  the  ice,  or  to  the 
action  of  running  water  without  aid  similar  to  that  a  glacier  might  afford,  nor  to  the  wave  action  of 
a  lake.  Eskar  is  the  term  latterly  used  by  geologists  to  the  displacement  of  osar.  A  mound  or  conical 
prominence  constructed  by  the  glacial  streams,  generally  in  immediate  relation  to  the  edge  of  the 
ice,  is  the  later  signification  of  the  term  kame. 

t  See  account  of  the  survey  of  Dr.  Charles  R.  Dryer  in  the  Sixteenth  Report  of  Indiana  Geology. 
page  116. 



southward,  a  mile  in  length.  Several  other  eskars  are  discernible  in 
this  vicinity;  and  associated  with  this  series  are  several  small  island- 
like  prominences  in  the  broad  drainat^e  channel  of  the  Maumee  Glacial 
Lake  through  which  the  Wabash  Railway,  and  electric  cars,  run  south- 
westward  from  P'ort  Wayne.  On  the  largest  of  these  prominences, 
known  as  Fox  Island,  is  the  most  symmetrical  and  graceful  eskar  of 
this  system.  It  is  curved  like  the  letter  S.  in  slighter  degree,  and 
is  three-c]uarters  of  a  mile  in  length.  It  is  25  feet  in  height  and  its 
sides  are  'as  steep  as  sand  can  be  piled.' 

t  ir't  "i  llie  St.  Joseph  Moraine.  Looking;  west  in  the  west  pai  t  of  Hicksville  Towiisliii).  Ut-liance 
County,  Ohio.  30th  October.  1902.  Showing  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railway  tracks  as  lowered  durint; 
the  years  1900-01-02.     A  very  fertile  country. 

A  very  interesting  serpentine  eskar  is  situated  in  Highland  Town- 
ship, Defiance  County,  Ohio,  six  miles  southeast  of  the  City  of  Defiance 
and  one  mile  south  of  the  hamlet  of  Ayersville.  This  is  the  most 
extensive  in  the  Basin.  It  is  named  Highland  Eskar  by  the  writer.  It 
was  formed  in  part  by  direct  deposit  by  the  .glacier,  and  by  the  running 
water  in  the  melting  glacier  at  the  time  the  Defiance  Moraine  wa's  laid  ; 
and  it  is  now  a  much  more  prominent  feature  of  the  landscape  than 
anv  part  of  the  moraine  in  its  vicinity,  which  has  suffered  materialh' 
from    washings. 

When  the  Maumee  Glacial   Lake  had  receded  to  have  the  Defiance 


Moraine  for  its  westurn  and  southern  shore,  the  northwestern,  western, 
southwestern  sides  of  the  Highland  Eskar  were  washed  liy  the  Defiance 
Bay,  and  its  northeast  side  faced  the  connection  of  this  Bay  with  the 
Lake,  it  lieing  a  prominent  island  in  other  words,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Bay.  Its  northern  end  lies  one-fourth  mile  in  the  southwestern  quar- 
ter of  Section  10,  extending  to  the  south  line  of  this  Section  where 
the  public  road  rises  to  and  follows  its  crest  eastward  and  southward 
for  three-fourths  mile  across  the  northwest  quarter  of  Section  15,  and 
the  northeast  quarter  of  Section  14,  where  it  turns  south  and  extends 
one-half  mile,  and  then  turns  southwest,  ending  beyond  the  south  i^iart 
of  these  Sections  and  along  the  line  between  them.  Its  length  is 
about  two  miles.      Its  highest   part  is  35  to  40  feet  in  the  northern  third 









Mf!    '^:     .  -^  \\k 



■  ■  ""^^iifflii'? 


--.1  -  '  ■     "'1 J 












Defiance  Moraine  Glen,  in  north  bank  of  the  Mauniee  Water   Gap.  thruu  niilcc,  ca^t*ul   tliu  .City  of 
Defiance,  lookint;  north,  15th  October,  1901. 

of  its  length.  It  is  generally  narrow  in  body,  and  ridge,  so  narrow  in 
places  that  there  is  just  width  enough  for  the  public  road  tliat  winds 
along  its  ridge  the  entire  extent,  excepting  the  north  one-fourth  mile. 
There  are  six  farm  residences,  with  the  other  usual  farm  buildings, 
occupied  by  old  settlers  or  their  descendants,  along  the  crest  of  High- 
land Eskar;  also  a  Freewill  Baptist  church  building  with  its  churchyard 
cemetery.  The  base  of  this  eskar  is  composed  of  clay  to  varying 
heights  above  the  level  surrounding  country  overlain  with  gravel,  and 
then  with  sandy  loam  of  great  fertility,  affording  the  best  of  gardens  and 
small  orchards  on  its  crest  and  sides.  Wells  have  been  made  on  its 
sides  near  the  base  and  supply  good  water  at  a  depth  of  12  to  14  feet  ; 
and  at  its  northern  end  there  is  a  spring  of  excellent  water  which  is  not 
exhausted  in  dry  seasons.  Excavations  on  this  eskar  have  brought  to 
view  parts  of  trees  and  other  vegetation  that  quickly  crumbled   to  dust 



on  exposure  to  the  air,  evidencing;'  their  burial  in  tlu-  remote  past, 
probably  at  the  time  of  the  formation  of  the  eskar.  The  views  from 
the  crest  of  this  eskar  in  all  directions  are  over  well-tilled  and  highly 
fertile  farms,  bri};htened  with  comfortable  homes,  on  the  'elm'  lands 
that  were  formerly  the  bottom  of   the  Maumee  Glacial    Lake,  and    later, 

Map  of  Hiphland  Eskar  in  the  Mouth  of  Defiance  Glacial  Bay  at  the  Ancient  Water  Gap  in  the 
Defiance  Moraine,  six  miles  southeast  of  the  City  of  Defiance.  The  squares  are  Land  Sections,  each 
one  mile  square,  in  northeast  Hiiihland  Township.     The  dots  mark  the  situation  of  houses. 

of  Defiance  Bay,  from  the  waters  of  which  the  rich  soil  was  deposited. 
Thus,  in  the  ideal  topography  of  this  Maumee  River  Basin,  and  in 
the  due  admixture  of  the  best  of  soil  ingredients,  so  commingled  and 
conditioned  in  its  Drift  as  to  retain  their  vitality'  from  dissii)ation  by 
undue  oxidation,  washing,  or  leeching,  do  we  realize  the  beneficent 
results  of  its  Glaciation. 

The  Hichland  Eskar  in  northeast  Hiiihland  Township.   Defiance   County.   Ohio.     Looking  south 
26th  October,  1901. 



Evidences    of    Prehisthrh'   Man  —  the  Aborigines   as   First  Seen. 

The  American  or  WustL-rn  Continent  has  been  designated  by  good 
authority*  as  the  oldest  of  continents:  and  the  aboriginal  man  in 
America  has  been  classed  among  the  Mongoloids,  or  earliest  of  people, 
antedating  Adam.T 

There  have  been  many  speculations  and  theories  regarding  the 
length  of  time  that  man  has  existed.  The  earliest  Stone  Age  in 
Europe  has  been  recorded  +  as  beginning  probably  more  than  1(10,000 
years  in  the  past,  and  juThaps  many  hundred  thousand  years. 
Other  writers  regard  the  beginning  of  the  first  Stone  as  probably 
not  earlier  than  4400  to  ."lOOO  years  ago,  but  admit  that  man  probably 
existed  prior  to  that  time  and    left  no  evidence  of   his  handiwork. 

The  existence  of  man  before,  or  during  the  Glacial  Period,  has  been 
quite  well  established  in  the  opinion  of  many  scientists,  both  by  the 
discovery  of  his  fossilized  bones  and  of  stone  implements  of  his  shap- 
ing buried  in  the  Glacial  Drift.  It  is  very  seldom  that  fossilized  bones 
of  any  animal  are  found  notwithstanding  the  myriads  of  mankind,  and 
of  larger  lower  animals  that  have  existed  through  the  multiple  ages. 
This  is  not  strange  when  the  facility  of  their  destruction,  and  the 
exacting  conditions  of   Nature    for   their   preservation,  are   considered. § 

•  Louis  Agassiz  in  the  Atlantic  Monthly,  vol.  \i,  pace  :)73  ;  Geological  Sketches,  page  1. 

t  Preadamites.  by  Professor  Alexander  VVinchell.  LL.  D.,  paj:es  66,  304. 

t  Haeckel's  Natuerliche  Schoep  ungsgeschichte.  pane  595.    Preadamites.  431. 

SThe  process  of  fossilization,  or  chancinc  to  stone,  consists  in  the  replacement  and  solidification  of 
each  cell  with  minute  particles  of  calcium  or  silica  which  are  held  in  solution  by  the  water  coverinc  the 
bones.  This  process  is  one  of  Nature's  very  slow,  delicate,  and  all-exactinc  methods  of  preserving  the 
oreanic  form  while  replacing  or  modifying  the  organic  structure  of  very  hard  tissues.  Soft  tissues  can- 
not become  petrified  on  account  of  their  ready  putrefaction. 

Casts  of  the  human  form  are  sometimes  made  by  the  body  being  rapidly  encased  in  fine  lava  or 
inaterial  that  readily  adapts  itself  to  the  form  and  quickly  hardens.  A  mold  is  thus  formed  which  may 
become  filled  by  a  semifluid  that  will  harden.  Casts  have  thus  been  made  in  the  oldest  molds  found  — 
those  at  Pompeii  of  persons,  and  dogs,  overwhelmed  by  the  volcanic  eruption  of  Mount  Vesuvius  in 
A.  D.  49. 

Also  in  favoring  conditions  of  temperature,  moisture  and  ingredients,  the  soft  parts  of  an  animal 
body  may  become  changed  to  adipocere  iadeps.  fat,  and  cere,  wax),  or  ammonia  margarate.  An  occa- 
sional human  body,  exhumed  after  a  few  score  years  for  burial  elsewhere,  has  been  found  in  this  con- 
dition—the most  notable  instances  being  at  the  Cemetery  of  the  Innocents.  Paris,  in  1786-87.  and  later 
in  New  York  City,  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  that  city  yet  possessing  the  body.  There 
is,  also,  a  later  specimen  of  this  character  in  the  Wistar  Museum  of  Comparative  Anatomy  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia.  These  specimens,  however,  possess  nothing  of  stony  hardness 
and  are  crumbling.  Comparatively  few  fossilized  bones  have  been  found,  which  proves  that  even  the 
hardest  parts  of  mankind  and  the  lower  animals  generally  return  to  their  native  elements  with  great 


The  most  important  discoveries  vet  made  of  this  character  are  as 
follows:  A  human  skull  found  in  a  cave  at  Engis  near  Liege,  Bel- 
gium, in  1833,  and  a  like  skull  found  in  iS'iT  by  workmen  in  a  lime- 
stone quarrv  in  the  valley  of  the  Neander"^  a  small  stream  near  Diissel- 
dorf,  Germany,  which  have  become  known  as  the  Engis  and  the 
Neanderthal   skulls. 

Part  of  a  human  skull  was  found  in  February,  1866,  in  gold-bearing- 
gravel  in  Sonora  Table  Mountain,  Calaveras  County,  California;  and  it 
is  thereby  known  to  archaeologists  as  the  Calaveras  Skull.  Other 
human  bones,  and  stone  implements  chipped  by  man,  were  also 
found  in  this  deposit  of  gravel  which  Prof.  Josiah  D.  Whitney  classed 
in  the  Pliocene  of  the  Tertiary  age.t  Some  of  the  geologists  of  the 
United  States  Survey,  however,  have  classed  these  gravels  in  the 
Quarternary    Period. 

Other  ancient  remains  have  been  recorded  in  this  species  of  evi- 
dence in  different  countries,  including  different  parts  of  America:  but  it 
should  be  admitted  that  most  of  them  have  not  well  withstood  the  tests 
of  scientific  investigation.  Human  footprints  have,  also,  been  found 
indelibh-  impressed  and  hardened  in  Post- Pliocene  stratum,  one  of  the 
most  noted  being  found  in  Nicaragua.  + 

The  most  numerous,  and  the  most  probable  of  the  evidences  thus 
far  discovered  of  man's  existence  in  the  Glacial  Period,  however,  are 
stone  implements  that  were  moved  and  covered  by  a  glacier.  The 
observing  and  persevering  archaeologist,  M.  Boucher  de  Perthes,  dis- 
covered during  the  years  1841  and  subsecjuently,  chipped  stones  which 
were  evidently  shaped  by  man  for  cutting  purposes.  These  rude 
knives  were  found  in  glacial  gravel  which  had  apparentl\'  remained 
undisturbed  since  the  ice  placed  it  on  a  high  terrace  in  the  valley  of 
the  River  Somme  at  Abbeville,  North  France.  The  sciences  of 
geology  and  anthropology  were  then  in  their  infancy,  and  the  branch 
archasolog\'  had  then  hardly  a  beginning. 

Account  of  these  implements  and  of  the  depths  at  which  they  were 
found,  were  published  by  their  discoverer  in  1847,  and  additional 
accounts  of  the  discoveries  by  his  iiu])il.  Doctor  Regillot,  of  Amiens, 
were  soon  thereafter  given  to  scientists  :  but  it  was  not  until  1858-59 
that  other  French  and  English  geologists  visited  this  locality  and 
became  convinced  of  the  jirobablx'  true  character  of  the  implements 
and  of  the  stratum  in  which  they  were  found.  This  conjoined  inves- 
tigation and  discussion  led  to  a  more  enlightened  search  and  to  addi- 
tional discoveries  elsewhere.      Peculiar  stones   that   had    been   found    in 

*  See  Dr.  Schwalbe's  lecture  mentioned  in  the  American  Review  of  Reviews.  Jan.  1904,  p.  111. 
t  Memoirs  of  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  of  Harvard  University,  vol.  vi. 
i  American  Philosophical  Society's  Proceedings,  xxiv.  1887,  page  4:^7. 


England  in  the  iHth  century  and  preserved  with  the  bones  of  an  extinct 
species  of  elephant  were,  upon  reconsideration,  declared  to  be  palaeo- 
lithic, or  palanthropic,    or   shaped    by  man    in    the   earliest   Stone   Age. 

In  April,  1873,  Dr.  Charles  C.  Abbot  discovered  similarly  formed 
knives  in  the  glacial  gravel  at  Trenton,  New  Jersey,*  and  later  finds 
in  the  same  jilace  have  been  j)ublished  by  him  and  by  others. t  The 
correctness  of  the  published  deductions  regarding  the  age  of  these 
implements  has  been  doubted,  however,  hv  different  writers.  + 

The  first  evidence  thought  to  be  decisive  of  the  presence  of  man 
in  Ohio  previous  to,  or  during  the  Ice  Age,  was  found  in  October,  1885, 
by  Dr.  Charles  L.  Metz,  at  Madisonville,  eight  feet  below  the  surface 
in  the  gravel  of  the  Little  Miami  River  Valley  one  mile  back  from  the 
river  terrace.  This  find  is  a  crudely  shaped  black-fiint  knife  about  the 
size  and  form  of  one  of  the  same  material  found  at  Trenton,  above 
mentioned.  Doctor  Metz  found  another  knife  in  b^HT,  thirty  feet  below 
the  surface  in  coarser  undisturbed  gravel  one-fourth  mile  from  the  river 
at  Loveland,  Ohio,  twenty-five  miles  above  Madisonville.  Petrified 
bones  of  a  mastodon  were  also  found  in  the  immediate  vicinity  :  and 
the  contiguity  of  similar  fossils  and  relics  m  othir  localities  are  con- 
sidered in  favor  of  the  validity  of  the  evidence  that  man  existed  in  the 
same  geologic  era  as  the  mastodon. 

In  189(3  a  grooved  axe  was  found  by  a  well  digger  near  New 
London,  Huron  County,  Ohio,  twenty-two  feet  below  the  surface  of 
the  ground,  under  thirteen  feet  of   tough  cla\'.§ 

Since  the  year  1887,  numerous  other  like  implements  have  been 
found  in  Ohio  and  other  States  under  conditions  thought  b\'  their  dis- 
coverers to  be  Well  authenticated  for  their  great  antiquity,  even  beyond 
the  Ice  Age.  Great  care  is  necessary,  however,  that  articles  of  later 
prehistoric  times,  and  even  those  chipped  and  artificiallj;  '  weathered  ' 
in  the  present  generation,  be  not  sold,  and  recorded,  by  imposters  and 
incompetent  judges,  to  the  confusion  of  legitimate  and  commendable 
efforts.  Careful  and  well-attested  description  of  the  conditions  sur- 
rounding every  implement   of   unusual   character  found   should   be   sent 

*  The  American  Naturalist,  vol.  \ii.  pace  "204  ;  vol.  x.  paue  329.     Winsor  vol.  i,  patie  38:1 

t  Tenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Trustees  of  the  Psabody  Museum  of  American  Archaeology  and 
Ethnology,  vol.  ii.  pat^e^  3it.  22rt.    Winsor's  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America,  i,  834. 

I  See  the  American  Journal  of  Anthropology  1^92  ;  Science.  November.  1H92  ;  Journal  of 
Geology,  1893;  The  Meeting  Place  of  Geology  and  History,  1894,  wherein  William  H.  Holmes  and 
Sir  J.  William  Dawson  claim  that  the  evidence  of  age  is  not  satisfactory  from  a  geological  point  of 
view,  as  the  implements  found  at  Trenton  were  not  taken  from  undisturbed  gravel,  but  from  a  talus  of 
loose  debris  ;  and  that  they  resemble  the  rougher  tools  and  rejectamenta  of  the  descendants  of  the 
aborigines.  The  trustees  of  the  Carnegie  Institution  made  a  grant  of  $20(X1  in  19t)3  to  the  Director  of  the 
Bureau  of  .American  Ethnology,  Washington,  for  further  investigation  regarding  the  early  history  of  man 
in  America.     See  Year  Booli :    also  Science,  December  2."),  1903, 

Si  See  the  American  Geologist,  November,  1896,  and  the  Fifth  Annual  Report  of  the  Ohio  State 
Academy  of  Science. 



with  the  implement,  to  the  nearest  University  possessing  a  well-ordered 
department  of  archaeology,  and  every  facility  should  be  afforded  the 
chief  of  this  department  for  his  personal  investigation. 

There  are  in  the  writer's  collection  of  prehistoric  imjalements  a 
number  of  rudely  chipped  flint  knives  which  exhibit  on  their  surface 
the  evidence  of  great  age,'^  and  which  are  not  unlike  in  appearance  the 
palaeoliths,  or  palanthrops,  mentioned  above.  The  accompanying 
engraving  shows  one  of  them  of  medium  size.  They  have  been  found 
in  different  parts  of  the  Maumee  River  Basin,  some  of  them  not  widelv 
separated  from  fossil  remains  of  the  mastodon  :  but  the  character  of 
their  surroundings  when  found  are  not  sufficiently  attested  to  warrant 
their  classification  as  belonging  to  the  Age  of   Ice. 

Prehistoric    Flint    Knife,    full    i=ize.     Found    in    the    Maumee    River    Basin.     It    resembles   some   of   the 

'  Palffioliths.'     Author's   Collection. 

While  excavating  a  tunnel  into  the  loess  of  the  Missouri  River 
Valle}'  in  February,  1902,  near  Lansing,  Kansas,  remains  of  two  human 
skeletons  were  found,  one  of  which  being  better  preserved  is  treasured 
as  of  great  archaeological  value.  Warren  Upham,  in  the  magazine 
Records  of  the  Past  for  September,  1902,  vol.  i,  page  273,  estimates 
the  age  of  this  skeleton  at  12,000  years,  which  he  regards  "as  no  more 
than  an  eighth  part  of  the  whole  duration  of  the  Ice  Age  in  its  success- 

*  The  degree  of  weathering  or  chanpe  produced  b.v  time  in  flint,  ordinary  stones,  or  in  any  article 
may  and  generally  does  depend  upon  the  character  of  the  article  itself,  the  dryness,  moisture,  heat,  cold' 
lime,  soda,  sulphur,  atmosphere,  or  other  surroundings  and  conditions  to  which  it  has  been  subjected' 
When  conditions  are  favorable  there  may  be  little  if  any  change,  consequently  the  condition  of  an 
article  does  not  necessarily  signify  the  time  that  has  elapsed  since  it  was  shaped  or  used  by  man.  The 
character  of  the  substance  of  the  article  itself,  its  form,  the  character  of  its  surroundings  and  the  proba- 
ble changes  that  have  occurred  in  them  if  any,  should  all  be  taken  into  the  estimation. 


ive  Alberton,  Aftonian,  Kansan,  Helvetian  (or  Buchanan),  lowan  and 
Wisconsin  stages.  ...  It  can  scarcely  be  so  little  as  10,000  years, 
and  may  indeed,  according  to  estimates  by  other  glacialists  for  the  date 
of  the  lowan  stage,  have  been  even  20,000  years,  or  more.  At  the 
most,  it  can  be  only  a  small  fraction  of  the  antiquity  of  man  in  Europe, 
where  he  seems  surely  to  have  been  coeval  with  the  beginning  of  the 
Ice  Age."  T.  C.  Chamberlin,  in  the  American  Journal  of  Geology 
for  October  and  November,  1902,  accords  this  Lansing  skeleton  'a  very 
respectable  antiquity,  but  much  short  of  the  close  of  the  glacial  inva- 
sion.' W.  H.  Holmes,  in  the  American  Anthropologist  for  October- 
December,  1902,  also  ])laces  these  remains  in  the  Post-Glacial  Age.  In 
the  April,  1903,  Records  of  the  Past,  George  Frederick  Wright  states 
that  "while  the  glacial  age  of  this  skeleton  may,  therefore,  be  confidently 
accepted,  it  should  be  kept  constantly  in  mind,  for  the  relief  of  the 
anthropologist,  that  there  is  increasing  evidence  that  the  closing  stages 
of  the  Glacial  period  in  North  America  did  not  long  precede  that  of 
the  high  stages  of  civilization  brought  to  light  bv  recent  explorations 
in  Babylonia.  Hilprecht  and  others  would  carry  that  date  back  to 
9000  or  10,000  years,  which  would  be  within  3000  years  of  the  date 
assigned  by  Mr.  Upham  to  the  deposition  of  the  lowan  loess."* 
In  September,  1902,  the  engineers  in  charge  of  the  construction 
of  the  St.  Louis  Belt  Railway,  found  a  granite  axe  five  inches  long  and 
three  and  one-half  inches  wide,  three-quarters  grooved  and  well  finished, 
under  fourteen  feet  of  loess,  a  half  mile  northwest  of  Clayton,  Missouri. 
Cyrus  A.  Peterson,  M.  D.,  who  describes  and  pictures  this  axe  in  the 
Records  of  the  Past  for  January,  1903,  regards  this  discover}'  as  evi- 
dence of  the  preglacial  existence  of  man  and  his  advancement  in 

Prehistoric    Mounds    of    Earth. 

Europeans,  upon  their  advent  into  the  Maumee  River  Basin,  found 
little  beside  the  wandering  Aborigines,  the  wild  animals,  and  other  pro- 
ducts of  Nature,  to  attract  their  attention,  or  to  stimulate  investigation. 
As  the  years  passed,  bringing  an  ever  increasing  population  and  the 
clearing  of  the  forest,  some  persons  there  were  who  recognized  in  cer- 
tain tumuli,  or  mounds,  the  work  of  a  people  of  whom  the  Aborigines, 
as  seen  at  the  beginning  of  the  written  records  of  the  region,  knew 
nothing,  even  by  tradition.  These  mounds  of  earth,  a  very  few  crude 
articles  sometimes  found  therein,  and  stone  weapons,  implements,  and 
ornaments,  in  use  when  the  existing  Aborigines  were  discovered  by 
Europeans,  constitute  all  the  works  of  man  of  a  prehistoric  character 
that  have  been  discovered  in  this  region. 

*  See  also  proceedings  of  the  Congress  of  Americanists.  New  York  meeting,  1903  ;  of  the  Amer- 
ican Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  ;  the  Pooiiar  S:/snC3  Monthly  ioT  March.  1903;  ar.d 
N.  H.  Winchell  in  the  Bulletin  of  the  Geological  Society  of  America,  1903. 



Different  writers  fiave  estimated  the  number  of  prehistoric  earth 
mounds  In  Ohio  at  from  ten  to  thirteen  thousand.  Probalily  the 
authentic  number,  great  as  it  certainly  is,  is   not    so    large   as  this. 

By  far  the  larger  number  of  these  mounds  are  situated  in  the 
southern  portion  of  the  State.  They  were  probably  made  for  differ- 
ent uses:  for  burials,  for  defense,  and  perhaps,  for  religious  cere- 
monies. Many  are  large  and  required  great  labor  in  their  construction 
which  may  have  been  performed  by  prisoners  of  war  subjected  to 

Earth  mound  in  the  Northwest  Onarter  ot  Section  iH,  Uetiance  'rownship.  (.)flen  erroneously 
called  the  work  of  Prehistoric  people — The  Mound  Builders.  Looking  northeast  across  the  valley  of 
the  Maumee  River,  35th  October.  1901. 

The  number,  and  size,  of  similar  mounds  lessens  materially 
toward  the  northern  portion  of  Ohio  ;  and,  probably,  many  of  the 
prominences  in  this  Basin  that  have  in  later  years  been  called  the  work 
of  man  in  the  far  distant  past,  are  due  wholly  to  natural  agencies, 
such  as  the  glacial  or  subsequent  deposits,  or  erosions  of  water. 
The  mounds,  however,  that  are  composed  of  different  layers  of  earth 
separated  in  a  suggestive  way  from  their  kind,  with  ashes,  charred 
wood,  etc.,  and  with  some  anciently  formed  weapon  or  ornament  of 
stone,  or  fragment  of  ancient  pottery,  found  in  definite  arrangement, 
thus  evidence  their  formation  by  mankind. 

While  the  Basin  of  the  Maumee  River  was  probably  not  the  head- 


quarters  of  so  great  a  number  of  early  peoples  of  somewhat  sedentary 
or  settled  habits  as  was  the  country  to  the  south  and  southeast,  it  is 
probable  that  the  Maumee  River  and  its  larger  tributaries  were  great 
thoroughfares  of  travel  by  the  prehistoric  peoples,  as  they  were  by  the 
historic  Aborigines  from  the  time  of  the  advent  of  the  Europeans  up  to 
the  time  of  the  removal  of  the  last  tribe  to  its  western  reservation  in 
1843.  Some  of  those  early  people  also  here  heaped  the  earth  in  low 
conical  mounds  above  the  bodies  of  certain  ones  of  their  dead. 

The  fact  that  so  few  artificial  mounds  are  now  found  in  this  Basin 
is  probal)h-  due  to  several  causes,  among  which  may  be  mentioned  the 
sparse,  or  absence  of,  fixed  population.  This  may  have  been  due  in 
part  to  the  dense  forest  and  the  general  flatness  of  the  country  conducive 
to  great  moisture  and  softness  of  the  soil  and  to  much  of  miasm  and  dis- 
ease in  dry  seasons;  second,  to  this  region  lieing  often  patrolled  by  the 
Five  Nations  of  the  east,  and  its  being  the  middle  or  enforced  neutral 
ground  between  the  wilder  tribes  to  the  northward  and  the  more  peace- 
ful or  stronger,  and  consequently,  more  advanced  people  to  the  south- 
ward who  were  represented  here  only  by  occasional  wandering  bands 
that  had  few  deaths  and  buried  shallow  from  want  of  time,  lapse  of 
inclination,  or  fear  of  desecrations  by  their  foes;  third,  to  man\'  of  the 
smaller  mounds,  containing  single  or  few  bodies,  becoming  obliterated 
by  the  natural  forces,  or  the  plows  of  the  early  white  settlers;  fourth, 
to  most  of  the  bodies  of  those  killed  in  battle,  or  dying  of  disease,  not 
being  interred. 

The  belief  has  become  quite  general  among  archaeologists  that  the 
Mound  Builders  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Aborigines  as  seen  by  Euro- 
peans, or  of  the  Chereokee  tribe  particularly,  and  perhaps  of  the 
Shawnees  also,  and  that  they  were  distinct  from  their  descendants  only 
by  their  greater  advancement  toward  civilization,  they  having  had  more 
fixed  haliitations  which  conserved  their  energy  to  the  interdependent 
study  and  practice  of  peaceful  arts. 

It  can  readily  be  imagined  that  the  Mound  Builders  met  defeat  by 
their  distant  cousins,  the  tribes  to  the  northward  who  had  remained  in 
wildness  and  savagery,  surging  down  upon  them,  like  a  horde  of  rapa- 
cious vandals  that  they  were,  and  putting  to  death  all  who  could  not 
flee  from  their  merciless  attacks  !  This  is  the  probable  mode  of  their 
vanquishment.  Their  complete  overthrow,  ejectment  or  captivity  may 
have  been  accomplished  in  one  year,  or  it  may  have  been  the  result  of 
repeated  attacks  through  a  series  of  years. 

Southern  Ohio  and  the  Cumberland  River  Valley,  Tennessee,  are 
among  the  regions  containing  the  mounds  and  graves  which  have 
thus  far  yielded  hammered  native  copper,  chased  gorgets  and  other 
ornaments   that   show  the    greatest   advancement   in  handiwork  of  the 



prehistoric     people    of     the     more     Northern      United     States    of     this 
meridian.  ' 

Undoubtedly  the  number  was  increasing  among  them,  who  were 
turning  awa}'  from  the  wandering  and  warring  habits  of  their  ancestors 
to  a  more  settled,  peaceful  and  happier  life,  improving  in  handiwork 
and  trade  in  village,  or  in  tilling  the  soil  near  by.  Their  numbers,  and 
the  influence  of  their  peaceful  work,  were  extending  northward ;  but 
there  was  not  time  allowed  them  to  assume  a  firm  and  stable  hold  upon 
Northern  Ohio  before  the  irresistibly  fatal  invasion  swept  them  away 
with  all  the  evidences  of  their  advancement  excepting  their  fortresses 
and  burial  mounds,  and  such  articles  as  were  preserved  therein  or  were 
lost  on  the  surface  to  be  covered  for  centuries  and  then  to  be  turned  up 
by  the  plows,  or  like  their  relics  in  the  mounds  be  excavated,  by  a 
different   and    much   further  advanced   people.      The   savage,  victorious 

Location  of  Prehistoric  Mounds  and  Circles  of  Earth  in  Northern  Ohio  and  Northeastern   Indiana. 

invaders  constructed  few,  if  any  mounds,  nor  did  they  undertake  so 
much  work  as  was  necessary  to  destroy  those  of  the  vanquished. 

The  writer's  record  embraces  something  over  fifty  mounds  and 
earthworks  in  this  Basin  that  can  properly  be  classed  as  the  work  of 
prehistoric  man.  Their  situation  is  on  high  ground,  in  small  groups 
widely  scattered. 

About  twenty  mounds  have  been  noted  in  DeKalb  and  Steuben 
Counties,  Indiana.  Mastodon  remains,  some  very  large  and  complete, 
have  also  been  found  in  a  half  dozen  places  in  DeKalb  near  some  of 
these  mounds.  In  section  27,  of  Smithfield  Township,  the  remains  of  a 
Mastodon  were  found  in  good  preservation  at  a  depth  of  four  feet  in 
blue  clay,  whereas  such  preserved  bones  are  usually  found  in  muck  or 
peat  where  the  animal  mired  and  met  its  death  by  asphyxiation  or  star- 

*  See  The  Antiquities  of  Tennessee  and  the  Adjacent  States,  by  Gates  P.  Thruston,  2nd 
edition.  Report  on  the  Mound  Explorations  of  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology,  by  Cyrus  Tliomas,  Washing- 
ton, 1894.     Archaeological  History  of  Ohio,  by  Gerard  Fowke,  Columbus.  1902. 



vation.  The  mounds  in  this  vicinity  contained  considerable  charcoal. 
In  one  near  Waterloo  the  charcoal  was  several  feet  in  thickness,  and 
covered  the  remains  of  twenty-five  or  more  persons,  whose  bodies  were 
deposited  irregularly  as  though  hastily  and  indifferently.* 

Nine  mounds  of  earth  have  been  reported  in  Allen  County, 
Indiana.!  Four  of  these  are  on  high  land  between  Cedar  and  Willow 
Creeks  and  near  the  Fort  Wayne  branch  of  the  Lake  Shore  and  Michi- 
gan Southern  Railway.  Two  are  situate  about  forty  feet  apart  in  north 
and  south  line,  and  the  other  two  fifteen  rods  east  about  the  same  dis- 
tance apart  in  east  and  west  line.  They  were  explored  many  years 
ago  and  found  to  contain  human  remains,  charcoal,  something  of 
crudely  hammered  copper  ornaments,  and  of  the  ordinary  chipped  flint 
points.      A    large   oblong    mound   exists    four   miles   southward    of    the 

Type-forms  of  Prehistoric  Flint  Knives  (Nos.  1,  3),  Arrow  and  Spear  Points,  Perforators  (Nos.  17.  18). 
and  Scrapers  (No.  16).  They  vary  much  in  size.  Of  the  'Points'  about  5tX)0  to  1  are  beveled  to  the  left, 
as  shown  here  in  the  tliick  Number  11. 

above  named:  and  at  Cedarville,  near  the  St.  Joseph  River,  are  three 
mounds  about  one  hundred  feet  apart  parallel  with  the  river  in  north- 
east line. 

A  single  small  mound  existed  on  the  east  bank  of  the  river  about 
four  miles  north  of  Fort  Wayne,  and  this  is  the  most  southern  part  of 
Allen  County  at   which   prehistoric    earthworks    have    been   determined. 

Nine  mounds  have  been  determined  on  the  high  banks  of  the 
Maumee  River.  Two  of  these  mounds  are  in  Indiana  near  the  Ohio 
line,  four  also  on  the  south  bank  at  Antwerp,  Ohio,  the  first  of  which 
is  one  mile  west  of  this  village,  the  second  in  the  park  within  the  cor- 
poration, the  third  one-half  mile,  and  the  fourth  one  mile  eastward. 

A  mound  was  found  on  the  high  south  bank  of  the  Maumee  River, 
a  few  rods  west  of   the  middle  north  and  south  line   of   Section   twentv- 

*  See  the  Sixteenth  Report  of  Indiana  Geology,  page  104. 

t  By  Colonel  Robert  S.  Robertson,  reported  in  the  History  oj  Allen  County,  and  to  the  writer. 



seven  of  Defiance  Township,  (nearh-  a  half  mile  above  the  present 
Water  Works  pumping  station)  by  Joshua  Hilton,  who  purchased  the 
farm  embracing  this  land  in  January,  1822.  This  mound  was  about 
four  feet  above  the  surrounding  land,  about  thirty  feet  in  diameter,  and 
was  covered  with  oak  trees  18  to  20  inches  in  diameter.  Mr.  Hilton 
and  his  son,  Brice,  who  gave  the  writer  this  information,  opened  this 
mound  in  the  year  1^24.  A  small  quantity  of  bony  fragments  were 
found  which  readily  crumbled  between  the  fingers  on  being  handled. 
Human  teeth  were  found,   some  of   which  were  of   large  size.      Some 

Richt  Bank  of  the  Auylaize  River.  luokiIl^;  iiortli,  19th  September,  1901,  from  tlie  southwest  corner 
of  Section  3,  Defiance  Townsliip,  Ohio,  at  tlie  mouth  of  Garrnan  Run.  Low  stat;e  of  water.  The  Glacial 
Till  somewliat  stratified.  To  the  riyht  of  the  central  distance  a  Prehistoric  Burial  Mound  is  beini,' 
undermined  by  the  high  waters  and  freezings.  This  Mound  formerly  contained  eijzlit  liuman  bodies  in 
sitting  posture.    The  bones  disintegrated  some  years  ago. 

dark  stone  gorgets  were  also  found,  about  four  by  two  inches  in  size, 
pierced  with  slanting  holes  of  ', goose-quill'  size.  This  mound  was 
excavated  and  used  as  a  cellar  li\-  the  famil\-.  the  first  house,  built  of 
logs,  being  at  convenient  distance  from  it.  The  site  of  this  mound 
was  undermined  by  the  river  manv  vears  ago. 

The  other  two  mounds  along  the  Maumee  were  on  the  north  bank 
on  the  farm  of  Captain  Clayton  W.  Everett,  just  above  the  line  of  the 
City    of    Toledo.      In    leveling   one   of   these   mounds   in   the  summer  of 


1900,  a  bar  or  pick-shaped  amulet,  of  dark,  fine-grained  slate,  was 
found  which  measures  eighteen  inches  in  length,  the  longest  on  record. 
This  has  been  deposited  in  the  museum  of  the  Ohio  State  Archaeological 
and  Historical  Society,  Columbus. 

Along  the  Auglaize  River,  five  mounds  have  been  determined;  two 
in  the  western  part  of  Putnam  County,  near  Dupont,  and  three  in  Defi- 
ance Township.  One,  situated  on  the  high  east  bank  near  the  south 
line  of  Section  8,  about  four  miles  southwest  of  Defiance  Court  House, 
is  now  nearly  obliterated  bv  infringement  of  the  public  road  and  under- 
mining by  the  river.  (  See  engraving.  )  This  mound  was  opened  by 
curious  neighbors  previous  to  1870.  Decaying  bones  of  eight  or  ten 
persons  who  had  evidently  been  buried  in  sitting  posture,  were  found 
with  charcoal. 

A  smaller  mound,  about  two  feet  high  and  fourteen  feet  in  diameter, 
was  situated  on  the  high  west  bank  of  the  Auglaize,  near  the  middle 
north  and  south  line  of  Section  34,  two  and  one-fourth  miks  southwest 
of  Defiance  Court  House.  It  was  explored  in  the  summer  of  lb78. 
About  six  inches  below  the  surface  of  the  central  part  a  circular  group 
of  stones  varying  from  two  to  five  inches  in  diameter  were  found  that 
had  been  taken  from  the  river  channel  near  by.  They  rested  u])on  a 
layer  of  clay  two  inches  thick,  like  the  surrounding  land  in  quality, 
which  had  been  subjected  to  great  heat  while  wet  and  was,  conse- 
quently, very  hard  and  brick-like.  Beneath  this  layer  of  clay  was  a 
layer  of  ashes  two  inches  thick,  and  eight  or  ten  sticks  of  thoroughh- 
charred  wood  about  two  feet  long  and  two  or  more  inches  thick  in  their 
largest  parts.  With  the  ashes  were,  also,  bits  of  charred  flesh  and 
small  bones,  perhaps  of  some  animal,  but  the  kind  could  not  be  deter- 
mined, and  small  fragments  of  crude  jiottery  which  easily  crumbled. 
Upon  removing  the  ashes  and  about  one  foot  of  hardened  earth,  human 
bones  were  found  in  an  advanced  stage  of  decomjiosition,  consisting  of 
parts  of  the  calvarium  and  long  bones  of  one  person,  head  lying  a 
little  east  of  north.  With  these  bones  was  found  only  one  plain  gorget 
four  inches  long,  one  and  three-eighths  inches  wide  and  one-half  inch 
thick,  tapering"  on  the  sides  toward  the  ends,  and  with  two  holes  one 
and  a  half  inches  apart  and  equidistant  from  the  ends.  These  holes 
are  of  one-fourth  inch  diameter  on  one  side  and  taper  gradually  and 
smoothly  to  one-eight  inch  on  the  opposite  side.  The  gorget  is  of  Ohio 
Shale  such  as  is  seen  in  the  bed  of  the  Auglaize  River  nearby.  About 
forty  rods  north,  also  on  the  high  bank  overlooking  the  river,  was 
another  mound  of  like  size  and  contents,  excepting  the  gorget. 

The  only  mound,  however,  that  has  been  generally  known  and 
talked  about  as  the  work  of  the  Mound  Builders  near  Defiance,  has 
been  considered   by   the   writer  as  a  natural  mound,  caused  bv  erosions 



of  thf  river  around.  It  is  situate  toward  the  southeast  side  of  Blodgett 
Island  (see  ent;raving')  eastward  from  the  two  mounds  last  described, 
it  being  near  the  east  line  of  Section  thirty-four  in  Defiance'  Township, 
and  a  little  north  of  the  center  of  the  south-east  (|uarter  of   the  Section, 

Prehistoric  Articles  made  and  used  by  tlie  Aborigines.  Found  daring  later  years  in  tlie  Maumee 
River  Basin,  and  now  in  the  .Author's  Collection.  Nos.  1  to  6,  Fragments  of  Pottery;  7,  Turtle  shaped 
Granite;  8,  10,  Plumbet  and  Half-alobe  of  Haematite;  9,  Double  Discoid  of  Granite:  11  to  16,  Tobacco 
Pipes;  17,  18,  Bird-form  Amulets  of  Slate  ;  19,  34,  2.5,  33,  34,  Banner  Stones  of  Slate;  31,  23,  Awls  of  Deer 
Bones;  33.  26.  27,  28,  30,  Gorgets  of  Slate;  29,  Pendant;  31,  32,  Bar  Amulets  of  Granite;  3,5,  36.  ,S7,  Wam- 
pum of  Shells;  3H,  Part  of  Elk  Horn  used  in  Planting  Corn;  39,  Celt,  'Thunderbolt'  or  Tomahawk  of 
Granite;  40.  Pestle  and  Rolling  Pin,  also  41,  44,  Pestle  and  Stone  Base  (uncommon),  for  Cracking  and 
Grinding  Corn;  42,  Axe,  K  Grooved.  Weight,  &^  lbs.,  Length,  9'4  inches;  43,  Axe,  Full  Grooved,  for 
twisting  around  Withe  Hai^dle;  45,  Ball  for  Games.  The  articles  last  named  are  of  the  hardest  Granite, 
and  some  of  them  show  long  time  weathering. 

and  forty  rods  northwest  of  the  present  Cement  Works.  This  mound, 
in  the  summer  of  189S,  was  thirty-five  feet  above  the  ordinary  summer 
level  of  the  river,  twenty-five  above  the  land  immediately  to  the  south, 


and  twenty  feet  above  that  a  few  rods  to  the  north.  -It  is  somewhat 
elliptical  in  outline,  its  longest  diameter  being  a  little  north  of  east 
bv  south  of  West,  and  measures  55x40  feet  from  points  midwav 
from  base  to  summit  from  which  jioints  the  slopings  are 
gradual,  below  and  abo\'e,  being  rather  more  abrujit  on  the 
south  side,  against  which  the  current  strikes  in  high  stages 
of  the  river.  This  mound  was  covered  with  trees,  the  same  as 
parts  of  the  island  and  the  river  banks  in  the  vicinity,  until  the  year 
1874    when    it,  with    the    land    around    not   then    under  culti\'ation,  was 

Blodcett  Island  in  the  Auglaize  River,  Defiance  Townsliip.  Looking  west,  3nd  November,  liX)2.  The 
main  branch  of  the  River  is  by  the  distant  trees.  The  lar^ie  Monnd  toward  tlie  rii;ht  has  been  called  [he 
work  of  the  Mound  Builders,  but  it  is  of  the  same  formation  as  the  neij^hborin^i  liigh  places  and  is,  prob- 
ably, a  natural  monadnock  like  the  peculiar  triani^ular  eminence  at  the  mouth  of  Powell  Creek  a  few 
hundred  feet  to  the  left.     This  island  is  sixty  acres  in  extent. 

cleared,  and  the  island  was  planted  with  corn.  It  has  been  regularlv 
cultivated  since,  occasionally  wheat  being  the  croj),  to  the  north  ])ar- 
ticularly.  The  plowing  has  been  extended  upward  on  the  sides  of  the 
mound  each  time  and  this  and  the  washings  of  rain  have  materially 
modified  its  outline.  It  was  partially  opened  many  years  ago  with 
negative  result.  In  1895  the  writer  obtained  permission  from  Adam 
Wilhelm,  for  many  years  its  owner,  to  excavate  it;  but  in  the  winter  it 
was  found   that   some  persons   had   surreptitiously  dug   into   its  eastern 


summit  a  hole  six  feet  square  to  the  depth  of  about  eight  feet.  y\gain, 
in  the  winter  of  1897-98,  an  excavation  was  made  by  the  same  persons 
two  feet  to  the  southwest  of  the  other,  eight  feet  square  and  to  a  depth 
of  ten  feet  or  more.  These  oiK-nings  were  not  seen  by  the  writer  until 
heavy  rains  had  washed  their  sides  and  caused  much  filling.  The 
ground  material  thrown  out  by  these  diggings  was  the  same  as  that 
composing  the  high  banks  of  the  river  in  the  vicinity,  with  nothing  of 
the  alluvium  covering  the  other  parts  of   the  island. 

This  work  of  excavation  was  done  bv  ignorant  persons  with  the 
hope  of  finding  material  of  commercial  value,  and,  i^ossiblv  the  chest 
of  money  which  rumor  many  vears  ago  said  was  buried  in  this  direction 
from  Defiance.  The  tradition  of  buried  money  has  been  perpetuated 
in  nearly  every  section  of  the  country.  In  and  about  Defiance  belief 
in  this  tradition  has  been  strong,  and  the  desire  for  great  gain  has 
induced  many  persons  to  dig  into  many  prominences  in  field  and  woods 
without  regard  for  archaeological   considerations. 

At  the  eastern  edge  of  the  second  glacial  lake  beach,  on  the  head- 
waters of  Bad  Creek,  in  Pike  Township,  ten  miles  northeast  of  Wau- 
seon,  Fulton  County,  Ohio,  there  were  early  discovered  on  the  Howard 
farm  eleven  mounds  of  small  size,  arranged  in  somewhat  of  circular 
form.  Nearly  all  of  these  mounds  were  dug  into  soon  after  their  dis- 
covery by  persons  actuated  by  curiosity,  or  the  more  serious  desire  for 
articles  of  commercial  value.  A  few  human  bones,  some  charcoal,  and 
a  few  (to  the  vandals)  indifferent  articles  of  flint  and  slate,  were  the 
result  of  their  work.  In  the  year  1884,  Judge  William  H.  Handy,  then 
a  resident  of  Wauseon,  led  an  exploring  party  to  these  burial  places, 
with  somewhat  better  results.  They  called  several  of  them  sacrificial 
mounds  on  account  of  patches  of  earth,  hardened  by  fire,  which  they 
termed  altars. 

Such  places  of  baked  cla\'  in  the  earth  mounds  of  ancient  people 
were  called  altars  by  Squier  and  Davis,  in  the  first  volume  of  the  Smith- 
sonian publications.  But,  if  they  were  altars,  they  do  not  necessarily 
imply  the  custom  of  human  sacrifice  ;  nor  does  the  finding  of  charcoal 
so  generally  in  these  mounds,  imply  cremation  of  their  dead.  Fire  was 
used  in  these  places  possibly  as  a  funeral  rite  ;  but  these  places  were 
probably  used  for  camps  in  wet  seasons,  and  the  fire  was  used  for  heat- 
ing and  cooking  ;  also  the  smallest  bones  found  thereabout  are  proba- 
bly of  the  animals  there  eaten. 

The  finding  in  Tennessee  of  adult  skeletons  in  stone  graves  too 
small  for  the  complete  body,  has  been  interpreted  as  reburials  of  the 
bones  after  the  flesh  had  disai>peared.  Likewise  skeletons  of  numerous 
bodies,  found  in  separated  and  promiscuous  condition  under  ashes, 
baked   clay,  charcoal,  etc.,    with    charred    posts,  leads   to    the    inference 


that  the  prehistoric  people  buried  their  dead  under  the  floor  of  their 
hut,  like  some  of  the  later  aborigines  ;  or  had  a  charnel  house,  and 
when  for  any  cause  a  change  of  location  was  desired  the}'  burned  the 
house  and  sometimes  threw  u])  a  mound  over  the  remains. 

Mastodon    -\nii  Opher   Extinct  Animal  Remains. 

The  petrified  remains  of  several  mastodons  have  also  been  found 
in  Fulton  County,  the  most  complete  and  perfect  being  in  York  Town- 
ship eight  miles  southeast  of  Wauseon.  In  the  southeastern  part  of 
the  Basin  like  remains  have  been  found  as  well  as  in  the  western  part 
before  mentioned;  also  in  Auglaize  County,  Ohio,  parts  of  eight 
mastodon  skeletons  have  been  found,  and  the  remains  of  the  giant 
beaver,  both  of  which  animals  were  co-existent  with  man  in  the  Mau- 
mee  River  Basin  following  the  subsidence  of  the  glacial  waters. 

Pre-Histdric  Circles   anm  ok  Earth   Ridges. 

Earth  enclosures  also  abound  In  Ohio  and  in  other  States.  In 
form  these  vary  from  square  to  more  or  less  octagonal  and  circular. 
Their  uses  have  been  discussed  as  hill  forts,  geometrical  enclosures, 
as  sacred  and  as  defensive  walls,  forming  partial  enclosures.  "^ 

Of  circles,  the  writer  has  record  of  three  in  the  Maumee  River 
Basin;  also  of  four  semi-circles.  It  is  regretted  that  full  and  accurate 
surveys  were  not  made  of  these  ancient  earthworks  before  their  obliter- 
ation; but  authentic  data  of  their  existence,  situation  and  approximate 
size,  have  been  gathered  by  the  writer  from  elderly  persons  residing 
near,  and  from  various  other  sources. 

Beginning  in  the  northwestern  part  of  the  Basin  and  following 
down  the  streams,  we  note  first,  a  circular  ridge  of  earth  on  the 
moraine  in  the  northeastern  and  highest  part  of  Smithfield  Township, 
DeKalb  County,  Indiana.  The  ridge  is  rather  indefinite  in  part,  with 
indications  of  possibly  two  original  openings,  while  in  other  places  it  is 
yet  near  three  feet  in  height.  Its  diameter  is  about  200  feet.  Another 
circle  is  situate  about  four  miles  northeast  of  Hamilton,  Steuben 
County,  in  Richland  Townshi]i.  It  is  locally  known  as  the  Mystic 
Circle,  is  68  yards  in  diameter,  and  averages  between  three  and  four 
feet  in  height  with  a  breadth  of  12  feet  at  the  base  of  the  earth  wall  or 
ridge.  Both  of  these  circular  earthworks  show  an  entrance  opening  of 
12  to  14  feet  wide,  a  little  west  of  south.  Many  large  trees  are  grow- 
ing in  and  around  both  these  circles. 

The  third  circular  earthwork,  now  nearly  obliterated   bv  cultivation 

*  For  a  full  discussion  of  Prehistoric  Mounds  and  Enclosures,  see  the  Twelfth  Annual  Report  of 
the  Bureau  of  Ethnology.  Washincton.  1894.  4to,  pages  XLVIlI-l-742.  Also  Archaeological  History  of 
Ohio,  by  the  State  Society,  Columbus,  1902,  etc. 



of  the  land,  was  situated  on  the  east  (left)  bank,  in  a  bend  of  the  River 
St.  Joseph,  in  the  northern  part  of  St.  Joseph  Township,  Allen  County, 

A  few  miles  below,  on  the  west  bank,  'opposite  Antrap's  mill,' 
is  a  semi-circular  ridge  with  opening"  to  the  river.  The  earthwork  is 
about  600  feet  in  arc,  and  is  \et  about  two  feet  high,  with  a  well  de- 
fined ditch  on  the  outside.  Very  large  trees  which  have  grown  on 
the  embankment  have  fallen  and  gone  to  decay.'  "' 

Three  semi-circular  ridges  of  earth  were  found  along  the  lower 
Maumee  River.  The  first  was  observed  between  the  years  1837-46, 
and  the  bookf  from  which  the  accompanying  engraving  is  made,  was 
published  in  1848  as  the  first  volume  of   the  Smithsonian  Contributions 

to  knowledge.      The    description    given  at 
that  time  reads  that 

This  work  is  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Maumee  River,  two  miles  above  Toledo,  in  Wood 
Count)',  Ohio.  The  water  of  the  river  is  here  deep 
and  still,  and  of  the  lake  level  ;  the  bluff  is  about  .3.5 
feet  high.  Since  the  work  was  built,  the  current  has 
undermined  a  portion,  and  parts  of  the  embankment 
are  to  be  seen  on  the  slips,  a,  a.  The  country  for 
miles  in  all  directions  is  flat  and  wet,  and  is  heavily 
timbered,  as  is  the  space  in  and  around  this  inclos- 
ure.  The  walls,  measuring  from  the  bottoms  of  the 
ditches,  are  from  three  to  four  feet  high.  They  are 
not  of  uniform  dimensions  throughout  their  e.\tent ; 
and  as  there  is  no  ditch  elsewhere,  it  is  presumable 
that  the  work  was  abandoned  before  it  was  finished. 
Nothing  can  be  more  plain  than  that  most  of  the  re- 
mains in  Northern  Ohio  are  military  works.  There 
have  not  yet  been  found  any  remnants  of  the  timber 
in  the  walls  ;  yet  it  is  very  safe  to  presume  that 
palisades  were  planted  on  them,  and  that  wood  posts  and  gates  were  erected  at  the  pas- 
sages left  in  the  embankments  and  ditches.  All  the  positions  are  contiguous  to  water  ; 
and  there  is  no  higher  land  in  their  vicinity  from  which  they  might  in  any  degree  be 
commanded.  Of  the  works  bordering  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  through  the  State  of 
Ohio,  there  are  none  but  may  have  been  intended  for  defense  ;  although  in  some  of 
them  the  design  is  not  perfectly  manifest.  They  form  a  line  from  Conneaut  to  Toledo, 
at  a  distance  of  from  three  to  five  miles  from  the  lake,  and  all  stand  upon  or  near  the 
principal  rivers.  .  .  .  The  most  natural  inference  with  respect  to  the  northern 
cordon  of  work  is,  that  they  formed  a  well-occupied   line,    constructed  either  to  protect 

f^fi'swn  hu  Col  VJl.;nl«stu 

Prehistoric  Earthwork  at   Eayle  Point, 
near  Toledo. 

"•'  The  two  last  named  earthworks  were  but  l)riefiy  mentioned  by  Col.  Robert  S.  Robertson,  of  Fort 
Wayne,  in  a  contribution  years  atto  to  one  of  tlie  newspapers  (name  and  date  not  known  to  the  writer)  of 
his  city,  with  the  title  Prehistoric  Remains.  A  clippin^i  is  preserved  in  his  scrap  book,  now  in  pos- 
sesion of  the  writer,  who  is  further  informed  that  no  definite  survey  was  inade  of  the  enclosures  or 
mounds  mentioned  above. 

^Ancient  Monuments  of  the  Mississippi  Valley,  hy  E.  GeoTue  Squiei:  and  Dr.  E.  H.  Davis,  Wash- 
ington, 1848. 


the  advance  of  a  nation  landing  from  the  lake  and  moving  southward  for  conquest  ;  or, 
a  line  of  resistance  for  people  inhabiting  these  shores  and  pressed  upon  by  their  southern 
neighbors.  The  scarcity  of  mounds,  the  absence  of  pyramids  of  earth,  which  are  so 
common  on  the  Ohio  River,  the  want  of  rectangular  or  any  other  regular  works  at  the 
north  —  all  these  difterences  tend  to  the  conclusion  that  the  northern  part  of  Ohio  was 
inhabited  by  a  distinct  people. 

The  writer  quoted  above  prepared  a  pamphlet  later,  which  was 
published  for  the  Western  Reserve  Historical  Society,  descriptive  of 
this  line  of  earthworks'^  showing  the  one  here  engraved  as  the  most 
westerly  of  the  series. 

About  two  miles  below  the  above  mentioned  semi-circle,  another 
of  similar  form  was  later  described. t  It  was  situate  also  on  the  east 
bank  of  the  Maumee  a  little  above  the  present  Fassett  Street  Bridge 
and  back  of  the  present  Cincinnati,  Hamilton,  and  Davton  Railroad 
Grain  Elevator,  in  Toledo.  When  surveyed  by  Grove  K.  Gilbert 
the  ridge  of  earth  was  little  less  than  two  feet  above  the  surface, 
and  ditches  existed  within  and  without.  Its  diameter  was  387  feet, 
its  curve  irregular  as  though  its  location  had  been  influenced  by 
the  position  of  trees.  At  one  point,  jsrobably  the  entrance,  a 
second  short  ridge  e.xisted  inside  the  principal  one.  The  northern  end 
rested  on  the  river  bank  a  few  yards  south  of  the  present  Fassett 
Street.  When  Elias  Fassett  settled  at  his  present  residence  nearby, 
previous  to  the  year  1850,  the  site  of  this  inclosure  was  covered  with 
large  sugar  maple  trees.  Not  a  vestige  of  this  ancient  earthenwork, 
nor  of  the  one  above  described,  now  remains.  There  are  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  site  of  the  one  last  described  two  small  streets  named 
Fort  and  Crescent,  suggestive  of   its  use  and  form. 

The-  last  prehistoric  earth- 
work of  this  series  remaining  to 
be  described,  was  situated  on  the 
south  bank  of  Swan  Creek,  a  few 
squares  altove  its  entrance  into 
the  Maumee  River.  It  included 
the  present  crossing  of  Oliver  and 
Clayton  Streets,  Toledo,  as  shown 
in  the  acconqianying  engraving.! 
At  the  time  of  its  survey  in 
1>^71,  it  had  been  nearh'  obliter- 
ated by  the  gradin.g  of  the  streets, 
but  was  restored  in  this  drawing 
by    aid    of     old     citizens     familiar 

Prehistoric  Earthwork   in  Toledo.  ^^,^lj       Jjg       outlines.  ItS       shorteSt 

*  Ancient  Earth  Forts  of  the  Cuyahoga  Valley.  Ohio,  by  Col.  Chas.  Whittlesey,  Cleyelaiid,  1871. 
t  Geological  Survey  of  Ohio,  Geology,  volume  i,  page  586. 


diameter  was  400  feet,  and  its  walls  extended  down  the  bluff  to 
the  former  channel  of  the  creek  which  has  wandered  northward  a 
S(iuare  or  more,  evidently  since  this  inclosure  was  built,  leaving'  a 
small  flood-plain  throuj;'h  which  a  channel  was  cut  for  lake  boats  about 
the  year   1H70. 

A  few  pieces  of  pottery  and  stone  implements  have  been  found  in 
and  about  these  inclosures;  but  they  are  not  authentic  as  relics  of 
those    who    constructed   the   earthworks,  nor    of   their   early   occupants. 

The  later  Aborigines,  and  the  early  French  fur  buyers  also  occu- 
]iied  some  of  them,  if  not  all.  The  latter  probably  erected  stockades 
on  their  ridges  to  protect  their  stocks  of  brandy  and  trinkets  for  trade. 
The  number  and  situation  of  these  earthworks  make  it  improbable 
that  the  early  European  traders  built  them. 

At  the  dawn  of  history  in  this  Basin,  and  for  many  years  there- 
after, the  Iroquois  or  Five  Nations  of  New  York  were  at  war  with  the 
Miamis  and  the  Illinois  tribes,  and  it  is  probable  that  those  aggressive 
and  generally  successful  warriors  used  these  inclosures,  if  they  did  not 
build  them,  as  rallying  jioints,  and  as  means  of  defense  when  hard 
pressed,  on  their  long  campaigns.  The  three  by  the  lower  Maumee 
were  well  situated  to  guard  their  route  against  their  enemies  to  the 
northward;  and  those  in  northeastern  Indiana  to  guard  against  the 
Miamis,  whose  headquarters  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee  were  within 
easy  reach  of  the  two  lowest  enclosures  hy  the  St.  Joseph  River.  If 
defeated  at  one  rallying  point,  retreat  to  the  next  one  could  be 
easily  made.'^ 

Similar  circular  ridges  of  earth  in  Southern  Ohio,  and  farther 
south,  have  been  termed  sacred  enclosures;  the  smallest  ones  hut 
rings,  and  the  largest  ones  lodge  sites  or  walls  embracing  and  pro- 
tecting a  collection  of  lodges,  to  the  number  of  even  one  hundred. t 

The  Aborigines  as  First  Described. 

The  American  Aborigines  when  they  first  saw  Europeans  were 
awe-struck  by  the  size  of  their  ships,  and  by  the  accouterments, 
conduct  and  general  appearance  of  their  visitors;  and  for  a  time  the 
foreigners  were  treated  with  native  reverence  begotten  of  fear  and 
wonderment.  A  short-time  association,  however,  demonstrated  to  the 
Europeans  the  savage  nature  of  these  primitive  people. 

Perhaps   the  best   all-sided   glimpses  we  get   of  some   of    the   first 

*  The  Iroquois  had  circular  forts  with  stockades  in  New  York  in  1615;  also  the  Wyandots  (  Hurons ). 
The  Jesuits  advised  the  latter  to  build  tlieir  forts  in  square  form  so  that  the  Frencli  ar'iuebuses  at  two 
diattonal  corners  could  protect  the  entire  enclosure.  The  palisaded  forts  were  probably  built  after  the 
suiifiestion  of  Europeans  who  supplied  the  metal  axes  for  the  work.  See  Parknian's  Pioneers  of 
France  in  the  New  World,  pa^'e  403.    Also  The  Jesuit  Relations. 

^Eleventh  Report  of  the  Peabody  Museum,  vol.  ii.  pajies  347,  348. 


historical  Aborigines  whose  descendants  infested  the  Maumee  River 
Basin  in  later  times,  are  from  the  Jesuits'^  who,  from  the  year  1610, 
traveled  along  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  north  and  south,  and  along  the 
Great  Lakes.  Their  altars,  chants,  robes,  and  their  kindly  demeanor 
made  a  great  impression  at  first  upon  these  Aborigines  and,  although 
several  priests  later  suffered  great  violence  and  death  at  the  hands  of 
these  savages,  they  were  generally  afforded  good  opportunities  for 
observing  the  characteristics  and  the  wretched  state  of  these  children 
of  the  wilds;  and  the  refined  spirits  of  these  priests  enabled  them  to 
write  forbearinglv  of  the  multiform  barbarities  they  could  not  prevent, 
and  which  thev  were  compelled  to  witnt-ss  and  sometimes  personally 

While  it  is  given  to  but  few  of  the  civilized  and  somewhat  cul- 
tured people  to  rise  very  high  above  childhood's  estate,  in  many  ways, 
there  was  not  one  of  these  primitive  people  but  who  was  childish  in 
the  extreme,  in  most  respects  throughout  life,  although  at  times 
exhibiting  the  ferocity  of  a  tiger.  The  early  record  of  them,  given  in 
the  writings  of  these  missionaries,  is  but  a  continued  series  of  contra- 
dictions, with  a  great  preponderance  of  unbridled  savagery  springing 
from  their  primitive  impulsive  sensuousness.  In  most  respects  they 
were  but  little  above  the  savage  wild  beasts  surrounding  them,  and  in 
some  of  their  exuberances  they  were  generally  fiendish.  While  they 
were  at  times  somewhat  amiable,  they  were  licentious  and  impure. 
They  were  lazy,  rude,  egotistical  and  boastful.  At  times  generous  and 
liberal,  they  were  generally  improvident,  selfish  and  full  of  banter. 
With  something  of  fortitude  they  were  cowardly,  importuning  and  with 
much  of  inconstancy.  Their  fidelity  was  opposed  by  craftiness  and 
treachery  :  their  charity  by  ingratitude,  hypocrisy  and  deceit  :  their 
modesty  by  assertions  of  their  superiority.  Their  moods  were 
very  changeable,  but  not  so  their  filthy  habits,  pride  and  arrogance, 
suspicion  and  jealousy  :  and  among  a  long  list  of  other  indict- 
ments are  those  of  covetousness,  thievishness,  foulness  of  language, 
ingratitude,  malice,  noisiness  of  manners,  contempt  for  strangers, 
faithlessness,  with  much  of  cruelty  and  ferocity  and,  often,  worse 
than  the  savage  beasts  in  their  want  of  natural  affection  for  their 
sick  and  afflicted  progeny  and  aged  kinsfolk,  who  were  often  either 
killed   outright,  or  left  to  starve  and  die  alone  and  unprotected. 

Thev  were  styled  savages  by  the  missionaries  ;  and  a  late  writer 
stvles  them  the  fiercest  savages  known  to  history,  and  the  most 
wretched  of   the  races  of   man.T 

*  Jesuit    Relations   of    Travels   and  Explorations  of    the   Jesuit   Missionaries  in   New   France. 
1610-1791.  Cleveland.  I896-1W2,  seventy-three  volumes,  8  vo. 

t  The  Jesuit  Relations,  Cleveland,  1896,  vol.  i,  pages  viii  and  38, 


Their  bodies  were  generally  of  good  height,  well-proportioned, 
lithe  and  vigorous,  as  no  deformed  or  weakling  one  was  permitted  to 
survive  childhood.  "  Their  complexion,"  wrote  Rev.  Joseph  Jouvency, 
"is  the  same  as  the  French,  although  they  disfigure  it  with  fat  and 
rancid  oil,  with  which  they  grease  themselves  :  nor  do  they  (the  men) 
neglect  paints  of  various  colors,  by  means  of  which  they  appear 
beautiful  to  themselves,  but  to  us  ridiculous.  Some  may  be  seen  with 
blue  noses,  but  with  cheeks  and  eyebrows  black  ;  others  mark  fore- 
head, nose  and  cheeks  with  lines  around  the  eyes  and  in  different 
directions  and  with  various  colors  derived  from  earths,  roots,  etc.,  all 
mixed  with  grease,  so  that  one  would  think  he  beheld  so  many  hob- 
golilins.  Others  paint  the  entire  body  so  as  to  resemble  clothing  at  a 
distance,  or  otherwise.  Thev  believe  that  in  colors  of  this  description 
they  are  dreadful  to  their  enemies,  and  that  likewise  their  own  fear  in 
line  of  battle  will  be  concealed  as  by  a  veil  ;  finally,  that  it  hardens  the 
skin  of  the  body,  so  that  the  cold  of  winter  is'  more  easily  borne." 
Some  of  them  also  indelibly  tattooed  the  neck,  chest,  arms  and  cheeks 
with  powdered  charcoal,  by  means  of  thorns,  tlius  portraying  rude 
outlines  of  birds  or  animals,  such  as  the  snake,  eagle,  toad,  etc. 
Occasional  deaths  were  noted  from  this  practice,  probabl\'  by  blood- 
poisoning  from  the  impure  rancid  greases  and  other  filth  with  which 
the  charcoal  was  mixed,  and  from  their  general  uncleanly  habits. 

The  hair  was  worn  in  different  stvles.  Some  disposed  of  it  from 
the  sides  of  the  head  and  tied  the  central  remaining  part  together  so  as 
to  stand  upward  ;  others  trained  the  hair  downward  over  the  temples. 
All  persistently  pulled  out  the  beard.  Men  and  women  alike,  pierced 
the  lobes  of  their  ears,  and  some  their  noses,  making  the  holes  as 
large  as  practicable,  and  wore  therein  mollusk  shells  or  whatever  of 
bright  objects  they  could  get. 

Winter  clothing  was  nearly  alike  for  men  and  women.  It  was 
composed  of  skins  of  animals  fastened  together  with  animal  tendons 
or  strips  of  skin,  and  suspended  from  the  shoulders  or  over  one 
shoulder  and  under  the  other  and  it  extended  generally  to  about  the 
knees.  A  belt  was  often  worn  and  the  robe  was  pouched  over  the 
stomach  thus  forming  a  receptacle  for  personal  belongings.  Leggings 
and  moccasins  were  also  worn  out  of  doors;  and  sleeves,  which  were 
large  at  the  shoulders  and  nearly  came  together  at  the  back.  These 
limb  coverings  were  removed  by  all  on  entering  the  lodge ;  and  the 
men  usually  disrobed  to  nudity  excepting  a  piece  of  bark  or  skin  sus- 
pended from  the  waist  in  front  which  was  their  only  summer  covering. 
Seldom  was  any  covering  worn  on  the  head.  Belts,  necklaces  and 
l>racelets  made  of  round  clam  shells  or  quahaug  (  Venus  mercenaria)  or 
from  quills  of  the  porcupine,  were  valued  highly. 


They  moved  from  place  to  place  with  yreat  facility.  The  women, 
assisted  by  the  children,  did  all  the  heavy  work  including  the  drawing 
or  carrying  of  all  their  meager  belongings  and  the  putting  up  of  a 
lodge  or  wigwam,  when  one  was  necessary  in  cold  weather.  The}' 
would  put  up  a  teepee  f  tipi  )  in  from  half  hour  to  two  hours  by  gather- 
ing poles,  sticking  them  in  the  ground,  fastening  the  top  ends  together, 
and  covering  the  sides  with  skins,  bark,  branches  of  trees,  moss  or 
mats  made  of  rushes  or  tough  grass.  A  hut  was  even  more  readily 
built  in  the  forest.  An  opening  was  left  at  the  top  for  the  smoke  of 
the  fire  to  escape,  which  it  did  but  imperfectly,  causing  much  irritation 
and  injury  to  the  eyes  of  the  inmates  with  additional  repulsiveness  to 
their  general  appearance  and  odor.  Foliage  of  trees  and  grass  was 
sometimes  laid  on  the  ground  and  alone  used,  or  covered  with  skins  or 
•  mats  for  beds.  A  piece  of  bark  or  a  suspended  skin  served  as  door  if 
such  was  thought  necessary  as  a  protection  against  cold  winds.  For 
summer  use,  if  to  remain  in  one  place  for  some  length  of  time,  broader 
and  longer  cabins  were  sometimes  built  in  form  of  arbors,  bark  and  mats 
being  used  for  covering.  These  were  often  large  enough  to  accommo- 
date several  families — as  many  as  twelve  being  mentioned  by  Cham- 
plain,  two  families  using  one  fire  in  common.  They  had  no  chairs  nor 
other  furniture  and  sat  on  the  ground  with  their  heels  close  to  the  body 
and  knees  close  to  the  chin. 

They  obtained  fire  by  striking  two  hard  stones  together  with  glanc- 
ing strokes  (  one  piece  of  iron  pyrites  and  one  piece  of  flint  were  pre- 
ferred)  over  the  dried  skin  of  an  eagle's  thigh  w'ith  the  down  left  on, 
or  over  spunk  or  pulverized  baik,  which  caught  the  sparks  and  served 
as  the  first  kindling.  They  also  made  fire  by  the  friction  method  of 
rotating  a  dry  stick  rapidly  liack  and  forth  between  the  hands,  one 
end  being  pressed  against  a  dry  stone  or  stick. 

Their  food,  in  winter  particularly,  was  largely  of  meat  obtained  by 
hunting,  trapping  and  fishing,  in  which  the  men  generally  took  the 
lead,  often  making  long  and  tedious  journeys  and  suffering  much  from 
hunger  in  the  chase.  Here,  also,  the  women  generally  gathered  dead 
limbs  of  trees  and  made  the  fire,  found  the  water,  prepared  the  food, 
preserved  the  meats  by  smoking  and  drying  them,  prepared  the  skins 
and  made  the  clothing,  did  much  of  the  fishing,  made  and  repaired  the 
canoes,  snow  shoes  and  utensils,  and  went  for  the  game  to  the  place 
where  their  lords  had  killed  and  left  it.  The  meat  of  the  bear  was 
preferred  on  account  of  the  large  quantity  of  grease  it  contained.  Eggs 
of  wild  fowls  were  eaten,  also  wild  fruits,  berries,  beans,  nuts  and 
roots  in  their  season.  These  people  were,  however,  improvident,  and 
dire  hunger  sorely  distressed  them  in  unfavorable  seasons.  When  not 
pressed   by   enemies,  some   maize    (corn,  zea  mays)  was  cultivated    liy 


the  women,  then  either  roasted  on  the  ear,  or  pounded,  wet  with  water 
and  baked  between  heated  stones.  The  succotash,  composed  of  corn, 
beans  and  sometimes  vegetables,  boiled  together,  was  a  later  dish  after 
the  receipt  of  metal  utensils  from  Europeans.  Receptacles  were  made 
of  bark  ( they  possessed  no  metal  utensils  until  supplied  by  Europeans  ) 
in  which  meats  and  other  food  were  placed  with  water  and  then  more 
or  less  cooked  by  means  of  heated  stones  dropped  into  the  mess.  They 
had  no  salt  for  their  food.  Their  meager  culinary  utensils  were,  like 
their  game,  never  cleaned — the  more  saturated  they  were  with  grease 
the  better — and  they  ])artook  of  the  general  filthiness  of  the  lodge  or 
camp.  They  ate  from  their  hand  direct;  and  the  hands  of  the  men 
and  women,  when  dripping  with  grease,  were  wiped  on  their  hair  or 
clothes.  When  otherwise  particularh'  or  obnoxiously  covered  the 
hands  were  wiped  on  the  shaggy  hair  of  a  dog  or  rubbed  with  powdered 
rotten  wood  or  whatever  was  most  convenient.  Their  nails  were  never 
cut,  nor  particularK'  cleaned.  Water  for  bathing  was  not  in  favor: 
vermin  abounded  on  their  persons  and  were  eaten  when  caught. 

These  people  were  bred  to  savagery  and  war  A  slight  offense 
or  injury,  real  or  imagined,  inflicted  on  any  member  of  a  band  or 
tribe  would  excite  a  desire  for  revenge,  and  war  would  generally 
result.  These  conflicts  were  waged  by  small  bands,  by  the  entire 
tribe  or  by  a  combination  of  tribes,  according  to  circumstances 
and  conditions.  Their  weapons  for  warfare  and  against  the  wild 
beasts  were  bows  and  arrows,  javelins  or  spears  and,  for  closer  com- 
bat, stone  axes,  stone  tomahawks  and  clubs  of  wood  or  stone  heads. 
Their  bows  were  made  of  hickory,  oak,  ash,  and  sometimes  of  softer 
woods,  often  reinforced  along  the  back  with  rawhide.  These  bows 
were  operated  with  strings  of  rawhide  or  twisted  hemp  bark  (cannabis 
sativa).  The  arrows  were  feathered  at  the  heel  and  often  pointed  at 
the  head  with  flint  or  bone.  Possibly  some  of  these  points  were  some- 
times dipped  in  the  juices  of  poisonous  plants  and  then  dried,  for  use 
against  their  enemies:  but  the  general  uncleanly  conditions  were  suffi- 
cient to  account  for  all  inflammations  and  lilood  poisonings  authenti- 
cally recorded  from  their  use.  The  weapons  were  generally  carried  in 
belt  or  skin  quiver.  The  axes  and  tomahawks  were  hafted  with  withes 
wrapped  around  them  and,  later,  covered  with  wet  rawhide  which 
shrunk,  on  drying,  and  formed  a  stiff,  serviceable  handle.  Firm  wood 
was  sometimes  shaped  as  handles  by  burning  to  the  desired  length  and 
then  scraping  with  flints.  Occasionally  one  protected  himself  against 
enemies  by  a  shield  made  of  bark  covered  with  rawhide.  A  few 
warriors  also  wore  for  a  time  armor  for  body  and  limbs  made  of  dried 
rawhide  or  of  braided  twigs,  strips  of  bark  or  hemp.  Probably  the 
idea  of  armor  and   of  shield    was  obtained    from  the  earlier  Europeans. 


Both  shields  and  armor  were  but  little  emploved  on  account  of  their 
interfering  with  their  movements  through  the  woods  and  the  free  use 
of  their  bodies  in  battle.  All  their  jiowers  of  deception,  stealth  and 
treachery  were  employed  in  their  campaigns  against  and  in  the  attack- 
ings  of  their  enemies.  The  chief  desire  was  to  surprise,  by  ambush  or 
stealthy  approach,  the  party  they  wished  to  assail,  and  in  the  confusion 
and  panic  that  followed  to  slay  or  capture  as  many  as  possible.  No 
attempt  was  made  to  maintain  a  regular  order  and  line  of  battle:  in 
fact  the  war-chief,  like  their  other  nominal  leaders  generally,  had  little 
if  any  control  after  the  combat  began.  Those  of  the  enemy  slain,  or 
wounded   so  they  could  not  walk  well,  were  scalped. 

Captives  were  generally  very  desirable  for  slaves  or,  if  particularly 
obnoxious  enemies,  they  were  subjected  to  the  most  fiendish  tortures 
according  to  the  convenience,  mood  and  degree  of  frenzy  of  the  captors 
and  their  women  or  friends.  They  were  generally  stripped  of  clothing 
and  forced  to  run  the  gauntlet  between  rows  of  their  tormentors  who, 
armed  with  whips,  thorns,  sharp  sticks,  clubs,  and  other  articles, 
goaded,  beat  and  lacerated  the  limbs  and  body  until  the  poor  victim 
often  fell  bleeding  and  exhausted;  when  he  was  left  to  revive,  to  be 
again  beset  with  new  tortures — his  nails  torn  from  his  fingers  by  their 
teeth,  the  fingers  crushed  or  cut  off,  his  limbs  broken,  his  scalp  re- 
moved, his  limbs  pierced  by  sharji  sticks  and  the  nerves  drawn  out, 
his  wounds  burned  by  live  coals  of  fire  and  blazing  torches  which  were 
applied  to  the  most  sensitive  parts.  Pieces  of  roasted  flesh  would  be 
cut  or  torn  from  the  limbs,  eaten  by  the  jiersecutors  and  their  children, 
or  thrust  down  the  throat  of  the  sufferer.  If  he  showed  great  fortitude 
and  endurance  the  torment  was  continued  from  day  to  day  intermit- 
tingly  ;  his  blood  was  applied  to  freshly  made  openings  in  the  skin  of 
his  tormentors  that  they  might  therefrom  become  imbued  with  his  forti- 
tude;  he  was  made  to  walk  through  fire;  his  flesh  was  lacerated  and 
burned  in  new  places ;  he  was  tied  to  a  stake  and  a  slow  fire  kindled 
under  him  and  more  of  his  flesh  distributed  and  eaten.  Finally,  when 
the  victim  was  exhausted  and  could  be  made  to  suffer  no  more,  his 
heart  was  torn  out  and  eaten  that  the\'  might  thereby  receive  his 
braverj'  and  endurance. 

Each  individual  and  tribe  endeavored  to  exceed  the  others  in  their 
atrocities.  The  women  generally  entered  into  these  fiendish  acts  with 
high  glee  ;  and  while  women  captives  were  generally  treated  with  less 
atrocity,  and  were  often  adopted  into  the  tribe  and  married  by  their 
captors,  they  occasionally  suffered  the  same  fate  as  the  men. 

Captive  children,  if  strong,  were  generally  kept,  and  the  youths 
and  less  obnoxious  captives  were  also  sometimes  saved   from  mutilation 


and  death  and  subjected  to  slavery  or  adopted.  The  stronger  tribes 
increased  in  numbers  materially  by  such  captures.  M 

The  scalps  of  enemies  were  considered  great  trophies.      They  were  M 

at  first  suspended  from  the  belts  of  their  takers,  and  then  dried,  painted 
and  displayed  by  the  women  inside  the  lodges,  or  outside  on  poles,  that 
all  members  of  the  camp,  young  and  old,  might  continually  be  im- 
pressed with  the  jirowess  of  the  possessors  of  the  largest  number. 

The  heads  of  the  vanquished  were  sometimes  severed  as  trophies 
and  their  limbs  were  occasionalh'  removed  and  carried  away  for  food, 
as  all  of  these  warring  tribes  were  cannibals. 

There  was  no  tendenc}-  among  these  Aborigines  toward  the  better- 
ing of  their  very  low,  savage  condition  at  the  time  of  the  coming  of  the 
Europeans  early  in  the  seventeenth  century.  They  possessed  nothing 
that  could  be  called  government  in  general.  Individualism  and  im- 
pulse were  the  rule,  ever  varying  with  the  condition  and  mood.  There 
were  no  laws,  no  magistrates,  no  regular  marriage  ceremony,  no  code 
of  ethics  or  of  morals.  Their  social  relations  were  meager,  consisting 
mostly  of  their  loose  combinations  for  war,  feastings  and  dances. 

Their  industries  were  of  the  most  primitive  kind.  The  forming  of 
canoes  from  bark  represented  their  most  skillful  handiwork.  Some 
there  were  who  fashioned  snares  and  traps  for  wild  animals,  including 
fish,  of  strings  and  mats.  They  were  not  workers  of  metals  other  than 
of  native  hematite  or  blood  iron  ore,  fragments  of  which  they  dressed 
as  they  did  stones,  and  of  native  copper  fragments  which  they  pounded 
by  stones  into  somewhat  of  the  forms  desired  ;  but  of  these  there  were 
comparatively  few  articles. 

Their  weapons  and  implements,  other  than  of  wood  and  bones  of 
lower  animals,  were  of  flint  and  other  hard  stones  (see  ante  page  58 ). 
Some  of  the  knives,  tools,  implements  and  weapons  of  the  Stone  Age 
used  by  them  were  well  formed;  but  whether  the  better  class  of  these 
articles  were  made  by  these  tribes  or  whether  they  were  obtained  from 
the  southern  tribes  by  trade  or  conquest,  is  not  definitely  known.  But 
few  utensils  were  made,  and  the  ever-ready  bark  of  trees,  in  various 
kinds  and  thicknesses,  was  the  principal  material  employed.  Recep- 
tacles for  carrying  smaller  articles  were  made  of  skins  of  animals  as 
well  as  of  bark.  Occasional  pieces  of  rude  pottery  were  in  use,  but 
their  generally  broken  condition  and  the  few  fragments  found  here  have 
led  to  the  inference  that  these  articles,  like  their  better  stone  articles, 
were  brought  from  the  more  sedentary  people  to  the  southward. 

Ornaments  of  stones,  shells,  bones,  birds'  claws,  etc.,  were  also 
used.  These  articles,  like  their  weapons,  were  quite  uniform  in 
material,  form  and  finish,  as  found  throughout  the  States,  north,  south, 
east  and   west,  during   later  years,  which  indicates   that   their  manufac- 


ture  was  carried  on  by  the  more  mechanical  tribes  to  the  southward, 
and  that  the  tribes  had  remarkable  wide  range,  perhaps  both  in  trade 
and  conquest  alternately.  Their  stone  articles  were  gradually  dis- 
carded at  the  coming  of  Europeans  with  metal  weapons,  utensils, 
and  ornaments,  to  trade  for  furs. 

Thev  had  no  svstem  of  writing;  but  there  was  in  occasional  use 
something  of  a  code  of  communication  by  means  of  small  sticks,  indi- 
cating number  or  direction,  left  in  the  probable  track  of  following 
friends;  and  in  imitation  of  south-western  peoples  or,  later,  in  imita- 
tion of  the  Europeans.  There  were  also  crude  efforts  in  pictography 
on  pipes,  rocks,  skins,  etc. 

The  only  domesticated  animal  they  possessed  was  a  shaggy, 
wolfish  dog.  It  was  kept  in  considerable  numbers,  was  serviceable  in 
the  hunt,  particularly^  of  the  bear,  and  was  used  sometimes  by  the 
women  to  assist  in  drawing  on  poles  their  belongings  from  one  camp- 
ing place  to  another.  These  dogs  were  generally  close  attendants  and 
often  supplied  the  family  meat  by  their  own  bodies,  both  in  times  of 
feasting  and  of   scarcity  in  the  hunt. 

Their  peaceful  hours  were  mostly  passed  in  recovering  from  the 
fatigues  of  battle  or  the  chase,  or  from  the  ill  effects  of  the  feasts. 
Badgerings  of  one  another  were  often  indulged  in,  and  games  in  which 
the  gambling  phase  was  uppermost.  The  game  of  straws  was  a  favor- 
ite one  and  was  played  with  great  dexterity  and  vivacity.  The  straws 
employed  were  of  three  lengths,  the  greatest  length  being  about  ten 
inches.  The  game  appeared  at  times  something  like  that  of  jack- 
straws,  but  generally  Europeans  did  not  gather  an  understanding  of  it. 
A  game,  designated  crosse  by  the  Jesuits,  was  also  frequently  played, 
and  this  is  the  source  of  the  modern  game  Lacrosse.  A  game  of 
dish  was  another  common  one.  It  was  played  with  plum  seeds,  about 
six  in  number,  one  side  of  each  being  darkened.  They  were  caused  to 
bound  and  turn  by  striking  the  bark  dish  containing  them  on  the 
ground,  and  the  player  having  uppermost  the  greatest  number  of  a 
certain  color  was  the  winner.  The  fascination  of  the  gambling  feature 
in  these  games  often  led  to  the  complete  impoverishment  of  one  or  more 
players  at  each  game  bv  the  loss  of  his  weapons,  clothing  and  trinkets. 

Fastings  were  compulsory  by  nature,  following  their  engorgements, 
and  at  times  on  account  of  their  improvidence  in  years  of  plenty  against 
the  severe  seasons  when  they  could  not  hunt,  or  when  there  was  a 
dearth  of  game  and  of  vegetable  products. 

Feastings  and  dances  were  common  when  food  was  obtainable,  to 
celebrate  any  event  or  to  work  off  any  exuberance  of  spirit,  and  glut- 
tony was  habitual.  Their  'eat-all'  or  'leave-nothing'  feasts  resulted, 
in  times  of  plenty,  in  the   great   gorging  and   distress   of  the   partakers. 


for  he  who  could  eat  the  most  was  the  greatest  among  them.  These 
feasts  were  great  drains  on  the  possessions  of  their  givers. 

The  feast  of  all  most  generally  and  widely  participated  in,  was 
called  the  feast  of  the  dead.  The  bones  of  their  deceased  friends  and 
of  animals,  on  account  of  their  enduring  nature,  were  endowed  with 
superstitious  beliefs  of  their  future  rehabilitation,  and  these  supersti- 
tions gave  rise  to  various  forms  of  their  deposition,  and  peculiar  rever- 
ence to  them  and  to  the  place  of  their  deposit.  The  flesh,  on  account 
of  its  ready  decay,  was  an  obnoxious  substance  to  be  gotten  rid  of  as 
soon  as  possible.  At  first  the  body  was  enveloped  in  furs  and  liuried 
in  a  shallow  grave,  often  in  their  sitting  posture  with  heels  and  knees 
close  to  the  body  ;  or  sometimes  placed  in  a  tree.  On  the  battle-field, 
or  near  the  enemy,  their  slain  were  hurriedly  secreted  and  covered  with 
leaves  or  whatever  was  most  convenient.  At  irregular  intervals  feasts 
of  the  dead  were  proposed  by  the  older  persons,  and  as  many  influ- 
enced to  participate  in  them  as  practicable,  even  of  other  tribes  when 
good  will  existed.  On  these  occasions,  ever}'  eight,  ten,  twelve  or  more 
years,  the  dead,  wherever  buried,  were  brought  together  at  the  central 
point  agreed  upon.  The  flesh  still  present  was  stripped  from  the 
bones  and  cast  away,  and  the  bones  were  carried  into  the  family  lodge 
or  assembled  in  the  largest  cabin  to  await  the  return  of  the  most  distant 
bodies.  The  bones  of  as  many  as  one  hundred  deceased  persons  were 
thus  seen  gathered  for  the  final  leave  taking  of  the  friends  ;  and  some- 
times the  emotion  there  displayed  was  in  great  contrast  to  the  indiffer- 
ence manifested  at  other  times  in  the  abandonment  of  the  sick  or  aged  to 
wild  beasts  or  to  starvation.  The  ceremonies  at  these  feasts  consisted 
of  examination  and  leave-taking  of  the  bones,  the  giving  of  presents, 
athletic  contests,  dances  in  which  the  women  often  led  in  song  and, 
finally,  in  the  deposition  of  the  bones  in  one  place,  either  in  a  pit  or  on 
the  ground,  rather  y)romiscuously,  and  then  the  covering  of  them, 
sometimes  fiy  a  mound  of  earth  like  the  prehistoric  mounds  described 
on  previous  pages.  These  were  great  occasions  in  the  longer  intervals 
of  peace  when  the  food  supply  was  plentiful,  and  many  joined  in  the 
ceremonies  with  liberal  presents  to  the  dead,  many  of  which  presents 
were  retained  by  the  chief  managers  and  others  were  distributed  by 
throwing  them  high  to  be  scrambled  for  by  the  multitude.  Rude  drums 
and  rattles  were  sometimes  the  accompaniments  to  their  dancing  and 

The  mortality  of  these  savage  people  from  exposure  and  disea'se 
was  great,  particularly  among  children.  The  mothers  were  generally 
prolific,  liut,  having  all  the  heavy  work  to  do  and  being  at  a  great  dis- 
advantage in  their  nomadic  life  and  from  the  indifference  of  the  men, 
many  accidents  and    willful    mishaps    befell    them.      It    was   estimated 



that  not  one  child  in  thirtx  lived  throut;li  childhood.  From  their  gor- 
mandizing and  other  excesses,  diseases  were  common  among  the  adults. 
There  were  neither  nurses  nor  delicacies  for  those  seriously  or  long- 
sick.  The  only  attention  they  received  was  from  the  sorcerers,  who 
were  wholly  ignorant  regarding  diseases  and  of  the  science  and  art  of 
medicine  for  their  cure.  Their  following  was  wholly  from  superstition. 
Their  efforts  for  the  cure  or  advice  of  their  patrons  consisted  of  the 
crudest  jugglery  and  generally  hastened  the  death  of  all  persons  weak- 
ened by  disease.  These  sorcerers  were  called  priests,  prophets, 
diviners  tiy  dreams  from  something  of  hvdromancx',  necromancv  and 
pyromancy;  soothsayers,  magicians,  etc.,  of  primitive  type.  They 
were  considered  more  intelligent  than  the  generality  of  their  people 
and  were  chiefs  in  most  affairs.  They  invented  the  legends  and 
repeated  as  much  of  the  traditions  as  suited  their  desires.  Their 
words  were  listened  to  with  awe.  They  were  vaguelv  and  varioush' 
religious:  and  they  were  made  more  awe-inspiring  bv  the  displa\"  of 
peculiarly  shaped  articles  of  stone  and  slate,  or  of  unusual  lirightness, 
also    by    hideous    attire    and    trappings,    monotonous     movements     or 

Piehisluric  Tubes,  luund  aluiwi  tlie  banks  wi  tlu  Mauiiiee  and  Aui^laize  Rivtrs  jiear  Detiance. 
There  are  several  theories  reuardinn  their  use.  Perhaps  they  were  used  by  the  sorcerers  in  their 
incantations.  The  shortest  one  has  been  called  a  tobacco  pipe.  Like  most  of  the  otiiers,  it  is  a  good 
whistle.  The  hour-class  form  is  very  rare.  It  is  of  line-erain  uranite,  and  the  others  are  of  slate.  In 
the  Author's  Collection. 



dances  '  accompanied  by  intonations  of  the  most  unmeaning  sem- 
blance of  words  that  came  to  the  tongue  and  which  none  of  the  users, 
even,  understood.  In  these  and  other  ways  these  sorcerers  hypnotized 
their  auditors  to  a  degree  and  nourished  the  superstition  in  which  their 
influence  consisted.  With  grotesque  accouterments,  incantations  and 
ceremonial  olijects  they  sought  or  pretended  to  relieve  the  sick  by 
driving  or  drawing  the  pain  or  maladv  away,  by  sucking  or  blowing 
through  tubes,  by  tappings  with  crescentic  articles  of  slate  ;  or  by 
efforts  to  exorcise  it  with  ridiculous  tricks,  or  hideous  noises  that  were 
very  prostrating  and  disastrous  to  one  in  low  jihysical  condition.  Ex- 
tremes of  sweatings  and  then  of  dashings  of  or  into  cold  water  were 
sometimes  employed  after  seeing  the  bathings  of  Englishmen.  Also, 
after  viewing  the  medicine  chests  of  the  Europeans  and  witnessing  their 
administration  of  medicines  to  their  sick,  the  Aborigine  sorcerers  pre- 
pared and  administered  compounds  without  reason  or  formula,  but  as 
an  addition  to  their  ever  varying  pretences.  Generous  payment  in 
furs  and  other  articles  of  trade  was  expected  and  received  by  these 



.11: ! 

mmmm  % 

(From  Catlin) 




Explorers  —  Cartographers  —  Aborigines  —  The  British   Succession. 

1615   TO    1766. 

Frenchmen  began  to  explore  the  shores  of  the  Great  Lakes  early 
in  the  seventeenth  century.  In  the  year  1615  Samuel  de  Champlain 
visited  the  Wyandots  (Hurons)  at  Lake  Huron,  and  passed  several 
months  among  them  and  in  visiting  other  tribes  during  that  summer 
and  the  following  winter.  He  probably  traveled  in  winter  along  the 
western  and  southwestern  shores  of  Lake  Erie,  and  thus  obtained  a 
better  understanding  of  some  of  this  lake's  tributaries  and  of  the 
Aborigines  than  of  the  breadth  of  it,  which  he  represented  too  narrow 
in  his  map  as  published  in  1632.  While  the  lakes  of  the  central  part 
of  this  map,  here  shown,  are  out  of  proportion,  the  reader  will  readily 
recognize  what  was  drawn    for   the   Maumee   and   its   tributaries. 

£  iro  w  ^        J 


2  iS    ^  2  jA/  2i  7  /  xti/    2  ff    f    2  <fc,  /  1^/    /  i<r^  ,    i  .y?  '  f  ^^      2  <?j- 

-.J      2^,5  .    3/^      j^O 

Central  part  of  Champlain's  Map    published   in  1632.     '  Mer  Douce'  is  Lake  Huron.' 

*This  map  and  the  next  eight  maps  of  Lake  Erie  and  the  Maumee  River,  are  taken  from  Winsor's 
Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America,  vohime  iv.  by  permission  of  Houghton,  Mittln  and 
Company,   publishers,    Boston. 

This  map  is  also  given  in  The  Documentary  History  of  the  State  of  New  York,  volume  iii. 
Albany,  1850. 



Probably  Champlain  did  not  explore  all  these  regions  in  person, 
but  gathered  his  information  largely  from  the  imperfect  description 
given  b\'  the  Aborigines.  The  very  meager  and  untrustworthy  descrip- 
tions given  by  the  Aborigines  may  account  for  manv  of  the  imperfec- 
tions, including  disproportions,  of  the  early  maps  of  this  broad  forest 
region.  The  rejiresentations  of  Aborigine  lodges,  and  swamps,  and 
the  shadings  of  Champlain's  work,  are  omitted  from  the  outline  repro- 
duction  of    this   very  interesting  map. 

Carte  CenSrale  des  Gostes  de  f  Am^rique,  by  Covens  and   Mortier,  16.')4-5.5  ?    Tlie  Afer  Douce 
at  the  left  is  Lake  Huron,  and  southward  are  sketched  Lake  Erie  and  tlie  Maumee  River. 

Another  map  without   name   or   date,  but   probably  drawn    between 
the  vears  1640  and   l(i50,   shows   Lake   Erie  in   better  form   than   does 

Sanson's  Map.   1656. 



Champlain's  map,  but  Laku  Huron  is  too  widely  separated,  and  dis- 
connected. This  map  like  many  others  of  early  times,  omits  portages 
or  the   proximity   of   headwaters. 

A  General  Map  of  the  Coasts  of  America  was  published  in  Amster- 
dam, Holland,  by  Covens  and  Mortier  in  the  year  1655  or  before.  It 
is  here  reproduced  in  outline. 

Nicolas  Sanson,  Royal  Geographer  of  France  from  IfUT  to  1H67, 
made   a   map  bearing  date   1656,   a  part  of  which  is  here  reproduced. 

Pere  du  Creux,  whose  name 
is  often  written  Creuxius,  ]iro- 
duced  a  map  in  1660  which  also 
shows  Lake  Erie  and  its  tribu- 

Soon  after  this  date  if  not 
before,  the  Jesuits  sketched  a 
ma]i  in  which  the  Maumee  River 
is  prominently  shown  as  the 
only  tributary  to  the  southwest- 
ern part  of  Lake  Erie.  ' 

It  appears  probable  that  the 
intrepid  and  illustrious  French 
explorer  Sieur  de  la  Salle  not 
only    passed     up    the     Maumee 

Map  by  Creuxius.  166(1.     Central   part.  River    and    down   the   Wabash    tO 

his  discovery  of  the  Ohio  and 
Mississippi  in  the  fall  of  1669, 
but  that  he  returned  along  these 
rivers  during  the  winter,  spring 
or  summer  of  1670,  thence  along 
the  western  shore  of  Lake  Erie, 
and  northeastward  to  the  Ot- 
tawa River  in  Canada,  where 
the  voyageur  writer  Nicolas  Per- 
rot  saw  him  that  summer. t 
The  maps  of   this  new  coun- 

The  Jesuits'  Earl.v  Map.     Central   part, 

trv    produced    soon    after     this 

date  show  important  changes,  and  evidence  the  above  claims  regarding 

*  See  Francis  Parkman's  La  Salle  and  the  Great   West,  paue  4.^2. 

tThere  has  been  much  of  research  and  speculation  by  writers  reKardinn  the  whereabouts  of 
La  Salle  duriny  the  autumn  of  1669,  and  the  year  or  two  next  following'.  The  reader  who  desires  to 
pursue  this  subject  is  referred  to  those  writincs,  and  to  the  Ohio  Archaeological  and  Historical  Quar- 
terly for  .^pril.  1903,  volume  xii.  paye  107  et  set?.,  where  Charles  E.  Slocuin  has  gathered  evidence  of 
La  Salle's  travel  along  the  Maumee  and  Wabash. 



La  Salle.  The  Ohio  River  is  in  them  first  traced,  but  near  enough 
to  the  Maumee  for  easy  iiortage.  This  is  the  case  in  Joliet's  smaller 
ma])  of  XWi'l,  and  in  an  anonvmous  map  of  the  Basin  of  the  Great  Lakes 

of  al)out  the  same  date. 
Sketches  of  the  central 
parts  of  these  maps  are 
here  given.* 

The  Wabash  River 
was  traced  on  Jean  Bap- 
tiste  Louis  Franquelin's 
map  in  1682,  showing 
its  origin  in  a  lake  near 
the  Maumee,  according 
with  statement  in  the 
preserved  fragment  of 
one  of  La  Salle's  letters, 
and  with  the  swampy 
condition  of  the  early 
drainage  channel  of  the 
Maumee  Glacial  Lake 
southwest  of  Fort 
Wayne,  Indiana,  which 
swamp  remained  un- 
drained  until  the  latter 
half  of  the  nineteenth 
century.  This  map  by 
Franquelin,  however, 
traced  the  Wabash  into  the  Illinois  River,  an  error  that  was  corrected 
in  his  map  of  1684,  which  map  is  more  in  detail  and  quite  accurate 
in  many  respects. 

The  next  year  (1685)  Minet  published  his  Carte  de  la  Louisiane 
which,  though  not  accurate,  shows  the  Maumee  River,  the  portage 
southwest,  the  Wabash  River  springing  from  a  lake,  and  the  route  to 
the   Mississippi. J     Other  maps   were  published  during  the   latter  part 

RENE    ROBERT    CA\'ELIEK,    SlEl'R    DE    LA    SALLE. t 

Born  25   November,  1643,  at  Rouen,   France.     Was  assassinated 
19  March.  1687,  in  Texas. 

"^  The  legend  in  Joliet's  map  was  written  below  the  Ohio  River  at  a  much  later  date  than  the 
making  of  the  map.  The  figures  in  the  map  of  the  Great  Lakes  refer  to  a  written  list  of  explanations, 
samples  of  which  are  here  given,  viz:  21,  Riviere  Ohio  ainsy  apelike  par  les  Iroquois  a  cause  de  sa 
beaut^  par  ou  le  Sr.  de  la  Salle  est  descendu.  22,  Les  Illinois  [Aborigines].  23,  Baye  des  Kentayentoga 
[Water-way  of  the  Kentucky  .^boriginesl.  24,  Les  Chaouenons.  25,  Cette  riviere  baigne  un  fort  beau 
pays  ou  Ton  trouve  des  pommes,  des  grenades,  des  raisins  et  d'autres  fruits  sauvages.  Le  Pays  est 
decouvert  pour  la  plus  part,  y  ayant  seulement  des  bois  d'espace  en  espace.  Les  Iroquois  ont  d^truit 
la  plus  grande  partie  des  habitans  dont  on  voit  encore  quelques  restes.  Narrative  and  Critical  History 
of  America.  Houghton,  Mifflin,  and  Company,  Roston,  1884,  volume  iv,  page  216. 

t  From  Harper's  Encyclopedia  of  United  States  History,  volume  v,  copyright,  1901,  by  Harper 
&   Brothers. 

t  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America,  volume  iv.  page  237. 



of  the   seventeenth   century  and   early   part   of   the   eighteenth,    showing 
more  or  less  of  these  features,  particularly  the  maps  by  Raffeix  in  1688, 

by  Hennepin  in  1HSI7,  and  by  La 
Montan  in  1703  and    1709. 

Previous  to  this  time  the 
British  had  no  special  carto- 
graphers in  America.  The  2Hth 
November,  17  0  0,  Richard 
Coote  Earl  of  Bellomont,  Gov- 
ernor of  New  York,  in  his  re- 
])ort  to  the  Lords  of  Trade  in 
London,  stated  that 

The  French  have  mightily  impos'd 

Basin  of  the  Great  Lakes,   1672.     Central    part  ot 
the   Map. 

on  the  world  in  the  mapps  they  have 
made  of  this  continent,  and  our  Geogra- 
phers have  been  led  into  grosse  mis- 
takes by  the  French  mapps,  to  our  very 
great  prejudice.  It  were  as  good  a 
work  as  your  Lordships  could  do,  to 
send  over  a  very  skillful  surveyor  to 
make  correct  maps  of  all  these  planta- 
tions and  that  out  of  hand,  that  we  may 
not  be  cozen'd  on  to  the  end  of  the 
chapter  by  the,  French. 

This  suggestion  was  favor- 
ably acted  upon  after  further 
evidence  from  'Doc'  Cadwalla- 
der  Golden  Surveyor  General 
of  New  York  who,  in  a  Memoir 

Joliefs  spialler  map,  1672.     Central   part.     The  le- 
i;end   under   the  Ohio  River  is  of  later  date. 

on  the  Fur  Trade  of  10th  No- 
vember, 1724,  wrote  that 'the 
French  have  been  indetatigable 
in  making  discoveries  and  car- 
rying on  their  commerce  with 
Nations  of  whom  the  English 
know  nothing,  but  what  they 
see    in    the    French    Maps    and 

FraiiQuelin's  Map  of  1682.  Books.  ' 

The    Cdureurs    de    Bois. 

These   early  maps    prove    conclusively  that   Frenchmen    passed   up 
and    down    the   Maumee    River    in    the    seventeenth    centurv   of   whose 

*  See  London  Docuinents  XIII  and  XXIII,  New  York  Colonial  Documents  volume  iv.  pape  796, 
and  volume  v,  page  727. 



Sv^E  .-T/f i 

journevinsis  no  other  record  than  these  majis  has  been  preserved.  Prob- 
ably the  swarms  of  French  cour- 
eurs  de  bois,  bush  or  forest  rang- 
ers'"' were  the  first  to  pass  along 
the  lake  shores  and  the  larger 
rivers,  in  every  direction,  with 
brand\-  and  small  stocks  of 
trinkets  to  trade  with  the  Abo- 
rigines for  their  more  valuable 
furs,  even  long  before  the  rec- 
ords of  the  missionaries  began. 
On  account  of  the  prohiliit- 
ing  of  trade  to  all  others  than  a 

Fianquelin's  Map  of  16H4.     Central  part.t 

licensed  company  or  two,  and  of  the  many  other  monarchical  require- 
ments of  State  and  the  restrictions  of  the  Church,  many  of  the  early 
French  immigrants  preferred  life  in  the  forests  with  the  Aborigines,  unre- 
strained by  any  of  the  proprieties  of  civilization.  Reversion  to  barbar- 
ism, to  turn  traitor  to  civilization,  is  far  easier  to  many  persons  than  to 
keep  step  with  the  rigid,  virtuous  demands  of  advancing  civilization. 
The  character  of  manv  of  these  early  immigrants  had  been  bad 
in  their  native  land,  of  many  of  the  coureurs  de  bois  and  soldiers  par- 
ticularly-, prison  doors  having  been  opened  to  people  these  forests; 
and  the  open  forest  ways  to  libertinism,  with  the  Aborigines  who 
knew  no  morals,  were  very  attractive.  These  people  at  once  advanced 
to  popularity  with  the  savages  who  soon  became  addicted  to  their 
brandy  and  granted  them  every  privilege.  Their  communication  with 
the  Aborigine  women  of  every  tribe  and  band  was  without  restaint; 
and  thus  the  French  blood  was  early  and  freely  mixed  in  the  succeed- 
ing generations.  Thev  became  defiant  and  the  Government,  and  the 
Church,  could    neither    control    nor   restrain    them. J 

'■^  More  commonly  called  in  New  England  and  New  York  bushlopers  and  swampiers  and.  by  the 
Hollanders,  bos  loopers.  In  the  year  17(X),  it  was  lamented  by  some  British  officials  that  they  had  no 
such  representatives  in  the  forests.     London  Doc.  XIII,  N.  Y.    Col.  Docs.  vol.  iv,  paize  650. 

t  This  map,  and  the  precedinc  eipht  maps  showinir  Lake  Erie  and  the  Maninee  River,  were  taken 
from  the  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America,  vol.  iv,  published  by  Honshton,  Mifflin,  and 
Company,   Boston. 

t  M.  Talon,  in  his  Memoir  to  King  Louis  XIV,  under  date  of  10th  November.  1670,  writes  regard- 
inn  the  coureurs  de  bois  as  follows:  The  edict  enacted  relative  to  niarriaces  has  been  enregistered. 
and,  proclaiming  the  intention  of  the  King,  I  caused  orders  to  be  issued  that  the  volunteers  (whom  on 
my  return,  I  found  in  very  great  numbers,  living  in  reality  like  banditi )  should  be  excluded  from  the 
1  .aborigine!  trade  and  hunting;  they  are  excluded  by  the  law  also  front  the  honors  of  the  Church,  and 
from  the  Communities  I  Commt/naufesI  if  they  do  not  marry  fifteen  days  after  the  arrival  of  the  ships 
from  France  Iwith  women  for  this  purposel.  I  shall  consider  some  other  expedient  to  stop  these  vaga- 
bonds; they  ruin,  partially,  the  Christianity  of  the  Aborigines  and  the  commerce  of  the  French  who 
labor  in  their  settlements  to  extend  the  Colony,  It  were  well  did  his  Majesty  order  me,  by  lettre  de 
Cachet,  to  fix  them  in  some  place  where  they  would  participate  in  the  labors  of  the  Communaute.  Paris 
Document  I,  N.  Y.  Col.  Docs.  vol.  ix.  page  65. 


Their  numbers  increased  and,  as  the  strictures  of  the  authorities 
became  more  rigidly  enforced  in  the  French  market,  they  carried  their 
accumulations  of  peltries  to  the  English  markets  which  caused  new  and 
great  alarm  to  the  French  companies  and  Government.  Efforts  to 
restrain  them  from  this  practice  led  to  something  of  an  organization 
among  them,  and  to  special  rendezvous.  It  was  also  soon  learned  by 
the  authorities  that  a  brother-in-law  of  their  leader  Du  Lhut  was  near 
the  Governor,  and  an  officer  in  his  guards.'^  Force  proved  a  damage 
to  the  Government  and  the  palliative  method  was  adopted.  Amnesty 
was  afterwards  granted  them  and,  as  the  population  increased  and  the 
comjianies'  trade  extended  in  all  directions  further  into  the  forests, 
they  were  eniitloyed  as  guides  and  voyageurs  to  and  through  the  wilds 
before  visited  by  them.  They  had  (ireviously  penetrated  everj'  region, 
near  and  remote;  had  dwelt  among  the  Miami  Aborigines,  the  Illinois, 
the  Sioux,  and  even  the  AssiniboinsT  <  in  the  present  Canadian 
province  of  Assiniboia)  some  having  been  absent  one  year,  others 
two,    three,    and    more    years    on    their    private    explorations.! 

The  British,  being  now  largely  deprived  of  the  trade  of  the  coureurs 
de  bois,  deemed  it  the  more  necessary  to  urge  their  own  traders  with 
the  Aborigines  to  extend  their  range :  and  they  employed  the  Five 
Nations  also.  The  result  of  this  aggressive  action  contributed  a  local 
coloring  to  the  British-French  wars  that  continued  to  be  frequentl}' 
waged,  with  North  America,  constantly  increasing  in  importance,  as 
the   prize   to   the   victor. 

The  British-French   Wars  from  1013  to  1747. 

The  British  have  alwavs  been  an  aggressive  people,  in  new  coun- 
tries particularly;  and  the  French  have  not  always  been  behind  in 
urging  their  own  claims,  and  in  disiniting  the  claims  of  others.  Wars 
between  these  nations,  and  between  people  of  these  nationalities  in 
America,  were  frequently  the  rule  for  many  years.  France  claimed 
the  right  to  central  North  America  from  her  claim  of  being  the  first  to 
discover  it  in  the  voyages  of   John  Verazzano  who  sailed   from   her  jiort 

*  Paris  Document  11,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  ix.  page  131.     Ilbld.  pane  1.53, 

-  The  general  stimulus  to  individual,  and  clandestine,  fur  trade  is  described  by  Cadwallader 
Golden  in  1724  as  follows;  The  Barrenness  of  the  Soil  and  the  coldness  of  the  Climate  of  Canada, 
obliges  the  greatest  number  of  the  Inhabitants  to  seek  their  living  by  travelling  among  the  Aborigines 
or  by  trading  with  those  that  do  travel.  The  Governor  and  other  officers  have  but  a  scanty  allowance 
from  the  King.  &  could  not  subsist  were  it  not  by  the  perquisites  they  have  from  this  Trade,  Neither 
could  their  Priests  find  any  means  to  satisfy  their  ambition  and  Luxury  without  it.  So  that  all  heads 
&  hands  are  employed  to  advance  it  and  the  men  of  best  parts  think  it  the  surest  way  to  advance 
themselves  travelling  among  the  Aborigines  and  learning  the  Languages  even  the  Bigotry  A:  Enthusiasm 
of  some  hot  heads  has  not  been  a  little  useful  in  advancing  this  commerce,  N.  Y.  Col.  Docs,  volume 
V,  page  737,     Compare,  also.  Volney,  371;  the  Jesuit  Relations,  volumes  69.  70.  etc. 


in  the  years  1523-24.  In  this  claim  they  ignored  the  claim  of  the 
British  from  the  voyages  along  the  Atlantic  coast  from  the  Carolinas 
to  Labrador  in  1497-98  by  John  and  Sebastian  Cabot  who  sailed  from 
Bristol,  and  whose  reports  of  Newfoundland  and  its  Banks  induced 
English,  Breton  and  Norman  fishermen  to  ply  the'ir  vocation  there 
long  before  Verazzano's  voyages.  There  were,  consequently,  disputes 
between  the  British  and  French  regarding  America  from  their  first 
meeting  here.  January  2,  ItilS,  the  French  complained  of  outrages 
committed  by  the  English  on  the  coast  of  Canada.  At  the  organiza- 
tion by  Richelieu  of  the  Comjianx'  of  New  France  in  1627,  four  armed 
vessels  convoyed  a  fleet  of  eighteen  transports  laden  with  135  cannon, 
soldiers,  supplies  and  emigrants,  to  reinforce  and  fortify  Quebec. 
They  were  captured  bv  an  English  fleet  that  was  already  on  the  way 
to  destroy  the  French  settlement  there.  The  capture  of  the  town  was 
delayed  until  lUth  July,  1629:  but  it  was  soon  restored  to  the  French 
on  account  of  the  treaty  between  these  nations  24th  April,  1629, 
which  was  not  then  known  to  the  commander  of  the  distant  fleet. 
Notwithstanding  treaties,  each  nation  continued  anxious  to  extend  its 
domain  m  America  and  continued  to  infringe  on  the  settlements  estab- 
lished bv  the  other.  The  French  claimed  not  only  Canada,  but  the 
country  of  the  Iroquois  (Five  Nations.)  in  -New  York,  and  southwest- 
ward  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  The  British  desired  to  restrict  them  to 
the  country  north  of  the  St.  Lawrence  River  and  the  Great  Lakes. 
King  Louis  XIV  of  France  became  alarmed  at  the  success  of  the 
English  in  acquiring  New  Netherlands  from  the  Hollanders  by  con- 
quest and,  upon  the  English  declining  to  exchange  this  territory  with 
the  French  or  to  restore  it  to  the  Dutch,  the  first  formal  war  to  materi- 
ally affect  these  nationalities  in  America  was  declared  by  France  against 
England  January  29,  1666.  Chevalier  de  Courcelles  Governor  of 
New  France  (Canada)  liad  invaded  New  York  to  punish  the  Mohawk 
Aborigines,  and  it  was  there  that  he  learned  from  his  pickets  of  the 
reduction  of  the  Dutch  i)rovince  to  English  rule,  whereupon  he 
exclaimed  'the  King  of  England  does  grasp  at  allAmerica.'  It  is  not 
known  that  this  war  had  any  effect  upon  the  F"rench  then  wandering 
through  the  lake  region  or  upon  the  natives  surrounding  them.  It  spent 
its  force  in  the  provinces  of  the  East  and  at  sea.  It  closed  with  the 
Treaty  of  Breda,  proclaimed  January  1,  1668 •.  but  the  French  persisted 
in  claiming  the  Iroquois  and  their  country,  and  in  their  efforts  to  re- 
duce them  to  their  subjection,  which  resulted  in  many  retaliations  by  the 
British.  Lord  Howard,  Governor  of  Virginia,  visited  Albany  in  16S4 
and  made  a  treaty  with  the  Five  Nations  (Iroquois)  of  New  York  and 
received  from  them  title  to  their  well  sustained  ( by  might )  claim  to 
the  country  along  Lakes  Erie,  St.  Clair  and   Huron,  and  westward    to 


the    Illinois;   and    subsequent    treaties    confirmed    this    grant,   and    the 
subjection    of  these   tribes    to   the   British.* 

A  further  glimpse  of  the  increasing  desire  to  retain  the  favor  of 
the  Aborigines  by  keeping  them  free  from  the  influence  of  the  rival 
nation,  and  of  the  temper  of  the  chief  English  official  in  America,  is 
found  in  Governor  Thomas  Dongan's  letter  from  Albany,  New  York, 
22nd  May,  1686,  to  M.  de  Denonville,  then  Governor  of  New  France, 
which  reads  in  part  as  follows  : 

I  have  sent  for  the  five  nations  of  the  Aborigines  that  belongs  to  this  Government 
to  meet  me  at  this  place,  to  give  them  in  charge,  that  they  should  not  goe  to  your  side 
of  the  great  lakes,  nor  disturb  your  Aborigines  and  traders,  but  since  my  coming  here  I 
am  informed,  that  our  Aborigines  are  apprehensive  of  warr.  by  your  putting  stores  into 
Cataract  [Niagara]  and  ordering  some  forces,  to  meet  there  ;  I  know  you  are  a  man  of 
judgment,  and,  that  you  will  not  attack  the  King  of  England's  subjects,  being  informed, 
that  those  Aborigines  with  whom  our  Aborigines  are  engaged  in  warr  with  are  to  the 
west,  and  southwest  of  the  great  lakes,  [in  part  in  the  Maumee  River  Basin],  if  so.  in 
reason  you  can  have  no  pretence  to  them,  it  is  my  intention  that  our  Aborigines  shall 
not  warr.  with  the  farr  Aborigines,  whither  they  do  or  not  it  does  not  seem  reasonable, 
that  you  should  ingage  yourself  in  the  quarel  of  Aborigines ;  we  pretend,  too,  against  our 
own  Aborigines,  whither  these  territoryes  belong  to  our  or  the  French  King,  is  not  to  be 
decided  here,  but,  by  our  masters  at  home,  and  your  business  and  mine,  is  to  take  mapps 
of  the  Contry  so  well  as  wee  can  and  to  send  them  home  for  the  limits  to  be  adjusted 
there.  I  am  likewise  informed  that  you  are  intended  to  build  a  fort  at  a  place  called 
Ohniagero  on  this  side  of  the  lake  within  my  master's  territoryes  without  question.  (I 
cannot  beleev  it)  that  a  person  that  has  your  reputation  in  the  world,  would  follow 
the  steps  of  Monsr  Labarr, t  and  be  ill  advised  by  some  interested  persons  in  your 
Governt  to  make  disturbance,  between  our  Masters'  subjects  in  those  parts  of  the  world 
for  a  little  pelttree  [furs] ;  when  all  those  differences  may  be  ended  by  an  amicable  corre- 
spondence between  us.  If  there  be  anything  amiss,  I  doe  assure  you  it  shall  not  be  my 
fault,  tho'  we  have  suffered  much,  and  doe  dayly  by  vour  people's  tradeing  within  the 
King  of  England's  territoryes  ;  I  have  had  two  letters  from  the  two  fathers  [priests]  that 
lives  amongst  our  Aborigines,  and  I  find  them  somewhat  disturbed  with  an  apprehension 
of  warr.  which  is  groundless,  being  resolved  that  it  shall  not  begin  here,  and  I  hope 
your  prudent  conduct  will  prevent  it  there,  and  referr  all  differences  home  as  I  shall 

The  French  now  (1686)  numbered  17,000  in  Canada,  3000  of 
whom  could  be  called  upon  to  bear  arms,  and  they  became  more  watch- 
ful against  the  British.  This  year  twent>-nine  'Christians'  (British 
traders)  and  five  friendly  Aliorigines  were  arrested  liy  the  French  and 
Ottawas  along  Lake  Huron  and  'jilundered  of  all  the  goods  and  mer- 
chandizes which  they  had  with  them,  which  accordin.g  to  their  compu- 
tation   would    have    purchased    there    about    eight    thousand    Beavers.' 

*  London  Document  v,  N.   Y.  Col.  Docs.,  volume  iii.  pages  394.  417.  443.     Plain  Facts,  Philadelphia 
1781.   pages  32,  23.    Pownall's    Administration   of  the   Colonies.     Narrative  and  Critical- History  of 
America,  i.  .304. 

t  Le  Fevre  de  la   Barre.  the  former    Governor   of  New  France  who   persisted   in   invading  the 
English  territory  and  alienating  the  Iroquois  natives  of  New  York. 

i  London  Document  V.  New  York  Colonial  Documents  volume  iii.  page  455. 


The  French  and  Ottawas  about  fifteen  hundred  in  number,  while  tak- 
ing these  prisoners  towards  the  east  end  of  Lalve  Erie,  met  Captain 
MacKreRory  with  his  troop  consistinjj;  of  twenty-nine  Christians,  six 
Aborigines,  and  eight  jirisoners  whom,  by  threatening  to  kill  and  putt 
to  the  sword  ettc'  they  also  took  prisoners,  and  'all  their  goods  and 
merchandizes  were  also  plundered  .  .  which  by  cominitation  would 
have  purchased  to  that  troop  eight  or  nine  thousand    Beavers.'     . 

One  member  of  this  last  party  caiitured,  was  shot  b\  the  French 
on  account  of  his  being  of  French  birth  and  a  British  subject.  The 
others  were  taken  'to  a  fort  beyond  the  lake'  (Ontario)  where  they 
were  obliged  to  work  hard  in  strengtht'ning  the  fort.  Later  they  were 
sent  to  yuebec  where  they  were  '  put  out  to  farmers  and  others  for  to 
work  for  their  victuals.'  They  were  to  be  held  as  jirisoners  until 
Governor  Dongan  desisted  from  trading  with  the  far  Aliorigines  and 
from  supplying  the  Senecas  with  ammunition  and  giving  them  assist- 
ance  against  the  French." 

A  treaty  of  neutrality  for  America  between  France  and  England 
was  entered  into  November   16,  16H6. 

In  1689  the  'merchants  and  adventurers  to  and  in  New  York  and 
the  Colonyes  adjacent'  petitioned  the  King  for  the  appointment  of 
Colonel  Slater  to  the  office  of  Governor  of  New  York,  and  for  soldiers 
and  supplies  against  the  French,  alleging  that  they  have  already 
taken  away  a  great  part  of  our  Bever  trade,  which  is  the  only  profitable 
trade  of  those  parts,  and  if  they  debauch  the  five  nations  of  Aborigines 
from  us,  as  the  want  of  a  sufficient  force  to  protect  them  will  readily 
tem])t  them  to,  the  whole  Bever  trade  will  be  lost,  and  the  province 
of  New  York  not  able  to  subsist,  but  in  a  short  time  will  fall  into  the 
hands  of  the  French. 't 

In  this  year  ( 16H9 )  another  formal  war  began  between  Great 
Britain  and  France  and,  although  originating  principally  from  home 
causes,  it  materially  affected  their  colonies  in  America.  The  French 
emboldened  by  the  success  of  their  former  plans,  became  more  aggres- 
sive even  to  the  invasion  of  British  settlements  for  the  purpose  of 
retaliating  for  former  real  or  imagined  infringements  of  trade  with 
Aborigines,    or    for    direct    injuries    sustained    by   marauding    bands  of 

'''  London  Doc.  V.  N.  Y.  Col.  Docs,  volume  iii,  payes  436-37.  Governoi-  Uoniian  reported  to  the 
Privy  Council  as  follows;  I  am  sending  a  Scotch  Gent,  called  McGrecer  (that  served  formerly  in 
France)  along  with  our  people.  Hee  has  orders  not  to  disturb  or  meddle  with  the  French,  and  I  hope 
they  will  not  meddle  with  him.  These  expeditions  were  undertaken  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  back 
the  captive  Aborigines  taken  by  the  Iroquois  '  in  order  to  the  restoring  them  to  their  liberty  &  bury 
their  Hatchetts  with  those  of  their  enemys,  by  which  means  a  path  may  bee  opened  for  these  far  Aborig- 
ines to  come  with  safety  to  Trade  at  Albany,  and  our  people  goe  thither  without  let  or  disturbance'  .  . 
Ibid,  page  39.5.  Colonel  Patrick  Magregorie  was  taken  prisoner  to  Montreal;  and  was  liberated  by 
orders  from  France  in  1687  when  he  returned  to  New  York. 

1  London  Document  V,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  iii,  page  6.52. 


Aborigines  supposed  to  be  favorable  to  the  British.  The  latter  became 
so  annoyed  by  these  incursions  as  to  declare  that  the  French  'must  be 
rooted  out  of  America.' 

The  efforts  of  the  Aborigines  were  the  great  source  of  the  peltry 
supply,  and  the  competition  in  this  trade  was  but  a  competition  for 
the  friendship  of  the  greatest  number  of  them.  The  fickleness  and 
treacher}'  of  these  savages  had  much  to  do  in  causing  the  bitterness 
and  clashings  between  the  rival  European  nations.  May  30,  1696, 
Governor  Fletcher  reported  to  the  English  Lords  of  Trade  that 
'sculking  partys  of  French  and  Aborigines  disturb  the  people  in  their 
husbandry  who  live  upon  the  Fronteer  but  our  Aborigines  do  revenge 
that-part  with  better  success  upon  the  French.'' 

John  Nelson,  who  had  had  twenty-six  years  experience  with  the 
French  in  America,  four  and-a-half  years  as  a  prisoner,  in  a  memorial 
to  the  same  Lords  of  Trade  under  date  of  24th  September,  1696,  stated 
the  difference  between  the  English  and  French  modes  of  dealing  with 
the  natives,  and  the  cause  of  the  latter's  greater  success  as  follows: 
The  Great  and  only  advantage  which  the  enemy  [French]  hath  in  those  parts  doth 
consist  chiefly  in  the  nature  of  their  settlement,  which  contrary  to  our  Plantations  who 
depend  upon  the  improvem'  of  lands.  &c  theirs  of  Canada  has  its  dependance  from 
the  Trade  of  Furrs  &  Peltry  with  the  Aborigines,  soe  that  consequently  their  whole 
study,  and  contrivances  have  been  to  maintaine  their  interest  and  reputation  with  them, 
which  has  been  much  augmented  by  that  late  foolish,  and  unhappy  expedition  from 
New  England  by  S"^  William  Phips  .  .  .  wherein  by  fatall  experience  we  may  la\' 
it  downe  as  a  maxime.  That  those  who  are  masters  of  the  Aborigines,  will  consequently 
prevail  in  all  places  where  they  are  neglected  as  we  have  too  much  done ;  the  French  are 
so  sensible  of  this,  that  they  leave  nothing  unimproved  in  this  regard  ;  as  first  by  season- 
able presents;  secondly,  by  choosing  some  of  the  more  notable  amongst  them,  to  whom 
is  given  a  constant  pay  as  a  Lieutenant  or  Ensigne,  &c,  thirdly  by  rewards  upon  all  execu- 
tions, either  upon  us  or  our  Aborigines,  giving  a  certaine  sume  pr  head,  for  as  many 
Scalps  as  shall  be  brought  them  fourthly  by  encouraging  the  youth  of  the  Countrey  in 
accompanying  the  Aborigines  in  all  their  expeditions,  whereby  they  not  only  became 
acquainted  with  the  Woods,  Rivers,  Passages,  but  of  themselves  may  equall  the 
Natives  in  supporting  all  the  incident  fatigues  of  such  enterprises,  which  they  performe, 
by  advancing  upon  any  exploite,  the  most  forward  and  deserving,  unto  some  office 
amongst  the  regular  troops.  ...  I  have  known  one  of  this  nature  which  did  create 
such  an  emulation,  that  if  the  Earl  of  Frontenac  had  not  restrained  their  forwardness 
for  fear  of  leaving  the  Country  naked,  the  whole  body  of  their  Youth  would  have  per- 
petually been  out  in  parties,  &c.  Fifthly,  but  the  great  and  most  effectual  means  they 
have  taken  for  the  confirming  their  Aborigines,  and  for  the  subverting  or  corrupting  of 
ours,  is  that  for  some  years  ever  since  the  war,  they  have  from  time  to  time  transported 
into  France  some  of  the  most  eminent  and  enterprising  Aborigines  (not  only  of  their 
own,  but  of  ours  whom  they  have  happened  to  take  their  prisoners)  for  no  other  intent 
than  to  amaze  and  dazzle  them  with  the  greatness  &  splendour  of  the  French  Court 
and  Armie  where  the  King  hath  so  thought  it  worth  his  countenancing  as  to  send  them 
into  Flanders,  where   the  ,\rmies   have   been   expressly  mustered   before   them   to  show 

'  London  Document  X,  New   York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  iv,  paye  1.50. 


their  greatness,  at  the  same  time  they  are  not  wanting  to  insinuate  to  them  our  weakness, 
poverty,  and  incapacity  of  protecting  them,  which  they  readily  believe,  not  having  any 
other  notion  or  Idea  of  Our  Nation,  force  and  strength  then  what  they  see  from  our  poor 
Settlements    about  them.* 

Thus,  in  divers  ways  of  seeking  the  alliance  and  trade  of  the 
Aborigines,  these  two  nationalities  were  kept  in  an  almost  constant 
state  of  war  in  America  which  often  assumed  general  and  dire  propor- 
tions. Colonel  Ingoldsby,  in  his  statement  to  the  Commissioners  for 
Trade  and  Plantations  16th  July,  1697,  wrote:  .  .  'This  War 
ruins  the  people;  the  Inhabitants  are  decreased  in  number.  The 
English  and  Aborigines  were  in  very  good  Correspondence:  But  the 
French  outdo  us  much  in  caressing  them.'  .  .  The  French  were  not 
only  active  but  ingenuous  in  their  aggressiveness  and  warfare.  It  was 
even  charged  against  them  that  they  instructed  some  of  their  natives  in 
the  ways  of  poisoning  natives  friendly  to  the  English,  and  they  often 
adopted  the  modes  of  warfare  of  the  natives.  They  insinuated  them- 
selves into  the  favor  of  the  powerful  Iroquois  to  the  degree  that  Gov- 
ernor Earl  Bellomont  Vvas  assured  that  'the  French  have  to  the  full 
as  many  friends  among  the  Onandaga  Nation  as  we  have.' 

The  British  were  also  active  in  cultivating  the  friendship  of  the 
Five  Nations.  Colonel  Peter  Schuyler,  Dellius,  and  Major  Wessells 
made  report  to  Governor  Benjamin  Fletcher  of  New  York  September 
28,  1697,  in  part  as  follows: 

Three  Sachims  and  sevH  Capt*  of  the  Coyougers  [Cayuga]  Nation  come  to 
Albany  and  made  ye  following  proposalls  :  'Brethren,  Wee  come  here  to  lay  before 
you  our  poverty  and  that  wee  are  menaced  by  the  French  and  Tvvightwicks  [Miami] 
Aborigines,  both  our  enemies.  Wee  beg  that  you'l  please  to  assist  us  with  powder  and 
lead  that  we  may  be  capasitated  to  defend  ourselves  and  anoy  ye  enemy  (They  lay  down 
two  otters  and  four  beavour  skins).  Brethren,  Wee  are  sorry  to  have  to  tell  you  the  loss 
of  our  brethren  the  Sinnikes  [Senecas]  suffer'd  in  an  engagement  w'li  ye  Twichtwichts 
[Miami]  Aborigines ;  our  young  men  kill'd  severall  of  the  enemyt  but  upon  their  retreat 
some  of  their  Cheife  Capts  were  cut  off.  You  know  our  custome  is  to  condole  ye  dead 
by  wampom,  therefore  we  desire  you  to  give  us  some  for  these  Beavours'  (see  laid  down 
ten  Beavr  skins).  The  wampum  was  imediately  given  them  for  the  said  skins,  and  the 
day  following  appointed  for  a  conferance  upon  the  first  proposition  made  by  them  for 
powder  &  lead   &c+. 

About  this  time  another  peace  was  declared  from  the  Treaty  of 
Ryswick  in  1697.  But  this  peace  was  not  to  be  operative  for  long  in 
America.  The  French,  being  now  free  to  distribute  their  soldiers, 
extended  their  lines  of  forts  and  posts.  Their  Post  Miami,  at  the  head 
of  the  Maumee  River,  built  about  1680-86,  was  re-built  or  strengthened 

*Londoii  Uocument  X.  New  York  Colonial  Documents  Volume  iv.  pa^'es  207,  20H. 

t  These  tribes  were  at  war  in  this  Basin  at  the  time  of  its  discovery,  and  for  many  years  there- 

t  London  Document  X,  New  York  Colonial  Documents  volume  iv,  page  294. 


in  1697  by  Captain  de  Vincennes,  who  was  very  expressly  forbidden 
to  trade  in  beaver.'  * 

The  French  also  courted  anew  the  favor  of  the  Aborigines  in  this 
western  country,  and  invited  them  to  a  council  and  treaty  in  Montreal 
in  1701,  when  they  were  feasted  and  confirmed  in  their  friendship.  The 
first  fort  at  Detroit,  Fort  Pontchartrain,  was  built  this  year  by  Antoine 
de  la  Mothe  Cadillac. 

In  1702  Captain  de  Vincennes  again  passed  through  this  Basin 
establishing  Posts,  military  or  trading,  along  the  Maumee  River,  and 
along  the  Wabash  as  far  southwest  as  Vincennes.  Posts  already 
existed  by  the  Maumee,  but  they  required  repairs,  were  not  favorably 
situated,  or  were  not  sufficient  in  number. 

British  traders  had  also  been  among  these  Aborigines,  quietly; 
also  messengers  from  different  Governors  of  New  York  inviting  them 
to  visit  Albany  and  council  regarding  trade. 

Oueen  Anne's  War  was  declared  against  France  Hth  March,  1702, 
from  home  causes,  and  was  participated  in  by  the  American  colonists 
with  great  energy;  nor  did  the  war  stop  here  with  the  Treatv  of 
Utrecht  11th  April,  1713,  which  closed  the  war  at  home.  The  natives 
of  the  East  early  entered  into  a  treaty  of  neutrality  with  the  British, 
but  the  French  induced  them  to  violate  it  and,  rallying  in  accumulating 
numbers  with  the  French,  they  perpetrated  a  long  list  of  savage 
butcheries  including  children,  women,  and  members  of  the  Societv  of 
Friends  who  had  lieen  especiallv  friendly  to  them. 

The  British  had  become  more  alive  to  their  trade  interests  in 
regard  to  the  far  natives  '  and  had  sent  deputations  among  the  Miamis 
and  other  tribes  of  this  Basin  with  favorable  effect.  The  French  had 
claimed  these  Aborigines  as  their  own  for  over  half  a  centur\-  and  now, 
desiring  their  aid,  sent  special  presents  to  them  in  1704  for  this  pur- 
pose. They,  however,  continued  to  treat  and  trade  with  the  British 
whereupon  M.  de  Cadillac  moved  against  them  with  soldiers  in  1707 
and  intimidated  them,  ayiparently,  to  the  French  cause.  The  following 
year,  however,  found  them  again  in  Albany  to  council  with  Governor 
Lord  Cornbury  and  to  deal  with  the  British  traders.  This  transit  and 
traffic  became  so  regular  that,  in  1712,  Captain  de  Vincennes  was 
again  sent  among  the  Miamis  '  as  a  messenger  of  peace  or  war' 
whereupon  they  again  promised  loyalty  to  the  French.  They  could 
not,  however,  yet  resist  the  temptations  of  higher  prices  paid  for 
peltries  and  lower  prices  charged  for  goods  offered  by  the  British 
traders  who  continued  to  entice  them. 

In.  the  year  1712  the  Outagamie  or  Fox  Aborigines,  aided  by  the 
Kickapoos  and   Mascoutins,  attacked   the   post   at   Detroit  and   contin- 

*  Paris  Document  V,  New  York  Colonial  Documents  Volume  ix.  paye  676. 


ued  the  siege  with  vigor  for  some  days.  The  Ottawas,  Wyandots, 
Pottawotamis,  Menominis,  Illinois  and  Osages,  friendly  to  the  French 
rallied  to  their  aid  and  saved  the  post.  The  French  charged  that  this 
attack  was  instigated  by  the  British,  and  they  sought  to  retaliate  in 
every  opportunity,  and  with  widespread  success. 

The  proclamation  of  the  close  of  Queen  Anne's  War  11th  April, 
1713,  stopped  the  more  open  hostilities  of  the  French  in  the  northeast 
and  enabled  them  to  more  quietly  gain  in  other  regions  for  their  loss 
of  Acadia.  Their  widespread  operations  in  this  way  against  the 
British  are  shown  in  Colonel  Caleb  Heathcote's  letter  to  Robert 
Hunter  Governor  of  Virginia  under  date  of  8th  Juh',  1715,  which 
reads  in  part  as  follows  : 

It  is  undoubtedly  by  the  management  of  the  French  that  the  fire  is  kindled  in  Caro- 
lina, &  they'le  not  be  wanting  in  their  endeavours  to  spread  the  (lame  through  the  whole 
Coast.  .  .  the  mischief  is  intended  general.  .  .  It  is  my  opinion  that  it  would  be 
very  proper,  with  as  little  loss  of  time  as  may  be,  for  your  Excellency  to  desire  a  meeting 
or  congresse  at  some  convenient  place,  of  all  or  as  many  of  the  Governours  on  this  conti- 
nent as  can  with  conveniency  come  &  attend  it  ;  where  it  may  be  considered  & 
resolved  on,  what  measures  to  take  for  extinguishing  the  fire  already  begun,  &  to  pre- 
vent its  increase  ;  for  as  every  part  of  North  America  is  struck  at,  so  all  our  interests 
are  the  same,  &  what  number  soever  is  wounded  or  hurt,  the  whole  ought  to  reckon 
themselves  agrieved,  and  not  carelessly  suffer  the  French  to  angle  us  away,  province  by 
province,  till  at  last  all  will  be  gon ;  and  as  it  is  impossible  that  we  &  the  French  can 
both  inhabit  this  Continent  in  peace,  but  that  one  nation  must  at  last  give  way  to  the 
other,  so  tis  very  necessary  that,  without  sleeping  away  our  time,  all  precautions 
imaginable  should  be  taken  to  prevent  its  falling  to  our  lotts  to  remove.*     . 

In  the  year  17I()  Sir  Alexander  Spotswood  Governor  of  Virginia 
opened  a  road  over  the  Blue  Ridge  Mountain  to  Ohio  lands,  and  in 
this  year  the  route,  known  and  used  by  the  French  for  fifty  years  or 
more,  up  the  Maumee  River  and  down  the  Wabash  was  more  openly 
published  as  the  most  direct  and  best  wav  to  the  southwest  ;  but  the 
British  were  yet  few  in  numbers  who  went  so  far  from  their  eastern 

In  September,  1717,  the  Illinois  country  was  joined  to  Louisiana. 
The  activity  of  the  French  was  now  greatly  increased,  and  several 
times  their  successes  in  alienating  the  natives  from  the  British,  even 
those  natives  immediately  surrounding  the  British  towns  was  so  great 
that  the  necessity  for  active  retaliation  seemed  iiniierative.  The  Rep- 
resentation of  the  Lords  Commissioners  for  Trade  and  Plantations 
to  the  King  upon  the  State  of  His  [Britanic]  Majesties  Colonies  & 
Plantations  on  the  Continent  of   North    America'  dated  September  the 

*London  Doc.  XX,  N.  Y.  Col.  Docs,  vol,  v,  pane  430.  This  letter  contains  the  second  suu^'estion 
we  lind  for  united  action  of  the  British  Colonies,  Plantations  or  Provinces.  '  A  Briefe  and  Plaine 
Scheam  .  .  by  Mr.  IWilliani  I  Penn  '  .  .  January  S,  1697,  for  this  purpose,  is  tlie  first  suyyestion. 
Ibid,  iv,  390. 


8th,  1721,  shows  that  the  French  had  won  the  friendship  of  nearly  all 
the  Aborigines  from  New  Ham|)shire  to  the  Carolinas,  excepting  the 
Iroquois  of  New  York,  whose  alliance  they  several  times  nearly 
secured.  The  Lords  of  Trade  and  Plantations  realized  the  dangers  of 
the  situation,  and  a  paragraph  in  their  report  reads  as  follows  : 

Thus,  by  one  view  of  the  Map  of  North  America.  Your  Majesty  will  see  the 
danger  your  subjects  are  in,  surrounded  by  the  French,  who  have  robbed  them  of  great 
part  of  the  trade  they  formerly  drove  with  the  natives,  have  in  great  measure  cut  of 
their  prospect  of  further  improvements  that  way,  and  in  case  of  a  rupture,  may  greatly 
incommode,  if  not  absolutely  destroy  them  by  their  native  Allies.  And  although  the 
British  Plantations  are  naturally  fortified  by  a  chain  of  Mountains  that  run  from  the 
back  of  South  Carolina  as  far  as  New  York,  passable  but  in  a  few  places,  yet  should  we 
not  possess  those  passes  in  time,  this  would  rather  prove  destructive  than  beneficial 
to  us.*     . 

The  full  knowledge  of  their  danger  begot  the  lueans  of  their  sal- 
vation. The  increase  in  number  of  the  British  in  .\merica  was  greater 
than  that  of  the  French.  They  also  rallied  to  the  necessity  of  giving 
more  and  more  attention  to  the  Aborigines  in  general  from  the  iiolicy 
of  both  jirotection  and  trade.  In  greater  numbers  and  to  farther 
distances  thev  followed  the  French  along  the  water  courses.  Their 
presents,  their  increased  prices  for  peltries  and  their  cheaper  prices  for 
the  goods  exchanged  for  them  were  attractions  for  the  natives  that  the 
French  could  not  fully  continue  to  meet.  The  British  looms  had  been 
kept  at  work  on  various  fabrics  of  the  brightest  colors  expressly  for 
the  American  Aborigines.  The  French  Comjianies  could  not  bu\-  their 
goods  as  cheap  as  could  the  British,  and  'the  Duty  the  French  Com- 
pany is  obliged  to  pav  to  the  King  .  .  enabled  the  Traders  of  New 
York  to  sell  their  Goods  in  the  .'Vborigine  Country  at  half  the  price 
people  of  Canada  can,  and  reap  twice  the  profit  they  do.'T  Strouds 
were  sold  at  /Mbany,  New  York,  for  f  10  that  commanded  £'2o  at 
Montreal.  In  17-4  British  merchants  of  New  York  'allow  Traders 
with  the  Aborigines  double  the  Price  for  Beaver  that  the  French 
Company  allow.'  .  .  The  prices  had  been  advanced  from  three 
shillings  until  five  shillings  New  York  money,  or  three  shillings  ster- 
ling, were  paid  per  pound  for  skins  in  New  York,  while  in  Montreal 
the  price  was  two  livres  or  eighteen  pence.  +  The  French  not  being 
able  to  keep  the  British  traders  from  the  natives  in  Central  \\'estern 
Ohio,  endeavored  to  remove  the  Aborigines  to  the  north  and  west,  but 
were  not  successful. 

France  declared  war  against  Great  Britain  March  l;"i,  1744,  again 
from  European  causes,  and  the  British  Colonists  in  America,  now  more 

^London  Document  XXII,  New  York  Colonial  Documents  volume  v,  page  623. 
t  London  Doc.  XXVII,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  v,  page  730, 

i  The  Chapter  on  the  Maumee  River  cives  tin  thei  klinipses  of  the  increased  activity  of  the  British 
throutih  this  Basin. 


conscious  of  their  strength,  readily  entered  into  the  contest  here  under 
the  name  of  the  War  of  King  George  II,  and  with  a  greater  feeling  of 
local  justification.  In  Europe  this  was  known  as  the  War  of  the 
Spanish  Succession.  This  vear  the  British  effected  another  treaty  with 
the  Six  Nations  at  Lancaster,  Pennsylvania,  wherein  was  confirmed 
their  cession  in  1684  of  claims  to  lands  along  the  southern  shore  of 
Lake  Erie  and  to  the  southwest.  They  also  effected  several  other 
treaties  about  this  time,  including  one  with  the  Ohio  Aborigines.* 
On  account  of  the  increased  traffic  and  trade,  the  Maumee  River 
Basin  experienced  more  of  this  war  than  of  the  others  that  had  been 
waged  between  these  contending  nations.  In  fact  Ohio  had  become 
the  center  for  Aborigine  warriors,  and  the  increased  peaceful  successes 
of  the  British  with  these  Aborigines  was  becoming  a  more  stjrious  matter 
with  the  French;  and  wherever  traders  of  the  former  were  reported, 
parties  or  troops  of  the  latter  were  dispatched  for  their  arrest  or  dis- 
lodgment.  At  the  beginning  of  King  George  II's  War,  M.  de  Longueuil 
commandant  at  Detroit,  passed  up  the  Maumee  River  with  his  body 
guard  and  a  company  of  Ottawas  on  their  way  to  capture  British 
traders  by  the  White  River,  Indiana.  Many  of  those  western  tribes 
were  yet  friendh'  to  the  French  and,  in  the  summer  of  1746,  eight  or 
ten  of  the  tribes  were  represented  by  warriors  at  Montreal  ready  to 
enter  upon   any  savage  work   to  which    the    French    could    direct   them. 

The   Conspiracy  of  Nicholas  Against  The  French. 

A  number  of  the  western  tribes  of  Aborigines,  however,  were  not 
active  with  the  French,  and  other  tribes  were  divided.  The  Miamis  of 
the  Maumee  were  not  largely  represented  at  Montreal  at  this  time.  The 
Iroquois  of  New  York  were  again  divided,  and  the  British  by  the 
friendly  members  sent  war-belts  of  wampum  to  the  Hurons  (Wyandots) 
and  the  war-chief  Nicholas  with  his  band  accepted  the  overture.  From 
the  Paris  Documents  IX  and  X  which  are  the  French  records  of  occur- 
rences during  the  years  1747—48,  the  following  statements  relating  to 
the  widespread  influence  of  Nicholas  in  this  Basin  and  its  vicinit\' 
are   extracted,  largely  in  the  words  there  given,  viz: 

The  Wyandots  under  Nicholas  killed  five  Frenchmen  who  were  on  their  return 
from  the  post  at  White  River  [in  the  present  Indiana]  and  stole  their  furs ;  and  all  the 
natives  of  the  neighborhood,  except  the  Illinois  tribes  have  formed  the  design  to  destroy 
all  the  French  of  Detroit  on  one  of  the  holidays  of  Pentecost,  and  afterwards  go  to  the 
fort  and  subject  all  to  fire  and  sword.  Some  Hurons  having  struck  too  soon,  the  plot 
had  been  discovered  by  a  Huron  squaw  who  came  to  give  M.  de  Longueuil,  Commandant 
of  Detroit,  notice  of  it.  .  .  .  Other  Hurons  came  to  assure  him  that  they  had  no 
share    in    the    misconduct  of  Nicolas'  people    .    .    who    have    attached    to    them    several 

'■'  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America  volume  i,  pages  3tX\  S0.5;  also  volume  v,  pages  487, 
566,  with  notes  and  other  references. 


families  of  vagabond  Iroquois,  Loups,  Sauts,  etc.  .  .  We  are  informed  that  all  the 
[western]  Nations  in  general  continue  to  be  ill  disposed  to  the  French  .  .  that  those  of 
the  Lake,  Sauteurs  and  Outaouas  [Chippewas  and  Ottawas]  are  on  the  eve  of  attacking 
Detroit ;  .  .  that  the  fort  has  lost  almost  all  the  cattle  ;  and  fears  that  the  garrison 
will  perish,  being  all  at  the  discretion  of  the  enemy. 

A  party  of  Miamis  have  come  to  dance  the  Calumet  at  the  fort  [Detroit]  and 
another  section  have  been  to  visit  Nicolas  at  Sandusky.  The  ceremony  attendant  on 
the  former  has  been  very  expensive ;  their  reception,  the  good  cheer  for  the  space  of 
fifteen  days,  and  the  presents  which  have  been  made  to  them  with  a  view  both  to  destroy 
unfavorable  impressions  amongst  them,  and  to  protect  the  lives  of  the  French  who  are 
in  their  village,  have  cost  a  great  deal. 

Such  was  the  state  of  affairs  at  Detroit  on  the  2.ith  August,  1747.  .      The  Mon- 

treal convoy  arrived  safe  in  Detroit  on  the  'I'ind  September,  escorted  by  about  l.iO  men 
including  the  merchants  and  their  servants.  This  relief  is  the  salvation  of  Detroit,  and 
has  apparently  made  an  impression  on  the  Nations  [tribes  of  Aborigines].  The  Miamis 
[of  the  Maumee  River]  and  perhaps  also  the  Ouyatanons  [of  the  Wabash]  are  in  dis- 
order. The  former  allowed  themselves  to  be  gained  over  by  the  Belts  of  Nicolas,  who 
represented  to  them  that  Detroit  had  been  razed  by  the  Lake  tribes  ;  that  consequently 
they  could  no  longer  defer  killing  the  French  who  were  among  them.  The  Miamis  have 
listened  to  this  message.  They  first  seized  eight  Frenchmen  who  were  in  the  fort  of 
that  post  [Fort  Miami  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee]  whom,  however,  they  did  not  injure  ; 
they  afterwards  seized  the  property  and  burnt  a  portion  of  the  buildings.  Two  of  the 
eight  Frenchmen  whom  the  Miamis  had  allowed  to  leave  uninjured,  arrived  at  Detroit 
on  the  7th  of  October,  1747.  .  .  There  are  a  great  many  peltries  at  Detroit,  which 
cannot  be  brought  down  [to  Montreal]  until  next  year.  .  .  These  nations  [the  Ottawas. 
Chippewas  and  Pottawatamis]  are  only  endeavoring  to  get  their  supplies  out  of  us, 
and  to  discover  a  favorable  opportunity  to  betray  us  irrecoverably.  Mr.  de  Longueuil 
is  consequently,  obliged  to  ask  us  for  a  reinforcement  of  men  and  provisions,  at 
the  very  opening  of  spring.  .  .  There  are  not  provisions  at  Detroit  for  any  length 
of  time. 

M.  Longueuil  not  being  able  to  send  any  Traders  to  the  Miamis  until  the  Nation 
return  to  its  duty,  sends  back  to  Montreal  Ensign  Douville,  who  commanded  at  that  post 
[at  the  head  of  the  Maumee]  and  who  was  at  Detroit  at  the  time  the  natives  com- 
mitted the  pillage.  .  .  The  Miamis,  who  had  formerly  pillaged  the  fort  and  seized 
the  Frenchmen  have  sent  [fall  or  winter  of  1717]  one  of  their  principal  chiefs  to  M. 
de  Longueuil  to  request  him  to  send  back  some  Frenchmen  to  them,  and  not  to  deprive 
them  of  their  indispensable  supplies,  promising  him  that  order  would  be  restored  in  a 
short  time.  That  officer  yielded  to  their  solicitation,  with  a  view  to  deprive  the  enemy 
[British]  of  the  liberty  of  seizing  a  post  of  considerable  importance.  Ensign  Dubuisson 
whom  he  sent  thither  [at  the  head  of  the  Maumee]  is  to  form  only  a  small  establishment 
there  to  winter  in.  He  has  been  supplied  with  thirty  Frenchmen  to  maintain  himself 
there,  and  is  accompanied  by  thirty  others  destined  for  the  Ouyatanons  trade  [down  the 
Wabash],  with  orders  to  the  latter  to  rejoin  Sieur  Dubuisson  in  the  spring,  so  as  to 
return  together  to  Detroit. 

Nicolas.  Orotoni  and  Anioton,  chiefs  of  the  Huron  [Wyandot  natives]  traitors, 
came  there  [Detroit]  to  sue  for  peace,  and  to  surrender  the  belts  [of  Wampum]  which 
have  been  the  cause  of  this  treason  ;  they  have  made  speeches  to  which  M.  de  Longueuil 
has  given  an  answer,  but  he  doubts  their  sincerity.  .  .  The  post  at  Detroit  will,  it  is 
feared,  run  short  of  provisions  in  consequence  of  the  great  number  of  tribes  continually 
there,  and  who  are  to  come  from  all  parts  this  spring  [1748].  A  Frenchman  has  been 
killed  at  the  gate  of  the  fort  of  the  Miamis  [at  the  head  of  the  Maumee]  it  is  supposed 
by  some    Iroquois. 


Nicolas'  conduct  is  not  free  from  equivocation ;  the  English  of  Philadelphia  visited 
him  twice  during  the  winter  [1747-48],  to  trade,  and  they  were  well  received.  The  scalp 
belonging  to  the  Frenchman  who  was  killed  near  Fort  Miamis,  has  been  carried  thither 
[to  Sandusky].  .     The   posts  of   the  Miamis  and  at  the  River  [St.  Joseph]  are  not 

in  want  of  goods.  .  .  The  messages  and  proceedings  of  Nicolas  are  too  suspicious  to 
be  relied  on.  .  .  Presents  are  sent  [from  Detroit]  by  Cold  Foot,  a  Miami  chief,  who 
appears  trustw-orthy. 

Count  de  la  Galissonniere  [Governor  of  New  France]  writes  to  the  commandants 
of  the  posts  of  the  Miamis,  Ouyatanons,  River  St.  Joseph,  Sec.  respecting  what  con- 
cerns them  ;  and  adds,  that  they  ought  to  keep  an  exact  and  circumstantial  journal  of  the 
occasions  wherein  they  are  obliged  to  incur  expenses  for  presents  to  natives.  .  .  He 
sends  these  officers  a  list  of  the  voyageurs  who  are  wintering  with  the  natives,  and  of 
the  Coureurs  de  bois  in  order  to  their  being  sent  back,  so  that  they  not  return  any 
more    to  the   Upper  country. 

Kinousaki  had  returned,  on  the  7th  of  .■\pril  [1748],  from  the  Miamis  [Maumee] 
River,  whither  he  had  gone  to  bring  back  the  Hurons  [Wyandots]  who  had  deserted 
from  the  village  of  Ostandosket  [Sandusky]  and  reported  that  Nicolas,  with  119  warriors 
of  his  nation,  men,  women  and  baggage,  had  taken  the  route  to  the  White  River,  after 
having  burnt  the  fort  and  the  cabins  of  the  village  ;  that  the  Outauas  [Ottawas]  had 
given  him  (Kinousaki)  a  cool  reception,  and  that  a  portion  only  of  them  would  consent 
to  return  to  Detroit,  the  remainder  wishing  to  settle  at  the  lower  end  of  the  Miamis 
[Maumee]  liiver,  where  the  Hurons  had  promised  them  the  English  would  supply  their 
wants.  .  .  The  natives  in  and  around  Detroit  have  all  sworn  fidelity  and  obedience 
to  Chevalier  de  Longueuil  .  .  who  by  four  Belts,  [of  Wampun]  put  moccassins  on 
the  feet  of   all   the  warriors  so  that   they  may  be  ready  at  a  minute's  warning. 

Numerous  war  parties  were  fitted  out  in  Montreal  and  at  the  west- 
ern posts,  for  incursions  against  the  British  and  their  native  allies;  and 
manv  scalps,  from  one  to  twenty-five  or  more  per  war  party,  were 
lirought  in  and  payment  for  them  collected.  Further  i^limpses  of  the 
horrors  of  such  ignoble  warfare  that  was  sometimes  repugnant  to  the 
savages  are  excerpted  from  the  rejiorts  to  superior  officers  made  at  the 
time,  viz:  'June  22,  1748.  Thirty-four  Iroquois  of  the  Saut  have  been 
outfitted  for  a  war  party,  and  ordered  to  divide  themselves  into  two  or 
three  small  sections  :  but  having  manifested  some  repugnance,  thev 
were  authoritatively,  told  that  they  were  to  submit  to  orders  and 
obey.'  This  policy  sometimes  acted  like  a  two-edged  knife  :  and  the 
definition  of  murderer  hinged  upon  the  relationship  of  the  V'arty  killed, 
for  instance: 

June  2~nh.  All  these  natives  [the  Sauteurs  or  Chippewas  near  Detroit]  have 
very  urgently  demanded  mercy  for  the  murderers;  they  were  answered,  that  it  was 
mercy  to  detain  them  so  as  to  prevent  them  continuing  their  bad  conduct ;  that  the  people 
of  their  nation  ought  to  have  confidence  in  their  Father's  [the  French  Governor's, 
through  the  commandant  of  the  fort]  benificence.  .  .  July  Sth.  The  Outaoua 
[Ottawa],  Huron,  and  Pouteouatime  [Pottawotami]  chiefs  at  Detroit  have  requested 
some  young  men  to  go  on  a  war  excursion  [against  the  British],  as  well  to  afford  proofs 
of  their  fidelity  as  to  repair  past  faults,  whilst  they,  the  chiefs,  would  return  home  to 
promote  peace  [toward  the  French].  The  first  portion  of  their  request  has  been 
approved  ;  the  young  men  have,  consequently,  been  equipped,  but  the  chiefs  have  been 
given  to  understand  that  they  ought  not  to  think  of  returning  before  speaking  [inflicting 


injuries]  to  the  Five  Nations,  who  were  daily  expected.  The  different  Michilimackinac 
Nations  made  similar  requests  to  those  of  Detroit.  Ninety  of  these  natives,  fifty  domi- 
ciliated natives  and  twenty-si.\  Canadians  have  all  been  equipped  under  the  command  of 
Chevalier  de  Repentigny,  who  is  accompanied  by  several  military  cadets. 
July  Kith.  Twenty-four  Outaouas  and  Pouteouatamis  of  Detroit  have  been  likewise 
fitted  out  for  a  war  excursion.  .  .  Nine  Sauteurs  of  Detroit  have  been  equipped 
to  go  on  a  war  excursion.  Sieur  Blondeau,  a  volunteer,  commands  them. 
August  10th.  Chevalier  de  Repentigny,  who  went  out  with  a  party  of  natives  to  fight' 
arrives  from  Montreal  ;  he  made  an  attack  near  Corlac  and  took  eleven  prisoners  and 
twenty-five  scalps. 

If  the  British  inflicted  less  injury  than  they  experienced  by  this 
horrible  mode  of  warfare  it  was  less  from  their  desire  than  from  their 
liinited  success  in  enlisting  the  savages  as  their  allies.  Governor 
George  Clinton  in  a  letter  dated  Ne\v  York  ifith  April,  1747,  wrote  to 
Colonel  William  Johnson  that  'In  the  bill  I  am  Koing"  to  pass,  the 
council  did  not  think  pro]ier  to  put  rewards  for  scali:)in!J',  or  taking  iionr 
women  or  children  prisoners,  in  it;  but  the  asseml)ly  has  assured  me  the 
money  shall   be   paid  when  it  so  happens,  if  the  natives  insist  upon  it.' 

On  May  oOth  Colonel  Johnson  wrote  to  the  Governor  that  'I 
am  quite  pestered  every  day  with  parties  returning  with  prisoners  and 
scalps,  and  without  a  penny  to  pay  them  with.  It  comes  very  hard 
upon  me,  and  is  displeasing  to  them  I  can  assure  you,  for  they  expect 
their  pay  and  demand  it  of   me  as  soon  as  they  return."" 

Governor  Clinton  reported  to  the  Duke  of  Newcastle,  with  date 
•23rd  Jul\  ,  1747, t  that 

Colonel  Johnson  who  I  have  employ'd  as  Chief  Manager  of  the  .Aborigine  War 
and  Colonel  over  all  the  natives,  by  their  own  approbation,  has  sent  several  parties  of 
natives  into  Canada  &  brought  back  at  several  times  prisoners  &  scalps,  but  they 
being  laid  aside  last  year,  the  natives  were  discouraged  and  began  to  entertain  jealousies, 
by  which  a  new  expence  became  necessary  to  remove  these  jealousies  &  to  bring  them 
back  to  their  former  tempers  ;  but  unless  some  enterprize  be  undertaken,  which  may 
keep  up  their  spiritts,  we  may  again  loose  them.  I  intend  to  propose  something  to  our 
Assembly  for  this  purpose  that  they  may  give  what  is  necessary  for  the  expence  of  it,  but 
I  almost  despair  of  any  success  with  them  when  money  is  demanded. 

I  must  likewise  inform  your  Grace  that  by  this  last  trip  to  Albany,  I  have  got  two 
native  NationsJ  to  join  us,  who  are  numerous  &  who  were  formerly  alhvays  in  the 
French  interest.  They  have  actually  fallen  upon  several  French  trading  parties.  They 
may  be  of  singular  use  to  distress  the  French  trade  &  to  cut  oft  all  communication 
between  the  French  in  Missesipia  tiiver  &  Canada. 

The  Treaty  of  Aix-La-Chapelle,  in  April,  174H,  closed  King 
II's  War  in  Great  Britain,  but  settled  nothing  between  the  American 
and  French  Colonies  further  than  to  restore  to  the  French  possession 
Louisburg  and  Cape  Breton  captured   by  the  British  in   174.". 

*  History  of  Detroit  and    Michigan,   by   Silas    Farmer,   volume   i;   and   Michigan   Pioneer   and 
Historical  Collections. 

t  London  Document  XXVIII,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  vi,  paye  .3,58. 
i  Probably  the  Wyandots,  and  the  Mianiis  of  the  Mauniee  River  Basin, 


The    Last   British-French  War  in  America.      1754  to  1760. 

King  George  II's  War  exhibited  the  increasing  strength  of  the 
British  in  America,  and  their  increasing  desire  to  extend  the  borders  of 
their  settlements  according  to  former  grants  and  treaties.  It  had  been 
a  good  training  school  for  the  simple,  brawny  colonists  in  the  ways  of 
war  and  they  had  shown  themselves  equal  to  the  task  of  coping  with 
the  best  French  regular  troops.  Further,  the  home  government  had 
taught  the  Colonies  the  lesson  of  self-reliance.  They  had  been  com- 
pelled to  sustain  themselves  and  the  armies  with  food,  and  to  protect 
their  borders  with  comparatively  little  aid.  They  had  been  well 
informed  regarding  the  cause  of  French  successes  with  the  Aborigines 
and,  following  the  treaty  of  peace  at  Aix-la-Chapelle,  which  was  but 
another  truce,  thev  were  relieved  of  the  task  of  guarding  their  co^st 
towns  against  French  warships  and  the  invasion  of  French  troops. 
The  results  were  soon  observed  by  the  French  in  the  extension  of 
British  settlements  and  traders  with  the  Aborigines.  The  Governors 
of  Pennsvlvania  and  Virginia  also  sought  to  confirm  their  purchase  of 
Ohio  lands  at  Lancaster  in  1744,  and  the  treaties  with  different  tribes, 
bv  inviting  the  Six  Nations,  Delawares,  Shawnees,  Nanticokes  (a 
band  of  Delawares)  and  the  Miamis  to  a  council  19th  July,  1748,* 
when  the  chiefs  and  warriors  assembled  ( Kequenackcpia,  father  of 
Little  Turtle  (?)  and  two  other  chiefs,  Assapausa  and  Natoecoqucha, 
for  the  Miamis)  fully  committed  their  tribes  to  the  direction  and  pro- 
tection of  these  Colonies.  To  draw  the  Miamis  and  their  neighboring 
bands  away  from  the  French  influence,  the  British  traders  had  built  a 
stockade  by  the  Miami  River  at  the  mouth  of  Loramie  Creek  in  the 
present  Shelby  County,  Ohio,  and  had  been  succeeding  in  gradually 
attracting  the  tribe  thither.  This  station  was  sometimes  called  Tawix- 
twi  and  Twightwees '  'the  British  name  for  the  Miamis)  town,  and 
sometimes    Pickawillany. 

The  French  were  quick  to  yierceive  the  developing  aggressiveness 
of  the  British  and,  smarting  from  their  apparently  weakening  prestige 
among  the  natives,  redoubled  their  efforts  along  the  borders  for  the 
purpose  of  obstructing  the  advance  of  British  company  land  grants, 
traders  and  settlers.  Hostilities  of  more  or  less  moment  continued 
along  the  old,  and  the  constantly  increasing,  lines  of  travel  to  the 
westward   regardless   of  the  treaty. 

The  grants  of  land  in  174H  to  the  British  colonists  forming  the 
Ohio  Company  and  others,   made  a  new  route  of    travel    to  the  Ohio 

■'  Alfred  T.  Goodwin  wrote  that  this  treaty  was  held  at   Lancaster.   Pennsylvania.      Journal  of 
Captain   William  Trent,  Cincinnati,  1871,  pages  22,  40,  95. 


River  desirable  as  the  former  routes  were  well  guarded  by  the 
French.  The  French  had  foreseen  this  and  had  established  forts  in 
the  vicinitv  of  the  probable  routes  ;  and  now  they  saw  the  necessity  of 
adopting  increased  precautions  to  prevent  the  inroads  of  their  enemies, 
the  British.  In  1749  the  Marquis  de  la  Gallissonniere,  then  Governor 
in  chief  of  New  France,  sent  Captain  Pierre  Joseph  de  Celoron*  to  Ohio 
for  this  purpose.  This  command  of  two  hundred  French  and  thirty 
Aboriginest  left  Quebec  the  Ifith  June,  1749,  arrived  at  Niagara  the 
6th  July,  and  at  the  junction  of  the  Miami  River  with  the  Ohio  if^th 
August,  where  Celoron  buried  the  sixth,  and  last,  lead  plate  stamped 
with  the  notice  that  France  had  taken  formal  possession  of  the  country. 
Tin  plates  bearing  the  same  notification  were  nailed  to  trees,  and 
every  other  means  taken  to  proclaim  this  event.  The  13th  September 
the  expedition  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  Loramie  Creek,  the  site  of 
Pickawillany  stockade  built  b\-  British  traders  about  the  year  1740. 
At  the  time  of  the  coming  of  Celoron  there  was  here  a  village  and  fort 
of  a  Miami  chief  of  the  Piankeshaw  band  called  la  Demoiselle  (the 
Young  Ladv )  on  account  of  his  display  of  dress  and  ornaments. 
Celoron  requested  the  chief  to  take  his  band,  which  British  traders  had 
enticed  away  from  the  French,  back  to  Fort  Miami  at  the  head  of  the 
Maumee  River.  This  he  promised  to  do  later.  At  this  time  there  was 
in  this  village  of  forty  to  fifty  Aborigine  men,  but  one  English  trader 
(others  had  departed  on  their  approach);  but  a  number  of  others  were 
met  on  the  route  from  the  headquarters  of  the  Ohio  River  to  this 
point,  whom  Captain  Celoron  ordered  out  of  the  Ohio  country;  and 
he  reported  their  promises  to  go. 

Captain  Celoron  burned  at  Pickawillanx'  the  canoes  with  which 
his  command  had  ascended  the  Miami  River,  and  marched  across  the 
divide  and  along  the  right  bank  of  the  River  St.  Mary  to  its  mouth  at 
the  head  of  the  Maumee. 

He  found  Fort  Miami  in  \-ery  bad  condition  ;  most  of  the  palisades  were  decayed 
and  fallen  into  ruin.  Within,  there  were  eight  houses — or,  to  speak  more  correctly, 
eight  miserable  huts,  which  only  the  desire  of  making  money  could  render  endurable. 
The  French  there  numbered  twenty-two  ;  all  of  them,  even  to  the  commandant,  had  the 
fever  [probably  the  ague].  Monsieur  Raimond  [the  commandant]  did  not  approve  the 
situation  of  the  fort  [see  No.  .")  on  the  accompanying  map],  and  maintained  that  it  should 
be  placed  on  the  bank  of  the  St.  Joseph  River,  distant  only  a  scant  league  from  its  pres- 
ent site   [see  No.  <i  on   map].       He  wished   to  show  me  that  spot,  but  the  hindrances  of 

*  There  has  been  some  confusion  regardinc  this  ofticei 's  name.  In  the  New  York  Colonial  Docu- 
ments it  is  given  as  Captain  Bienville  de  Celoron.  In  another  writing  it  is  shown  as  Blainville  the 
name  of  an  ensign  present  at  the  taking  of  Fort  Massachusetts;  and  others  give  it  as  Celoron  de 
Bienville.  The  Reverend  Father  Bonnecamps  accompanied  this  Ohio  expedition,  and  the  name  is  here 
given  as  recorded  by  him  in  The  Jesuit  Relations.  Cleveland  edition. 

t  London  Document  XXIX,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  vi,  page  533. 


our  departure  prevented  me  from  going  thither.      All  that  I  could  do  for  him  was  to  trace 
the  plan  of  his  new  fort.     The  latitude  of  the  old  one  is  fl°  20'.* 

We  bought  pirogues  and  provisions  and,  on  the  afternoon  of  the  2Tth  [September, 
1  Tl'.l  ]  we  set  out  en  route  for  Detroit.! 

A  new  Fort  Miami  was  built  hv  Commandant  Comtt-  dc  Raimond 
aftur  the  visit  of  Captain  Celeron,  in  1749  and  during-  the  year  1750. 
It  was  located  on  the  east  bank  of  the  River  St.  Joseph,  and  the  old 
Fort  on  the  right  bank  of  the  St.  Mary  over  a  mile  to  the  southwest, 
was  abandoned. 

The  British  were  again  stimulated  to  increased  activity  by  Captain 
Celoron's  expedition.  The  Ohio  Land  Company,  formed  in  Virginia 
in  174H,  sent  Christopher  Gist  to  Ohio  in  1750,  and  Governor  James 
Hamilton  of  Pennsylvania  sent  George  Croghan,  to  explore  the  coun- 
try and  to  conciliate  the  Aborigines  unfriendl\-  to  the  British.  Pres- 
ents of  rum,  paint,  blankets,  etc.,  were  carried  along  as  necessary  ways 
and  means  to  the  end  desired.  Fealty  was  promised,  and  manifested 
while  the  agents  were  present  by  the  Miamis  refusing  to  receive  the 
friendly  wampum,  tobacco  and  brandy,  i)resented  by  four  Ottawas  di- 
rect from  the  French  at  Detroit.!  Many  presents  were  also  sent  to 
the  Aborigines  in  Ohio  by  the  'Governor  of  Philadelphia'  including 
twelve  barrels  of  gunpowder  &c'  with  captivating  assertions  for 
better  prices  for  peltries  and  cheaper  prices  for  goods,  all  made  prac- 
tical, and  tangible,  by  the  convivial  effects  of  the  freely  flowing  rum, 
which  was  represented  as  better  than  the  French  brand\-  while  far 
cheaper  in  price. § 

'Valuable  presents'  from  the  French  followed  those  from  the  British 
in  the  spring  of  1750;  and  these  presents  were  soon  followed  by  French 
threats  to  destroy  the  tribes  who  continued  to  favor  the  British.  Evi- 
dences of  an  impending  final  struggle  were  fast  gathering,  and  Ohio 
was  the  skirmishing  ground.  The  Aborigines  were  fickle  and  waver- 
ing, with  the  tendency  always  toward  the  side  that  most  freely  and 
continuously  offered  the  greater  inducements  in  presents  of  gaudy 
trappings,  intoxicants  and  weapons;  and  while  the  French  and  British, 
each  in  turn,  acknowledged  exhaustion  from  such  apparently  necessary 
policv.  We  also  catch  glimpses  from  their  records  of  fatigue,  and  even 
of  disgust,   occasionally  manifested  by  the  Aborigines  at  the  continu- 

*  This  computation  is  but  twenty  minutes  in  excess  of  the  autliois  computation  for  the  site  of  Gen- 
era! Wayne's  fort  shown  on  the  accompanyinc  map,  and  illustrates  that  the  early,  and  ready,  means  of 
computing  latitude  was  fairly  satisfactory. 

t  From  Father  Bounecamp's  diary  of  Captain  Celoron's  expedition  through  Ohio  in  1749,  The 
Jesuit  Relations,  volume  Ixix,  pace  IHo  et  seq. 

t  London  Doc.  XXIV,  N.  Y.  Col.  Docs,  volume  vii,  panes  267  to  271,  Colonial  Records  of  Penn- 
sylvania, volume  v.  Olden  Time,  volume  i,  Dinwiddle  Papers.  For  the  Journal  of  Mr,  Gist's  journey, 
see  Pownall's  Topographical  Description  of  North  America,  London,  1776. 

S  Compare  London  Document  XXIX,  New  York  Colonial  Documents  volume  vi,  page  549. 


ous  solicitations,  liribery  and  threats  of  force  b\-  these  European 
invaders  of  the  forests  to  keep  the  Aborigines  involved  in  their  long 
continued  contests  for  supremacy.  It  was  but  a  phase  of  the  old  storv 
of  the  a-ggressiveness  and  persistency  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  people  in 
their  conquest   of   the  world. 

The  Six  Nations  of  New  York,  now  much  reduced  in  number  and 
efficiency  t)y  past  wars,  still  claimed  and  held  the  country  to  the  east 
end    of    Lake    Erie   and,    notwithstanding    treaties   and    purchases,    vet 

I.W  F»  Wa   isMir^QTON    B°    10' 

claimed  along  its  southern  border  and  were  \et  very  desiralile  allies. 
Their  influence  and  assistance  were  still  claimed  by  both  the  French 
and  the  British.  The  temper  of  the  situation  is  shown  in  the  follow- 
ing excerpts  from  the  letter  of  Marquis  de  la  Jonquiere,  Governor  of 
New  France,  to  George  Clinton,  Governor  of  New  York,  under  date 
10th  August,  1751,  viz: 

You.  very  unadvisedly,  and  in  opposition  to  your  own  understanding,  call  the 
Five  Nations  subjects  of  the  King,  your  Master.  They  are  ho  such  thing,  and  you 
would  be  very  careful  not  to  put  forth  such  a  pretension  in  their  presence.  You  treat 
them  with  much  more  circumspection.  .     It  must  be  concluded  that  your  excellency 

has  had  no  authority  to  object  against  the  post  [in  New  York]  I  have  caused  to  be 
established.     It  has  been  erected  with  the  perfect  knowledge  of  the  Iroquois  of  the  Five 


Nations,  who  alone  are  competent  to  complain  of  it.  They  did  not  oppose  it  ;  they  con- 
sented to  it. 

You  are  not  ignorant,  Sir,  of  the  expedition  Mr.  de  Celeron  made  in  the 
year  1  74'.l.  ,  .  I  had  the  honor  to  write  to  you  myself  on  the  7th  March,  1750,  on  that 
subject,  and  to  request  your  Excellency  to  issue  an  order  forbidding  all  the  subjects  of 
New  England  to  go  and  trade  on  the  territory  of  the  King,  my  Master.  In  the  same 
letter  I  had  the  honor  to  express  to  you  my  just  sensibility  at  all  the  secret  movements 
of  the  English  to  induce  the  Aborigines,  who,  from  all  time,  have  been  our  closest  allies, 
to  destroy  the  French.  .  .  But  the  result  has  undeceived  me.  The  English,  far 
from  confining  them.selves  within  the  limits  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain's  possessions, 
not  satisfied  with  multiplying  themselves  more  and  more  on  Rock  River  [the  Miami], 
with  having  houses  and  open  stores  there,  have,  more  than  that,  proceeded  within  sight 
of  Detroit,  even  unto  the  fort  of  the  Miamis  [at  the  head  of  the  Maumee].  This  pro- 
ceeding, following  so  many  unneighborly  acts,  the  evil  consequences  we  but  too  sensibly 
feel,  have  placed  Mr.  de  Celoron,  the  commandant  at  Detroit,  under  the  necessity  of 
ordering  these  Englishmen  to  be  arrested.  .  .  The  capture  of  these  four  English- 
men ought  not  to  surprise  you :  .  .  as  for  John  Pathin,  he  entered  the  fort  of  the 
Miamis  to  persuade  the  Aborigines  who  remained  there,  to  unite  with  those  who  have 
fled  to  the  Beautiful  river  [the  Ohio].  He  has  been  taken  in  the  French  fort.  Nothing 
more  is  necessary.  .  .  John  Pathin  could  enjoy  the  same  freedom  [as  the  others], 
but  he  is  so  mutinous,  and  uttered  so  many  threats,  that  I  have  been  obliged  to  imprison 
him    at   (Juebec. 

Governor  Clinton  replied  in  a  long  letter  that,  'The  Gov""  of 
Canada,  by  his  answer  of  10th  of  August,  confesses  the  things  com- 
plained of  to  he  true,  does  not  deny  them  to  be  infractions  of 
the  Treaty  of  Utrecht  [in  which  the  French  were  not  to  enter  the 
country  of  the  British  Aborigines],  but  advances  a  number  of  facts 
groundless  and  false  in  themselves.  .  .  This  seems  to  be 
treating  his  Britanick  Majesty  and  the  Treaties  of  Utrecht  and 
Aix-la-Chapelle  with  contempt.  .  .  The  French  possession  of 
Detroit  was  not  till  after  the  peace  of  Ryswick  .  .  and  these 
incroachments  were  grieviously  complained  of  by  the  Five  Nations 
to  the  Gov^  of  New  York.'  .  .  James  Hamilton,  Governor  of 
Pennsylvania,  wrote  to  Governor  Clinton  18  September,  1751,  that 
'The  Gov""  of  Canada's  letter  .  .  is  indeed  a  singular  piece  of 
argumentation,  but  though  its  reasonings  are  everywhere  false,  as 
might  lie  easily  proved,  yet  I  think  it  will  be  to  no  purpose  to  confute 
them,  since  little  regard  will  probably  be  had  to  anything  that  can  be 
said  on  this  side  of   the  Water.' 

In  th(.-  fall  of  1750  the  British  enlarged  and  strengthened  the  stock- 
ade at  Pickawillany,  which  was  made  necessary  by  the  increase  of 
population  and  business.  Christopher  Gist,  at  the  time  of  his  sojourn 
there,  wrote  in  his  Journal  (see  ante,  jiage  ilti)  February,  1751,  that 
this  place  was  daily  increasing  and  was  accounted  one  of  the  strongest 
Aborigine  towns  on  the  continent.  The  stockade  was  then  being- 
strengthened.  During  the  winter  of  1750-51,  thirty  Miamis  were  killed 
bv  the   French  and  their  St.  Lawrence  -Vborigine  allies.      In    1751   the 


French  captured  near  the  Maumee  River  Luke  Arowin,  Joseph  Forti- 
ner,  Thomas  Borke  and  John  Pathen,  Pennsylvania  traders  with  the 
Aborigines  whom  they  held  as  prisoners.  Retaliation  was  sought,  and 
was  accomplished  the  following  spring  by  Fifteen  French  traders  fall- 
ing victims  of  the  Miamis. 

Marquis  de  la  Jonquiere  Governor  of  New  France  ordered  Captain 
Celoron,  now  commandant  of  Detroit,  to  attack  and  reduce  Picka- 
willany:  but  he  could  not  or  would  not  obey.  The  threateiied  condi- 
tion of  French  affairs  at  this  time  in  and  contiguous  to  this  Basin  are 
further  told  by  the  report  of  Comte  de  Raimond,  commandant  of  Fort 
Miami  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee,  that 

My  people  are  leaving  me  for  Detroit.  Nobody  wants  to  stay  here  and  have 
his  throat  cut.  All  the  tribes  who  go  to  the  English  at  Pickawillany  come  back  loaded 
with  gifts.  I  am  too  weak  to  meet  the  danger.  Instead  of  twenty  men.  I  need  five 
hundred.  .  .  We  have  made  peace  with  the  English,  yet  they  try  continually  to  make 
war  on  us  by  means  of  the  Aborigines ;  they  intend  to  be  masters  of  all  this  upper 
country.  The  tribes  here  are  leaguing  together  to  kill  all  the  French,  that  they  may 
have  nobody  on  their  lands  but  their  English  brothers.  This  I  am  told  by  Coldfoot,  a 
great  Miami  chief,  whom  I  think  an  honest  man,  if  there  is  any  such  thing  among 
Aborigines.  If  the  English  stay  in  this  country  we  are  lost.     We  must  attack  and 

drive  them  out.*     . 

War  belts  of  wampum  were  sent  from  tribe  to  tribe  until  St.  Ange 
commandant  at  Vincennes  became  alarmed.  In  the  winter  and  spring 
of  1752  small-pox  disabled  many  soldiers  at  Fort  Detroit  and  Baron  de 
Longueuil,  acting  Governor,  wrote  that  'it  is  to  be  wished  that  it 
would  spread  among  our  rebels;  it  would  be  fullv  as  good  as  an 
army.t  •  .  We  are  menaced  with  a  general  outbreak,  and  even 
Toronto  is  in  danger.  .  .  Before  long  the  English  on  the  Miaini 
will  gain  over  all  the  surrounding  tribes,  get  possession  of  Fort 
Chartres,  and  cut  our  communications  with  Louisiana.' 

A  force  of  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  Chippewas  and  Ottawas 
was  gathered  at  the  north  and,  led  by  Charles  Langlade,  were 
reinforced  at  Detroit  by  M.  St.  Orr  (St.  Our?)  with  a  few  French 
regulars  and  Canadians,  and  all  passed  rapidly  across  Lake  Erie,  up 
the  Maumee  and  St.  Marv,  and  across  the  porta,ge  to  Pickawillany 
where  they  attacked  the  town  and  fort  early  in  the  morning  of  21st 
June,  1752.  Most  of  the  Aborigines  were  distant,  and  after  a  sharp 
battle  the  town  and  fort  were  surrendered  to  the  assailants.  One 
Englishman    was    wounded,     then    stabbed     and     partly    eaten.       Five 

*  Francis  Parknian's  Montcalm  and  Wolfe,  Boston,  1898,  volume  i,  page  H2. 

Commandant  Raimond  was,  soon  after  this  report,  succeeded  at  Fort  Miami  by  M.  de  Villiers 
See  Paris  Document  X.  N.  Y.  Col.  Docs.  vol.  s,  page  246. 

t  The  Miamis  were  afflicted  with  small-pox  in  the  winter  of  17f>i-r}2.  but  the  writer  has  no  definite 
evidence  of  it  having  been  intentionally  propagated  among  them.  Chief  Coldfoot  and  his  son.  and 
other  chiefs,  died  at  this  time  of  this  disease. 


Englishmen  were  taken  prisoners,  and  two,  Thomas  Burney  and 
Andrew  McBryer,  escaped  to  tell  the  particulars.  Fourteen  Miamis 
were  shot,  including  /a  Demoiselle  (called  by  the  British  traders  Old 
Britain  and  Piankeshaw  King)  whom  thev  boiled  and  ate.  Seventy 
years  of  missionaries  had  not  weaned  them  from  cannibalism.''^ 

Possibly  the  French  soldiers  stopped  at  Fort  Miami,  as  one  report 
mentions  but  two  Frenchmen  in  the  attack.  But  the  French  were 
responsible  for  it:  and  this  may  well  be  called  the  first  prominent  overt 
act  in  the  last  British-French  war  in  America  which  was  destined  to 
result  in  the  complete  overthrow  of  the  French.  It  awed  the  Miamis. 
They  fled  from  the  region  and  soon  went  again  to  the  French, 
attracted  by  the  spectacular  display  and  presents  of  M.  de  Longueuil 
in  the  tall,  not  regarding  treaties,  including  the  recent  one  at  Logs- 
town  a  few  miles  below  the  present  Pittsburg",  and  the  visit  and 
presents  of  Captain  William  Trent  to  Pickawillany  one  month  after 
the  attack  of  that  place  under  French  direction.  Virginia,  in  effort  to 
win  back  the  Miamis,  sent  presents  to  their  chiefs;  and  appropriations 
were  made  by  the  Legislature  for  their  benefit.  In  May,  1753,  the 
Legislature  of  Pennsylvania  voted  'the  sum  of  two  hundred  pounds 
as  a  present  of  condolence  to  the  Twightwee  [Miami]  nation,  on  the 
melancholy  occasion  mentioned  in  the  governor's  message  of  the  16th 
of  October  last'  it  being  their  loss  of  lives  at  Pickawillany.  The 
assembly  also  voted  six  hundred  pounds  for  distribution  among  the 
Wyandots,  Senecas,  Shawnees,  and  other  western  tribes.  These 
Aborigines  were  a]oprised  of  the  appropriations  and,  upon  invitation, 
were  represented  the  following  autumn  in  council  at  Winchester  and 
at  Carlisle,  where  they  treacherously  professed  great  'love  and  affec- 
tion' for  the  British.  Their  fealty  to  the  French  was  determined, 
however,  before  the  presents  were  delivered,  and  fortunately  so  on 
account  of  the  designed  presents  consisting  largely  of  powder  and 

With  the  building  of  the  French  forts  Presque  Isle,  Le  Boeuf 
and  Venango  in  175'2-54  by  the  water  courses  and  portage  from  the 
present  Erie,  Pennsylvania,  to  the  head  of  the  Ohio  River,  and  the 
bloodless  surrender  of  Fort  Duquesne  17th  April,  1754,  the  British 
were  practically  shut  out  of  Ohio,  notwithstanding  the  favorable 
treaties    before   mentioned. 

The  breach  was  rapidly  widening,  however,  between  the  British 
and  French  and  the  determination  of  both  parties  boded  ill  to  the 
weaker  when  the  imjiending  general  resort  to  arms  should  be  sounded. 
Already  greater  secrecy  had   been   enjoined    from    London,  30th  March, 

■^Reports   of    Longueuil    and    DuMuesne;     Colonial    Records    of    Pennsylvania,    v.    599;    Captain 
William  Trent  to  Governor  Robert  Dinwiddle;  and  Parknian's  Montcalm  and  Wolfe. 


1752,  to  the  Governors  in  America  by  the  Earl  of  Holderness  Secretary 
of  State,  in  the  following  communication:  'Whereas  it  may  happen 
that  circumstances  of  a  very  hijj'h  and  ini])ortant  nature  may  arise 
which  ma\'  require  the  utmost  secrecy,  it  is  the  King's  pleasure  that  if 
any  such  should  occur  within  the  district  of  your  Government  you 
should  forthwith  with  the  utmost  diligence  and  exactitude,  transmit  an 
account  thereof  to  one  of  His  Majesty's  Principal  Secretaries  of  State 
o^l3^  And  you  are  in  such  case  to  follow  all  orders  and  Directions 
which  His  Majesty  shall  think  proper  to  direct  one  of  His  principal 
Secretaries  of   State  to  transmit  to   \ou  in  consequence  thereof.' 

The  British  Colonies  had  been  discordant.  The  people  were  poor 
and,  generally  having  little  or  no  interest  in  hunting  or  trading  with 
the  Aborigines  for  furs,  had  given  their  attention  to  clearing  the  land 
and  cultivating  it  for  their  livelihood  ;  but  something  •more  decisive 
must  be  done  to  destroy  the  embarrassing  aggressiveness  of  the  French 
who  were  continually  inciting  or  abetting  the  Aborigines  to  resent  the 
cultivation  of   the  settlers'  land. 

For  the  purpose  of  formulating  uniform  action  for  winning  the 
Aborigines  against  the  French,  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  Trade  and 
Plantations,  in  London,  requested  the  Colonies  to  send  delegates  to 
Albany,  New  York,  in  June,  1754.  But  little  immediate  good  resulted 
from  this  meeting,  further  than  it  was  educative  for  a  uni(in  that 
eventually  bore  full  fruit  in  confederation.  Soon  after  this  meeting 
Benjamin  Franklin  wrote  for  Thomas  Pownall,  member  of  the  Colonial 
Congress,  a  description  of  the  Ohio  country  and  its  desirabilitv  as 
a  colony  for  Great  Britain.* 

Major  George  Washington's  journey  late  in  175;!  from  Governor 
Dinwiddle  to  the  French  forts  before  mentioned  to  warn  the  French 
to  desist  in  their  aggressions,  proving  of  no  avail,  he  was  sent  in  May, 
1754,  with  a  small  force  against  Fort  Duquesne  at  the  head  of  the  Ohio 
River,  whicli  was  the  I'rench  bar  closing  the  Ohio  countr\'  to  the 
British.  The  moderate  success  of  his  effort  at  Great  Meadows  late  in 
May,  has  been  termed  the  first  contest  in  the  final  British-French  W'ar 
(often  called  the  French  and  Aborigine  War)  in  America,  regardless 
of  the  massacre  at  Pickawillany  in  1752.  Washington's  surrender  at 
Fort  Necessity  occurred  3rd  July,  1754.  Then  followed  a  series  of 
British  defeats  from  unprejiaredness,  the  slowness  of  the  Colonies  in 
getting  properly  into  action  from  the  dictations  of,  and  the  deferring 
to,  the  home  government  (Great  Britain)  and  the  sending  of  European 
officers  and  regular  troops  untrained,  and  unable,  to  cope  with  the 
French  and  their  Aborigine   allies   in  the  wilderness.      General    Edward 

■  Papers  of  lienjamiii  Franklin,  by  Jared  Sparks,  volume  in. 


Braddock's  defeat  in   1755  while  attempting  to  break  the  French  lines 
on  the  upper  Ohio,  is  an  illustration  of  the  latter. 

This,  the  first  British-French  War  relating  mostly  to  American 
affairs  was  formalh'  declared  by  Great  Britain  in  May,  1756,  about  two 
years  after  continued  hostilities.  It  was  but  the  natural  culmination, 
as  has  been  seen  in  the  foregoing,  of  the  increasing  population  and  the 
continued  aggressiveness  of  both  nationalities.  The  result  of  this  war 
was  the  fulfillment  of  the  prophecy  of  Colonel  Caleb  Heathcote  in  his 
communication  to  Governor  Robert  Hunter  of  New  York,  8  July,  1715, 
that  'it  is  impossible  that  the  British  and  the  French  can  both  inhabit 
[rule]  this  Continent  in  peace  but  that  one  nation  must  at  last  give 
way  to  the  other.' 

At  this  time  as  heretofore  the  chief  travel  and  events  in  the 
Maumee  Basin  occurred  along  the  Maumee  River,  and  the  reader  is 
referred  to  the  chapter  on  this  river  in  this  book  for  many  details.  No 
great  battle  was  fought  in  this  Basin  between  the  distinctively  British 
and  French  troops.  The  contest  here  was  between  the  British  agents 
and  traders  among  the  Aborigines  and  the  French  agents  who  were 
often  accompanied  by  French  soldiers  and  distant  Al^origines.  Each 
in  turn  put  forth  strong  efforts  to  reclaim  the  unstable  Aborigines  and 
to  more  closely  ally  them  to  the  interest  represented.  Special  induce- 
ments had  also  been  offered  by  Captain  de  Celoron  for  French  farmers 
to  settle  in  this  western  country  with  Detroit  as  the  more  northern 
center,  and  it  was  hoped  that  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  families  from 
the  lower  settlements  along  the  St.  Lawrence  would  accept  the  terms, 
viz  :  Each  family  to  receive  free  transportation  at  the  King's  expense; 
and  every  settler  to  receive  as  free  gift  one  gun,  hoe,  axe,  plowshare, 
scvthe,  sickle,  two  augurs  large  and  small,  a  sow,  six  hens,  a  cock,  six 
pounds  of  powder,  twelve  pounds  of  lead,  and  many  other  favors. 
Onh'  about  twelve  families  consented  to  remove.''' 

War  parties  were  again  formed  by  the  French  among  the  Aborig- 
ines and  sent  after  British  agents  and  disaffected  tribes.  Aborigines 
from  this  Basin  were  again  frequently  at  Montreal.  They  were  present 
at  the  capture  of  Fort  William  Henry  in  1757,  and  at  many  other 
]5oints   in   the   East  where  their  services  were  wanted    by  the    French. 

But  the  time  had  matured  for  a  change  in  the  'home  government' 
and  a  reversal  of  the  series  of  British  disasters.  The  great  friend  of  the 
American  Colonies,  William  Pitt  'the  Great  Commoner'  was  chosen 
Secretary  of  State  and  his  change  of  leaders  in  America  to  those  imbued 

*  Ordinance  of  2nd  January.  1750.  The  more  permanent  population  of  Detroit  and  vicinity  in 
1750  is  recorded  as  four  hundred  and  eiulity-three  persons.  During  the  followinj:  two  years  a  consider- 
able number  of  young  men  came  voluntarily,  and  Captain  Celoron  wrote  to  Montreal  foi  yirls  to  marry 
tlie;n.     Compare  Parkinan's  Montcalm  and   Wolfe,  page  77. 


with  his  vigorous  and  well-defined  policy,  broujiht  honor  and  success 

to    the  British   arms.      French    rule    in   Canada  and  around    the  Great 

Lakes  vanished  with  the  capitulation  of  Montreal  8th  September,  1760; 

and    British    rule    then    established,  was  confirmed  at  Versailles    10th 

February,  1763,  by  the  ratification  of  the  Treaty  of   Paris.      The  nearly 

one   hundred   and   fifty  years  of  almost   constant    struggle    between   the 

Colonists  of  these  two  nations  in  America  was  ended   at   last,  excepting 

in  local  and   more  clandestine  ways  through  French  influence  with  the 


The    British    Succession. 

Fort  Detroit,  to  which  this  Basin  had  been  immediately  subject, 
was  peaceably  surrendered  to  the  British  Major  Robert  Rogers  29th 
November,  1760,  with  seventeen  British  prisoners  held  by  the  French. 
Soon  thereafter  Ensign  Holmes  with  a  detachment  of  British  soldiers 
was  sent  to  take  possession  of  Fort  Miami  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee 
River,  and  of  the  posts  further  to  the  southwest:  and  this  fall  and 
winter  a  few  Colonists  again  turned   their   faces  Ohioward. 

Comparative  quiet  now  pervaded  this  Basin  for  a  period  of  two 
years.  Mischief,  however,  was  again  germinating.  The  savages,  from 
their  nature  and  their  sanguinary  training  by  the  French  and  British 
through  five  or  six  generations,  could  not  for  long  remain  quiet  or  free 
from  maraudings  and  the  shedding  of  blood.  With  the  declaration  of 
peace  the  great  promises,  the  large  quantities  of  presents,  and  the 
free  flow  of  intoxicating  beverages,  formerly  dealt  out  alternatingly  by 
the  contending  parties,  ceased.  The  Aborigines  were  at  the  close  of 
the  war  sore  of  foot  and  weary  of  body  from  their  continued  long 
marchings,  and  cloyed  of  spirit  from  the  long  continued  series  of 
skirmishings  and  subsequent  debauchings  to  which  both  the  French 
and  British  had  urged  them.  But  they  soon  rallied.  Their  habitual 
revelings  in  carnage,  like  their  habitual  thirst  for  intoxicants,  could  not 
long  be  inwardly  repressed.  They  were  spoiled  children  under  the 
adroit  and  politic  management  of  the  French  ;  and  now  came  the  cooler 
headed,  less  versatile  English  who  from  conquest  claimed  their  sub- 
jection as  a  right,  and  free  from  the  expense  of  continued  present- 
giving  and  from  a  continuous  and   liberal   free  flow   of   rum. 

The  Aborigines  had  been  confirmed  by  the  French  in  the  belief 
that  the  territory  between  Lake  Erie'  and  the  Ohio  River,  with  an 
indefinite  stretch  eastward  and  westward,  belonged  irrevocably  to  them, 
and  that  they  should  resist  the  encroachments  of  the  British  who,  dif- 
ferently from  the  French,  would  crowd  them  out  and  clear  the  land  to 
make  farms  for  themselves. 

As  Major  Robert  Rogers  and  his  two  hundred  rangers  were  encamped 
for    the    night    about    midway   on   the   southern   shore   of    Lake   Erie   in 


November,  1760,  while  making  their  way  to  receive  the  capitulation 
of  Fort  Detroit  and  this  western  country,  a  rising-  power  among  the 
Aborigines  confronted  them  in  the  form  of  a  band  led  by  Pontiac,  an 
Ottawa  chief,  who  demanded  to  know  why  they  dared  to  enter  his 
country  without  permission.  Major  Rogers  tactfully  appeased  him, 
and  Pontiac  in  turn  allayed  the  belligerence  of  the  Aborigines  on  the 
route,  awaiting  a  more  opportune  time  to  make  his  demands.  The 
British,  and  the  Colonists,  ere  long  saw  the  necessity  of  making  more 
direct  and  serious  overtures  to  the  savages  to  quiet  their  increasing 
restlessness.  The)'  were  becoming  more  and  more  displeased  with  the 
transfer  of  the  western  posts  to  the  British  who  gave  few  presents,  and 
at  irregular  intervals. 

The  disaffection  spread  and  General  Sir  Jeffrey  Amherst  sent  Col- 
onel William  Johnson  the  experienced  Superintendent  of  the  Six 
Nations  to  Detroit.  He  arrived  there  September  3,  1761,  accom- 
panied by  Major  Henry  Gladwin  and  three  hundred  light  infantry,  and 
according  to  previous  invitation  about  five  hundred  representatives  of 
the  different  tribes  of  Aborigines  were  there  (they  never  could  resist 
such  invitation  )  to  attend  a  '  council '  and  to  receive  the  customary 
presents  with  which  the  distinguished  Sir  William  was  now  bountifully 
supplied.  The  feastings  and  the  drinkings,  were  to  their  full  satis- 

But  hunger  and  thirst  soon  re-asserted  themselves  —  and  the 
liberal  giver  had  departed,  taking  with  him  most  of  the  troops. 
Further  supplies  were  not  immediately  forthcoming  :  in  fact  the 
finances  of  Great  Britain,  and  of  the  Colonies,  were  exhausted  and  the 
alreadv  great  debts  were  increasing.  Now  a  reversion  to  the  hunt 
became  a  necessity:  and  soon  new  questions  of  supply  and  demand 
harrassed  the  thoughtless  savages  who  could  not  understand  why  there 
should  be  any  fluctuation  in  market  prices.  When  competition  was 
strongest  between  the  British  and  French  traders,  the  former  advanced 
the  price  of  furs  and  lowered  the  price  of  articles  given  in  exchange. 
Now  when  external  competition  was  ended  the  price  of  their  furs 
was  depreciated  and  the  price  of  articles  they  received  was  appreci- 
ated. From  their  unbounded  selfishness  and  their  ignorance  of  busi- 
ness relations  they  could  not  understand  the  increased  duties  levied  on 
trade  for  the  war  debts,  and  the  changed  relations  making  greater 
profits  necessary  to  the  dealers  whose  taxes  were  increased  therefrom. 
And  now,  also,  the  question  of  claims  to  the  land  assumed  new  import- 
ance. The  wild  game,  for  meat  and  peltries,  was  becoming  scarcer 
and  the  Aborigines  felt  therefrom  more  keenly  the  encroachments  of 
British  settlements  on  their  hunting  grounds. 



The    Conspiracy    of    Pontiac    Against    the    British. 

Pontiac  schemed  for  freeing  the  Aborigines  from  all  their  increasing 
difficulties  according  to  his  desires.  He  had  long  been  an  interested 
observer  of  French  operations,  and  his  plans  demonstrated  his  posses- 
sion of  a  master  mind  among  his  peo]ile.  His  plan,  first  ])romulgated 
by  the  French,  was  nothing  less  than  to  confederate  all  the  trilbies,  east 
and  west,  and  to  exterminate  the  British  and  their  Colonists  at  least  in 
all  parts  of  the  country  which  he  desired  for  his  people.  The\'  were  to 
begin  at  a  certain  phase  of  the  moon  in  May,  1763,  against  all  the  small 
and  feebly  garrisoned  forts,  then  devastate  the  frontiers,  and  then  con- 
centrate against  the  more  populous  centers.  Had  it  not  fieen  for  the 
unstable  and  perfidious  impulses  then,  as  generalh-,  actuating  the  sav- 
ages, the  result  would  have  been  generally  disastrous  to  the  Colonists. 
Pontiac   was    born    by    the   Maumee    River    at    the    mouth    ot     the 

Auglaize  (according  to 
the  statement  of  the  Mi- 
ami chief  Richardville  ) 
aliout  the  year  171'J,  of 
an  Ottawa  father  and  a 
Miami  mother.  He  was 
unusnalh'  dark  in  com- 
plexion, of  medium 
height,  powerful  frame, 
and  of  haughty  bearing. 
He  was  further  descrili- 
ed  as  subtle,  patient  in 
planning,  cruel  in  ex- 
ecution, and  with  much 
more  than  the  ordinary 
mental  and  methodical 
abilit\-  of  the  Aborigines 
while  possessing  all  of 
their  few  good  qualities 
and  most  of  their  many 
bad  ones.  Previously 
he  was  but  little  known 
outside  his  tribe,  the  Ot- 
tawas.  He  aided  the 
French  against  an  attack 
of  Detroit  bv  Aborigines  in  1746,  and  aided  the  Aborigines  in  the  defeat 
of   General  Braddock  in  Pennsylvania  in  1755. 




fj^^jp  ' 






Born  oil    the    site    of    the    present  Defiance.  Oliio,  about  the 
year  1712.     Was  assassinated  at  Cahokia.   Illinois,  in   1 76S>. 

^From  Harper's  Encyclopaedia  of  United  States  History.  Copyright.  19(.ll,  by  Harper  ik  Brotliers. 


In  his  conspiracy  against  the  British  forts,  Pontiac  sought  and 
obtained  aid  from  the  French.  The  authorities  in  New  York  did  not 
obtain  information  regarding  the  great  extent  and  full  significance  of 
the  conspiracy  until  16th  February,  1764,  and  then  by  ship  from  New 
Orleans,  where  the  French  Governor  D'Abbadie,  who  had  early 
apprisement  of  it,  gave  Major  Loftus  a  British  officer,  "A  very  bad 
account  of  the  disposition  of  the  Aborigines  toward  us.  .  .  that 
Pontiac,  the  famous  Chief  of  the  Detroit,  had  declared  his  designs  to 
commence  hostilities,  and  had  made  a  demand  of  supplies  of  ammuni- 
tion from  M.  de  Neyon  [commandant  at  Fort  Chartres,  on  the  Missis- 
sippi ninety  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio  River].  .  .  There 
is  reason  to  judge  of  Pontiac  not  only  as  a  Savage,  possessed  of  the 
most  refined  cunning  and  treachery  natural  to  the  Aborigines,  but  as  a 
person  of  extra  abilities.  He  keeps  two  Secretaries,  one  to  write  for 
him,  and  the  other  to  read  the  letters  he  receives,  &  he  manages  them 
so  as  to  keep  each  of  them  ignorant  of  what  is  transacted  by  the 
other.  "'^     . 

The  conspiracy  had  been  many  months  in  maturing.  Near  the 
close  of  the  year  1762  Pontiac  sent  messengers  to  the  different  Abo- 
rigine tribes.  "They  visited  the  country  of  the  Ohio  and  its  tribu- 
taries, passed  northward  to  the  region  of  the  upper  lakes,  and  the 
borders  of  the  River  Ottawa  :  and  far  southward  towards  the  mouth 
of  the  Mississippi.  Bearing  with  them  the  war-belt  of  wampum,  broad 
and  long,  as  the  importance  of  the  message  demanded,  and  the  toma- 
hawk stained  red,  in  token  of  war,  they  went  from  camp  to  camp,  and 
village  to  village.  Wherever  they  appeared,  the  sachems  and  old  men 
assembled  to  hear  the  words  of  the  great  Pontiac.  Then  the  chief  of 
the  embassy  flung  down  the  tomahawk  on  the  ground,  and  delivered, 
with  vehement  gesture,  word  for  word,  the  speech  with  which  he  was 
charged.  It  was  heard  everywhere  with  approval;  the  belt  was 
accepted,  the  hatchet  snatched  up,  and  the  assembled  chiefs  stood 
pledged  to  take  part  in  the  war."t 

This  work  was  carried  on  with  great  secrecy  to  avoid  its  being 
communicated  to  the  British.  But  early  in  March,  1763,  Ensign 
Holmes,  commandant  of  Fort  Miami  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee,  was 
informed  by  a  friendly  Miami  that  the  Aborigine  warriors  in  the  near 
village  had  lately  received  a  war-belt  with  urgent  request  that  they 
destrov  him  and  his  garrison,  and  that  they   were  preparing  to  do   so. 

*  Letter  of  General  Thomas  Gaue  to  the  Earl  of  Halifax  Secretary  of  State.  London  Document 
XXWl.  N.  Y.  Co!.  Docs.  vol.  vii.  619,  620.  Tradition  says  that  Pontiac  issued  as  money,  pieces  of  birch 
bark  bearing  rude  sketches  of  his  totem,  the  otter;  and  it  further  says  that  he  faithfully  redeemed  tliem. 
There  is  no  statement  regarding  his  ways  and  means  of  redemption,  however.  This  fiction  is  noticed 
here  to  illustrate  the  fabulous  qualities  ascribed  to  the  Aborigines  by  some  writers. 

t  The  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac.  by  Francis  Parkman.  volume  ii,  page  Iy6. 


This    information     Ensign     Holmes     communicated     to     his     superior, 
Major   Gladwin   at    Detroit.      This  was  followed   by  another  letter  from 

him  reading'  in  part  as  follows  : 

Fort  Miamis,  March  liOth,  lHui. 
Sir  ;  Since  my  last  Letter  to  You,  wherein  I  Acquainted  you  of  the  Bloody  Belt 
being  in  this  Village,  I  have  made  all  the  search  I  could  about  it,  and  have  found  it  out 
to  be  True;  Whereupon  I  Assembled  all  the  Chiefs  of  this  Nation  [the  Miamis]  &  after 
a  long  and  troublesome  Spell  with  them,  I  Obtained  the  Belt,  with  a  Speech,  as  you  will 
Receive  Enclosed ;  This  Affair  is  very  timely  Stopt,  and  I  hope  the  News  of  a  Peace* 
will  put  a  Stop  to  any  further  Troubles  with  these  Aborigines  who  are  the  Principal  Ones 
of  Setting  Mischief  on  Foot.  I  send  you  the  Belt  with  this  Packet  which  I  hope  You 
will   Forward  to  the  General   [Sir  Jeffrey  .Amherst], t     . 

Major  Gladwin  was  incredulous  regarding  jsreparations  of  the 
savages  for  serious  hostilities,  and  so  he  remained  until  Pontiac  began 
the  work  of  a  determined  siege  of  Fort  Detroit,  notwithstanding  a 
general  council  of  the  savages  held  near  Detroit  27th  .\pril,  1763,  and 
the  advice  of  friends  who  could  appreciate  the  different  indications  of 
gathering  mischief.  He  was  aroused  to  jireparation,  however,  bv  a 
Chippewa  girl  who  called  at  the  fort  6th  Mav  to  deliver  to  the  Major 
moccasins  she  had  made  for  him,  and  who  hesitatingly  told  himt  of 
the  coming  to  the  Fort  the  next  day  of  Pontiac  with  sixty  other  chiefs, 
ostensibly  for  a  friendly  council,  but  each  would  carry  under  his 
blanket  a  gun  filed  off  to  the  length  of  about  one  yard  with  which  thev 
were  to  shoot  the  officers  at  a  given  signal,  and  the  outside  hordes, 
variously  estimated  at  from  six  hundred  to  two  thousand,  would  there- 
upon assail  the  Fort.  The  next  day  the  chiefs  appeared  as  foretold, 
and  Major  Gladwin  received  them  with  the  garrison  ready  for  action. 
This  display  of  preparedness  disconcerted  the  visitors  and  the  council 
passed  without  incident.  The  chiefs  were  permitted  to  depart  without 
being  searched  for  the  shortened  guns  thev  carried.  Earlv  the  next 
morning  Pontiac  again  appeared  at  the  fort  with  three  chiefs  and  a 
calumet,  or  sacred  piv>e  of  peaceS  which  was  smoked  as  a  sign  of  their 
love  and  loyalt\';  and  to  further  allay  the  apjirehensions  of  the  garrison 
an  exciting  game   of   ball  was   played   by  the  savages  during   that  after- 

*  Treaty  of  Paris  10th  February,  1763,  foriiiaUy  closing  tile  war  of  the  British  succession. 

t  Parknian's  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac.  volume  i,  paL'e  1H9.  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Col- 

i-  Compare  the  St.  .Aubin  and  Gouin  MSS.  accounts,  quoted  in  Parkman's  volume  i,  patie  218  et 
seq.,  with  Roi,'ers'  Journal  ;  the  Gladwin  MSS.:  the  Pontiac  Diary  in  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Histor- 
ical Collections,  volume  viii.  Also  for  a  good  review  of  the  evidence  up  to  1867,  showinn  the  Chippewa 
cirl  as  a  myth,  see  the  late  Colonel  Charles  Whittlesey's  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac  in  the  Firelands  Pioneer 
volume  viii,  page  9  et  seq. 

^  The  savages  claimed  that  the  Caluutet  should  be  used  only  on  occasions  of  peace-makint:.  The 
bowl  of  this  pipe  was  generally  of  the  '  sacred  '  pipestone  ( Catlinite ),  the  stem,  from  two  to  four  feel  in 
length  in  sections,  was  generally  made  from  a  young  ash,  the  pith  being  worked  out  with  a  smoothed 
split  of  hard  wood  or,  later,  a  wire.  It  was  abundantly  trimmed  with  quills  and  feathers  from  an  eagle. 
It  was  generally  kept  disjointed  and  carefully  wrapped,  as  an  article  of  great  value.     See  engraving. 


noon  near  the  fort.  The  following  dav  Pontiac  with  his  chiefs  again 
sought  a  council  within  the  fort  enclosure  with  their  warriors  at  their  heels, 
but  entrance  was  denied  them.  Then  began  the  murdering  of  English- 
men living  without  the  enclosure,  by  marauding  bands,  followed  by  a 
general  firing  from  a  distance  of  muskets  at  the  fort,  whereby  five 
members   of   the   garrison   were   wounded. 

Food  supplies  were  becoming  short  and  Major  Gladwin,  hoping  to 
stop  the  firing  and  increase  his  supply  from  the  near  farms,  sent 
friendly  Frenchmen  to  enquire  of  Pontiac  why  they  thus  assailed  him. 
The  reply  was  that  he  desired  Captain  Donald  Campbell,  second  in 
command,  to  visit  and  talk  directly  to  him.  This  veteran  officer  who 
had  heretofore  possessed  a  peculiar  influence  over  the  Aborigines 
desired  to  go  and  do  what  he  could  to  allay  hostilities.  Accompanied 
by  Lieutenant  George  McDougall  and  some  Frenchmen,  he  went  to 
Pontiac's  camp,  where  they  were  retained  as  prisoners.  Lieutenant 
McDougall  afterward  escaped  to  the  Fort ;  but  Captain  Camiiliell  was 
murdered,  with  torture,  and  eaten. 

The  siege  was  continued  from  day  to  day,  and  the  food  sujii^ly 
dwindled  with  no  hope  of  relief  but  from  the  arrival  of  supplies  that 
had  been  sent  from  the  East  b\'  the  slow  and  uncertain  small  sloop. 
The  3l)th  of  May  a  sentinel  discerned  boats  coming  up  the  river,  and 
soon  the  weary  and  hungry  garrison  was  alert  and  joyous  at  the  sup- 
l)osed  arrival  of  relief.  But  this  joy  was  of  short  duration.  It  was 
soon  to  be  succeeded  h\  a  deeper  gloom  than  had  before  settled  over 
the  fort,  now  apparently  doomed  to  utter  defeat.  The  boats  and  sup- 
plies were  in  the  hands  of  the  Aborigines  who  had  captured  at  Point 
Pelee  all  of  the  convoy  excepting  two  boats,  after  killing  and  capturing 
about  sixtv  of  the  ninety  men  in  charge.  Yet  another  month  was  des- 
tined to  jiass  before  the  suffering  garrison  at  Detroit  received  any 
relief;  and  this  month  brought  much  of  sadness  and  discouragement 
to  the  nearly  exhausted  garrison,  and  much  of  exultation  to  the  besieg- 
ing savages  and  the  war-parties  sent  out  by  Pontiac. 

May  16th  Fort  Sandusky  was  captured  and  liurned  b\-  Wyandots ; 
and  Ensign  Paully  with  the  members  of  the  garrison  not  killed  out- 
right, were  taken  prisoners  to  the  Aborigine  camp  near  Detroit  where 
a  worse  fate  awaited  the  most  of  them,  Paully  escaping.  The  2iith  of 
May  Fort  St.  Joseph  was  captured  by  Pottawotamis.  Ten  of  the 
garrison  were  killed,  and  the  other  three  including  the  commander 
Ensign  Schlosser  were  taken  to  Detroit. 

May  27th  Ensign  Holmes  was  decoyed  from  Fort  Miami  at  the 
head  of  the  Maumee  by  his  mistress,  a  young  Miami  woman,  ostensibly 
to  render  medical  aid  to  a  sick  Aborigine  nearby,  when  he  was  shot  to 
death  by  two  Miamis  lying  in  ambush    for  that  purpose.      His  sergeant 


unwisely  stepped  outside  the  u'ate  to  learn  the  cause  of  the  tiiini;,  and 
was  taken  prisoner.  The  remaininjj  four  or  five  (the  Gladwin  MS. 
reads  eight  )  men  comprising  the  garrison,  surrendered  the  fort  to  the 
savages  at  the  demand  of  one  Jacques  Godefroy  and  other  P'renchmen 
from  Detroit  who  were  in  league  with  Pontiac.  Five  days  later  Fort 
Ouiotenon  on  the  Wabash,  near  the  present  Lafayette,  was  captured: 
and  the  next  day,  June  2,  the  garrison  of  Fort  Michillimackinac  was 
also  deceived  and  captured  by  the  Chippewas  who  killed  over  twenty 
and  took  all  others  of  the  garrison  prisoners.  June  15th  Fort 
Presqu'ile,  at  the  present  Erie,  Pennsylvania,  was  assailed  by  about 
two  hundred  Aborigines  from  Detroit  and  its  garrison  of  twenty-seven 
men  surrendered  the  17th.  -  Within  a  few  davs  Fort  Le  Bceuf  and  Fort 
Venango,  also  on  the  route  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  head  of  the  Ohio 
River  were  also  in  the  hands  of  these  widespread  conspirators. 

The  garrison  at  Detroit  was  generally  apprised  of  the  loss  of  these 
forts  by  the  return  of  war-parties  with  seal])?,  prisoners  and  plunder 
from  the  British,  and  their  reception  with  great  uproar  by  the  Aborigine 
women  and  childen  generally  within  sight  and  hearing  of  the  garrison. 
A  few  of  these  prisoners  were  offered  at  the  fort  in  exchange  for 
Aborigines  there  held,  and  a  few  captives  held  by  them  escaped:  but 
by  far  the  greater  number  were  put  to  death  in  the  most  horrible 
manner.*  Demands  from  Pontiac  for  surrender  of  Fort  Detroit  were 

Anchored  in  the  river  at  the  nearest  point  to  Fort  Detroit  were, 
from  the  first  of  Pontiac's  gathering  of  the  enemy,  two  armed  and 
manned  schooners  which  did  good  service  in  aid  of  the  garrison,  and 
which  successfully  resisted  all  attempts  of  the  savages  to  burn  them 
by  fire  rafts  and  otherwise.  When  the  Fort's  supplies  began  to  get 
low,  the  smaller  schooner  was  ordered  to  hasten  to  Niagara  for  relief. 
She  returned  to  the  west  end  of  Lake  Erie  near  the  last  of  June  and, 
starting  up  the  river,  met  attacks  of  the  besiegers  adroitl\-  and  bravely. 
She  was  manned  by  sixty  men,  and  her  cargo  was  composed  of  ammu- 
nition and  provisions.  There  was  also  brought  by  this  vessel  an 
account  of  the  signing  of  the  Treaty  of  Paris  which  was  soon  communi- 
cated to  the  French  by  Major  Gladwin :  and  fort\'  of  their  numlier  at 
Detroit  under  James  Sterling  volunteered  to  assist  the  tort.  This 
should  have  put  an  end  to  the  hopes,  and  of  the  stories  to  the 
Aborigines  detailed  b\-  many  Frenchmen,  that  armies  of  their  country- 
men were  on  their  wa\'  to  drive  the  British  from  America. 

About  the  middle  of  Jul\'  the  Wyandots  and  Pottawotamis  deceit- 
fully  made    peace   with    Major   Gladwin    and    surrendered    their    British 

*  Compare   Loss  of   the  Posts  MS.  Diary  of   the   Sie^e.     Gladwin    MSS.    Parkinan's    Conspiracy. 
and  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Collections. 


prisoners.  Still  brighter  days  to  be  followed  by  many  sad  ones,  were 
about  to  dawn  on  this  brave  garrison  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-two 
soldiers,  eight  officers,  forty  fur  traders  and  a  few  assistants.  July 
29th  the  long  hoped-for  relief  came  in  the  form  of  twenty-two  barges, 
bearing  two  hundred  and  eight\'  men,  several  small  cannon,  and  a 
fresh  supplv  of  provisions  and  ammunition.'  These  boats  were  fired 
upon  by  the  same  Ottawas  and  Pottawatomis  who,  two  weeks  before, 
sued  for  peace  at  the  fort,  and  fifteen  were  killed  and  wounded  by  their 

Captain  Dalzell,  a  former  companion  of  Israel  Putnam  and  more 
recently  aide-de-camp  to  General  Amherst,  was  in  charge  of  these 
reinforcements,  and  he  determined  to  'strike  an  irremediable  blow'  at 
Pontiac's  forces;  and  about  two  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  July  31st  a 
detachment  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  soldiers  well-officered,  including 
Major  Robert  Rogers,  marched  against  the  savages.  Some  Frenchmen 
within  the  palisades  informed  the  enemy  of  this  proposed  attack,  and 
they  were  ready  in  ambush  at  a  narrow  bridge  over  Parent  Creek,  later 
known  as  Bloody  Run.  Here,  and  near,  the  British  force  was  repulsed 
and  with  difficulty  they  returned  to  the  fort  with  a  loss  of  fifty-nine  men 
killed  and  wounded.  The  enemy's  loss  was  estimated  at  but  fifteen  to 
twenty  ;  and  their  exultation  was  unbounded.  Runners  were  sent  out 
'for  several  hundred  miles'  to  spread  the  news  of  British  defeat;  and 
additional  Aborigines  daily  swelled  the  number  of  Pontiac's  already 
large  force.  Manv  days,  however,  passed  with  comparatively  few  shots 
by  the  savages  at  the  watchful  garrison. 

The  smaller  schooner,  named  the  Gladwin  in  honor  of  the  brave 
commandant  of  Fort  Detroit,  was  again  dispatched  to  the  east  end  of 
Lake  Erie  with  requisition  for  supplies.  The  night  of  September  3rd 
she  entered  the  Detroit  River  on  her  return,  having  a  crew  of  ten 
Americans  beside  Captain  Horst  and  Mate  Jacobs;  also  with  six  New 
York  Iroquois  supposed  to  be  friendly  to  the  British.  At  their  request 
the  Iroquois  were  set  ashore  the  next  morning;  and  probably  they  told 
the  hostile  savages  of  the  small  number  in  charge  of  the  schooner. 
That  night  thev  were  compelled  to  anchor  about  nine  miles  below  the 
fort,  and  there  they  were  attacked  in  the  great  darkness  by  about  three 
hundred  and  fiftv  Aborigines  who  silently  drifted  to  the  schooner  with 
the  current,  undiscovered  until  thev  were  about  to  climb  on  board. 
One  cannon  was  fired  by  the  guard  and  crew,  then  a  volley  from  their 
muskets  when  a  hand-to-hand  encounter  became  necessary.  The  crew 
was  about  to  be  overwhelmed  by  numbers  when  Mate  Jacobs  gave  a 
loud  command  to  explode  the  magazine.  Fortunately  this,  command 
was  understood  bv  some  of  the  assailants  who  communicated  it  to  the 
others,    whereupon    a    panic    ensued    among    the    Aborigines    and    all 


instantly  disappeared  in  the  water,  and  were  not  again  seen  around  the 
boat.  The  savages  continued  alert,  however,  on  shore,  their  numbers 
making  frequent  changes  and  constant  watchfulness  of  the  fort  a 
pastime   for   them,  as   also   their  shooting  whenever  a  soldier  was  seen. 

Meantime  reports  of  Pontiac's  Conspiracy,  the  general  uprising  of 
the  Aborigines,  the  capture  of  the  frontier  posts,  and  the  devastation 
of  frontier  settlements,  were  as  soon  as  possible  conveyed  to  the 
authorities  in  New  York.  Those  most  active  for  relief  were  Sir 
William  Johnson  Agent  and  Superintendent  of  Aborigine  Affairs, 
Lieutenant  Governor  Cadwallader  Colden  of  New  York,  General  Sir 
Jeffrey  Amherst,  and  General  Thomas  Gage  afterwards  his  successor: 
between  all  of  whom  and  the  Lords  Commissioners  for  Trade  and 
Plantations,  with  office  at  Whitehall,  London,  correspondence  became 
more  and  more  frequent  and  s\-stematic. 

As  heretofore  stated,  the  regular  troops  were  largely  withdrawn 
from  America  after  the  capitulation  of  the  French  in  1760,  and  the 
frontier  posts,  even  Detroit  from  which  Fort  Miami  and  others  drew 
their  garrison  and  supplies,  were  left  with  a  scarcity  that  was  nothing 
less  than  criminal  on  the  part  of  the  authorities.  The  home  govern- 
ment in  London  yet  desired  to  dictate  the  conduct  of  everything  while 
making  it  obligatory  upon  the  Colonies  to  pay  the  expenses.  The 
continuous  efforts  necessary  to  protect  the  centers  of  population,  and 
to  pay  the  officers  of  the  government  imposed  upon  the  Colonies  by 
the  King,  kept  the  Colonial  treasuries  drained.  And,  in  addition,  the 
easy-going  British  officials,  some  of  whom  knew  little  about  the  savages 
and  often  apparently  cared  less  than  they  knew,  were  loth  to  believe 
that  serious  outbreak  was  threatened  :  and  it  required  a  long  time  for 
them  to  understand  that  the  greatest  of  all  Aborigine  wars  was  being 
relentlessly  waged.  Some  had  become  wearied  by  the  former  continu- 
ous demands  of  the  savages  for  valuable  presents;  and  now  General 
Amherst  felt  particularly  annoyed  by  the  reports  of  their  treachery. 
He  called  them  a  despicable  enemy '  and  he  wrote  in  July,  1763,  asking 
Colonel  Henry  Bouquet  "if  it  can  not  be  contrived  to  send  the  Small 
Pox  among  those  disaffected  tribes  of  Aborigines?  We  must  on  this 
occasion  use  every  stratagem  in  our  power  to  reduce  them.  .  .  You 
will  do  well  to  try  to  inoculate  them  by  means  of  blankets,  as  well  as 
to  try  every  other  method  that  can  serve  to  extirpate  this  execrable 

The  depredations  had  been  so  severe  and  oft  repeated  in  western 
Pennsylvania  and  Virginia,  and  farther  east,  that  the  necessity  for 
strong  suppressive  measures  became  imperative.  With  great  efforts  two 
armies  were  organized  in  the  early  summer  of  1763,  with  a  few  regular 
soldiers,  colonist  volunteers  and  whilom  friendly  Aborigines,  to  make 


a  decisive  campaign  aj^ainst  the  hostiles  of  Ohio  and  Detroit.  Colonel 
Henry  Bouquet  of  Berne,  Switzerland,  who  had  been  more  than  seven 
years  in  America  in  command  of  the  'Royal  Americans'  composed 
larj^'ely  of  Germans  in  Pennsylvania,  was  directed  l)y  General  Amherst 
to  cross  the  mountains  and  relieve  Fort  Pitt  which  was  invested  by  the 
savages,  and  which  with  Fort  NiajJ'ara  and  Fort  Detroit  were  the  only 
western  posts  remaining  uncaptured  h\'  them.  Colonel  Bouquet's  com- 
mand increased  on  the  march,  and  August  1^,  1763,  when  nearing 
Bushy  Run,  about  twent\-tive  miles  from  Fort  Pitt  now  Pittsburg,  this 
command  was  violently  and  persistently  assailed  by  the  savages  who 
had  been  harassing  the  Fort,  and  only  by  well-conceived  and  well- 
e.xecuted  strategy  were  they  saved  from  destruction  more  complete  than 
that  of  General  Braddock's  army  eight  years  before.  This  Battle  of 
Bushv  Run  has  been  termed  one  of  the  best  contested  battles  ever 
fought  between  Europeans,  Colonists  and  the  Aborigines.*  It  de- 
pressed the  great  and  increasing  confidence  of  the  Aborigines  in  their 
ability  to  exterminate  the  Colonists,  and  it  revived  the  hopes  of  the 
latter.  It  also  aided  in  gaining  recruits  for  advance  in  the  Ohio  Coun- 
trv  upon  recommendation  of  rewards  for  savage  scalps  inasmuch  as 
the  Colonies  refused  regular  pay  to  militiamen  when  outside  their  dis- 
tinctive limits. 

The  other  army  of  six  hundred  regulars  and  others  under  Major 
John  Wilkins  had  been  collected  from  different  parts  of  the  Colonies 
with  great  effort  for  the  purpose  of  relieving  Detroit ;  but  it  was 
doomed  to  disaster.  Before  getting  out  of  the  Niagara  River  they 
were  driven  back  by  the  enemy  with  loss ;  and  in  September  their  boats 
were  wrecked  by  a  storm  on  Lake  Erie  about  ninety  miles  from 
Detroit,  where  three  officers  and  over  seventy  privates  were  drowned, 
and  their  cannon,  ammunition  and  supplies  were  lost  or  spoiled; 
whereupon  the  others  returned  to  Niagara. 

The  reports  of  the  organization  of  these  armies  had  depressing 
effect  upon  Pontiac  as  well  as  ujion  his  followers.  They  had  been 
encouraged  by  Frenchmen  in  different  places  telling  them  that  French 
armies  were  on  their  way  to  America  to  drive  the  British  out  and, 
later,  that  one  of  these  armies  was  already  ascending  the  Mississippi 
River.  M.  de  Neyon  French  Commandant  of  Fort  Chartres  had  been 
instructed  after  the  French  surrender  in  1760,  to  retain  that  post  until 
relieved  by  a  British  garrison.  To  him  Pontiac  repeatedly  appealed 
for  soldiers  and  munitions  of  war.  Finally,  upon  demand  of  the  British 
General  Amherst,  M.  Neyon  sent  letter  September  27th  to  the 
Aborigine  tribes  requesting   peace   and   informing   them   that   no   assist- 

*C/a/Ae's  Historical  Series,  vokiine  i;  Parkmairs  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac  volunie  ii,  etc. 


ance  could  be  ex]iected  by  tht-m  from  the  French.  Ifpon  receiving  this 
notification  Pontiac's  duplicity  at  once  asserted  itself,  and  he  immedi- 
ately sought  the  fortjiveness  of  Major  Gladwin  and  General  Amherst, 
and  their  favor  by  telling  the  former  that  ht-  would  send  requests  to  all 
Aborigines  engaged  in  the  war,  to     bury  the  hatcht-t.' 

In  regard  to  the  armies  forming  for  the  war,  the  expression  to 
'bury  the  hatchet'  was  not  sufficient  for  the  British  in  power;  but 
Major  Gladwin  wrote  to  General  Amherst  that 

It  would  be  good  policy  to  leave  matters  open  until  spring  wfien  the  Aborigines 
would  be  so  reduced  in  powder  there  would  be  no  danger  that  they  would  break  out 
again,  provided  some  examples  are  made  of  our  good  friends,  the  French,  who  set  them 
on.  .  .  No  advantage  can  be  gained  by  prosecuting  the  war,  owing  to  the  difficulty 
of  catching  them  [the  Aborigines].  Add  to  this  the  e.\pense  of  such  war  which,  if  con- 
tinued, the  ruins  of  our  entire  peltry  trade  must  follow,  and  the  loss  of  a  prodigious  con- 
sumption of  our  merchandize.  It  will  be  the  means  of  their  retiring,  which  will  reinforce 
other  nations  on  the  Mississippi  whom  they  will  push  against  us  and  make  them  our 
enemies  forever.  Consequentlv  it  will  render  it  extremely  difficult  to  pass  that  country, 
and  especially  as  the  French  have  promised   to  supply  them  with  everything  they  want. 

They  [the  Aborigines]  have  lost  between  eighty  and  ninety  of  their  best  warriors : 
but  if  your  Excellency  still  intends  to  punish  them  for  their  barbarities,  it  may  be  easier 
done,  without  any  expense  to  the  crown,  by  permitting  a  free  sale  of  rum  which  will  destroy 
them  more  effectually  than  fire  and  sword.  But  on  the  contrary  if  you  intend  to  accom- 
modate matters  in  spring,  which  I  hope  you  will  for  the  above  reasons,  it  may  be  neces- 
sary to  send  up  Sir  William  Johnson.*     . 

About  the  1st  November,  1763,  Pontiac  with  a  few  tried  followers 
removed  their  camp  from  Detroit  to  the  Maumee  River  to  nurse  their 
disappointed  expectations.  Following  their  removal  comparative 
quiet  prevailed  for  several  months. 

This  turn  in  affairs  produced  a  favorable  effect  upon  the  ever 
wavering  and  dreaded  Senecas  of  the  Six  Nations.  Sir  William  John- 
son took  the  opportunity  of  their  mollified  temper  to  yet  further  gain 
their  friendship  by  offering  them  fifty  dollars  for  each  principal  Dela- 
ware Aborigine  chief  captured  by  them,  'in  which  case  they  must  either 
bring  them  alive,  or  their  whole  Heads.'  .  .  They  succeeded  in  sur- 
rounding and  capturing  alive  a  camp  of  about  forty  Delawares,  embrac- 
ing the  dreaded  chief  'Captain  Bull.'  These  captives  were  taken  to 
the  common  jail  in  New  York  City  where  they  were  kept  until  a  time 
favorable  for  their  release. 

The  fall  and  winter  of  1763-64  was  a  time  of  turmoil  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, particularly,  with  strenuous  efforts  toward  readjustment  of  com- 
munities and  encampments  holding  antagonistic  views  regarding  vital 
questions  of  conduct  when  life  or  death,  government  and  possessions 
temporal   and   spiritual   teachings,  were   involved.      The   sufferers   and 

'■'■■  Gladwin   MSS.   page  675,   quoted   in    The   Northwest   under   Three  Flags,  by   Charles   Moore, 
Harper  and  Brothers,  1900.    Compare  with  Parkman's  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac. 


active  participants  in  this  mixed  series  of  contests  were  primarily,  the 
Aborigine  marauders,  murderers  and  burners  of  frontier  settlements, 
the  survivors  of  those  settlements  adherents  of  the  Presbyterian  church, 
the    Friends   (Quakers)   and,  to  a    less    degree,   the   civil    authorities.* 

The  militarv  authorities  did  not  remain  entirely  idle.  General 
Amherst  was  given  leave  of  absence  to  visit  England,  but  he  was  suc- 
ceeded in  the  fall  of  1763  bv  Major-General  Thomas  Gage  next  in  com- 
mand. Preparations  were  made  to  again  send  two  armies  against  the 
Aborigines  of  the  West  the  following  spring.  Sir  William  Johnson  the 
Agent  to  the  Aborigines,  was  also  active  in  sending  invitations  to  the 
savages  for  a  general  council  to  be  held  at  Fort  Niagara.  To  this 
invitation  there  was  a  favorable  response,  over  two  thousand  warriors 
gathering  at  that  fort  in  July,  1764.  Here  Colonel  Johnson  did  his 
usual  good  service  in  receiving  and  effecting  treaties  with  the  different 
tribes  individually,  he  undergoing  much  fatiguing  routine  and  disagree- 
able work  to  that  end.  The  more  northern  army,  under  command  of 
Colonel  John  Bradstreet,  numbering  about  eleven  hundred  regulars, 
volunteers  and  Aborigines,  was  present  at  this  council  to  impress  the 
various  tribes  with  the  power  of  the  British. 

About  the  8th  of  August  Colonel  Bradstreet's  command  embarked 
upon  Lake  Erie  against  the  vet  hostile  savages  in  northern  Ohio  and 
the  southwest.  He  was  accompanied  by  two  hundred  and  fifty  Aborig- 
ines! many  or  most  of  whom  soon  deserted  with  the  presents  that  had 
been  given  them  at  Niagara.  At  Fort  Prescjue  Isle,  site  of  the  pres- 
ent Erie,  that  was  captured  and  ruined  the  year  before  by  Pontiac's 
warriors,  the  Colonel  was  deceived  into  a  farcical  treaty  by  members  of 
the  Delaware  and  Shawnee  tribes  which  had  been  particularly  aggres- 
sive and  savage. 

Colonel  Bradstreet  was  also  deceived  by  like  Wyandots,  Ottawas 
and  Miamis  at  Sandusky.  Here  he  took  prisoner  the  Frenchman 
Jacques  Godefroy  who,  in  May,  1763,  was  the  leader  in  the  murder  of 
Ensign  Holmes  and  the  capture  of  Fort  Miami  at  the  head  of  the 
Maumee  in  the  interest  of  Pontiac.  This  man  expected  severe  punish- 
ment, if  not  death,  at  the  hands  of  Colonel  Bradstreet;  but  just  at  this 
time  Captain  Thomas  Morris  was  about  to  start  from  the  encampment 
as  an  ambassador  of  peace  to  the  Aborigines  along  the  Maumee, 
Wabash  and  Illinois,  and  was  offered  Godefroy  as  a  servant  and  inter- 
preter by  Colonel  Bradstreet  who  enjoined  the  culprit  to  take  good 
care   of  the  Captain.      Morris   accepted   the   offer,  and  Godefroy,  think- 

*  For  a  comprehensive  view  of  tliis  reniarliable  contest  of  readjustment  between  advancing  civiliz- 
ation and  savagery,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  publication  of  divers  collections,  sermons  and  docu- 
ments, by  the  Penns.vlvania  Historical  Society. 

1  London  Document  XXXVII.  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  vol.  vii,  pace  657. 


ing  that  the  Captain  thus  saved  his  life,  accompanied  him  to  save  the 
life  of  his  benefactor,  as  the  sequel  proved.  They  passed  up  the 
Maumee  by  boats  to,  probably,  the  site  of  the  present  Defiance.  From 
an  Ottawa  chief  they  obtained  three  horses  for  the  journey-  to  Pontiac's 
camp  situate  five  or  six  miles  from  the  river,  probably  on  the  Defiance 
Moraine  to  the  northeast.  As  they  neared  the  camp.  Captain  Morris, 
Godefroy  and  another  Canadian  attendant  riding  the  horses,  and  their 
escort  of  Aborigines  carrying  the  British  flag  in  advance,  they  were 
met  by  Pontiac's  guard,  several  hundred  in  number,  which  surrounded 
them,  crowded  between  to  separate  them,  beat  the  horses  and  made 
other  exhibitions  of  disrespect.  Pontiac  stood  at  the  edge  of  the 
encampment  and  also  showed  signs  of  disfavor,  beside  refusing  to 
shake  hands.  "Here,  too,  stood  a  man  in  the  uniform  of  a  French 
officer,  holding  his  gun  with  the  butt  resting  on  the  ground,  and  assum- 
ing an  air  of  great  importance :  while  two  Pawnee  slaves  stood  close 
behind  him.  He  proved  to  be  a  French  drummer,  calling  himself  St. 
Vincent,  one  of  those  renegades  of  civilization  to  be  found  in  almost 
every  camp  of  Aborigines.  He  now  took  upon  himself  the  office  of  a 
master  of  ceremonies.  He  desired  Morris  to  dismount,  and  he  seated 
himself  at  his  side  on  a  bearskin.  Godefroy  took  his  place  near  them; 
and  a  throng  of  savages,  circle  within  circle,  stood  crowded  around. 
Presently  came  Pontiac  and  squatted  himself  after  his  fashion  oppo- 
site Morris.  He  opened  the  interview  by  observing  that  the  English 
were  liars,  and  demanding  of  the  ambassador  if  he  had  come  to  lie  to 
them,  like   the   rest."* 

A  letter  directed  to  Pontiac  and  purporting  to  have  been  received 
by  way  of  New  Orleans,  was  shown.  It  read  as  though  coming  from 
the  King  of  France,  and  its  statements  were  well  contrived  to  incite  the 
savages  to  continue  their  hatred  of  the  British.  It  read,  further,  that 
'Your  French  Father  is  neither  dead  nor  asleep;  he  is  already  on  his 
way,  with  sixty  great  ships,  to  revenge  himself  on  the  English  and 
drive  them  out  of  America.'  On  account  of  the  excitement  produced 
by  this  reading,  St.  Vincent  adroitly  escorted  Captain  Morris  to  his 
own    wigwam. 

A  council  was  held  next  day  at  which  Captain  Morris'  statement 
of  the  relations  existing  between  Great  Britain  and  France  was  received 
with  ridicule.  The  chiefs  would  have  killed  him  but  for  the  influence 
of  Pontiac  who  told  them  that  the  life  of  an  ambassador  should  be  con- 
sidered sacred.  'His  [Pontiac's]  speech  did  him  honor,  and  showed 
that   he   was   acquainted  with   the  law  of  nations.'      Pontiac  said  quietly 

*  From  Captain  Morris'  Miscellanies  in  Prose  and  Verse  copied  into  Parl<man's  Conspiracy  of 
Ponliac,  volume  ii.  pace  1^7,  Boston.  1897.  Captain  Morris"  little  book  was  reprinted  by  The  Arthur 
Clarke  Co.  of  Cleveland  in  1904. 


to  Godefro}'  I  will  lead  the  nations  to  war  no  more.  Let  them  be  at 
peace  if  they  choose;  but  I  will  never  be  a  friend  to  the  English.  I 
shall  be  a  wanderer  in  the  woods;  and,  if  they  come  there  to  seek  me, 
I  will  shoot  at  them  while  I  have  an  arrow  left.'  This  was  uttered 
with  assumed  despair,  and  with  evidences  of  desire  to  be  courted. 

A  Mohawk  chief  who  accompanied  Captain  Morris'  Company  stole 
everything  within  his  ])ower,  including  the  Captain's  supply  of  rum, 
two  barrels  in  quantity,  which  he  sold  to  the  Ottawas ;  and  the  next 
day  he  ran  away.  The  drunken  orgies  that  followed  the  distribution  of 
the  rum  boded  evil  to  the  ambassador.  An  attack  was  made  on  him 
but  Godefroy  warded  off  the  knife  aimed  at  his  heart,  and  he  ran  into 
a  field  of  corn  where  he  evaded  his  pursuers.  After  comparative  quiet 
had  been  restored  he  returned  to  the  camp  where  'Little  Chief  ex- 
changed with  him  for  gunpowder,  a  volume  of  Shakespeare,  the  spoil 
of  some  slaughtered  officer.' 

With  Pontiac's  consent.  Captain  Morris  and  his  company  resumed 
their  journev  up  the  Maumee.  He  had  much  to  write  about  the  diffi- 
culties of  the  journey  on  account  of  a  low  stage  of  water,  and  the  push- 
ing and  drawing  of  their  boat  over  the  stony  shallows.  On  the  fifth 
day  from  Pontiac's  camp  they  met  a  savage  riding  a  handsome  white 
horse  which,  they  were  told,  belonged  to  the  ill-fated  General  Braddock 
and  was  caught  by  the  Aborigines  at  the  field  of  his  defeat  in  17f)5. 

Two  days  later  they  arrived  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee  and  the 
party  started  up  the  left  bank  of  the  River  St.  Joseph  to  Fort  Miami, 
leaving  Captain  Morris  seated  in  his  canoe  reading  Antony  and  Cleo- 
patra in  the  copy  of  Shakespeare  he  had  obtained  in  Pontiac's  camp. 
His  men  were  met  short  of  the  fort  bv  the  savages  with  bows  and 
arrows,  hatchets,  spears  and  sticks,  to  torture  or  kill  'the  Englishman.' 
He  not  being  immediately  found  in  the  party,  and  the  chiefs  exerting 
their  influence  for  delay,  their  ire  was  somewhat  abated.  He  was  soon 
found,  however,  conducted  with  many  indignities  to  the  fort  buildings, 
now  for  over  a  vear  without  a  garrison  and  tenanted  by  some  French- 
men and  Aborigines,  where  he  was  forbidden  to  enter  any  of  the 
Frenchmen's  cabins  situated  within  the  stockaded  area.  Two  warriors, 
carrying  tomahawks  in  their  hands,  took  him  by  the  arms  and  led  him 
through  the  shallow  St.  Joseph  River,  he  at  first  fearing  that  they 
intended  to  drown  and  seal])  him.  When  nearing  the  great  Miami 
village,  a  little  distance  from  the  west  shore,  they  endeavored  to  take 
off  his  clothing,  but  became  impatient  at  the  task  when  he  '  in  rage 
and  despair  tore  off  his  clothes  himself.'  Using  his  own  sash,  they 
liound  his  arms  behind  him  and  drove  him  before  them  into  the  village 
where  he  w-as  immediately  surrounded  by  hundreds  who  began  violent 
disputes   as   to  what    should    be   done    with    him.       Godefroy,    who    had 


accompanied  him  and  ^nven  words  of  cheer,  induced  a  nephew  of 
Pontiac  to  make  a  speech  in  the  Captain's  favor;  and  Godefroy  told 
them  if  they  killed  him  the  English  would  kill  the  Miamis  then  held 
prisoners  at  Detroit.  Chief  Swan  of  the  Miamis  then  actively  took 
the  part  of  Captain  Morris  by  untying  his  arms,  and  giving  him  a  pipe 
to  smoke.  Chief  White  Cat  snatched  the  pipe  away,  and  bound  his 
neck  to  a  post.  Captain  Morris  afterward  wrote  "I  had  not  the 
smallest  hope  of  life,  and  I  remember  that  I  conceived  myself  as  if 
going  to  plunge  into  a  gulf,  vast,  immeasurable:  and  that,  in  a  few 
moments  after,  the  thought  of  torture  occasioned  a  sort  of  torpor  and 
insensibilit}-.  I  looked  at  Godefroy,  and,  seeing  him  exceedingly  dis- 
tressed, I  said  what  I  could  to  encourage  him;  but  he  desired  me  not 
to  speak  (  I  suppose  it  gave  offense  to  the  savages  )  and  therefore  was 
silent.  Then  Pacanne,  chief  of  the  Miami  nation,  and  just  out  of  his 
minoritx',  having  mounted  a  horse  and  crossed  the  river,  rode  up  to  me. 
When  I  heard  him  calling  to  those  about  me,  and  felt  his  hand  behind 
my  neck,  I  thought  he  was  going  to  strangle  me  out  of  pity;  but  he 
untied  me  saying,  as  it  was  afterwards  interpreted  to  me,  I  give  that 
man  his  life.  If  you  want  English  meat,  go  to  Detroit,  or  to  the  lake, 
and  you'll  find  enough.  What  business  have  you  with  this  man's  flesh, 
who  is  come  to  speak  with  us?'  I  fixed  my  eyes  steadfastly  on  this 
young  man,  and  endeavored  by  looks  to  express  my  gratitude." 
Another  pipe  was  given  to  Captain  Morris,  but  he  was  soon  thrust  out 
of  the  village  with  blows.  He  was  permittid  to  make  his  way  back  to 
the  fort,  receiving  a  stroke  from  a  whip  by  a  mounted  Aborigine  on 
the  way.  Godefroy  and  St.  Vincent  who  had  accompanied  him  from 
Pontiac's  camp,  did  what  they  could  to  ward  off  dangers.  A  French- 
man at  the  fort,  named  I'Esperance,  lodged  him  in  his  garret,  and  the 
other  Canadians  showed  kindness;  also  two  young  sisters  of  Chief 
Pacanne,  as  he  understood.  But  those  who  had  bound  him  were  yet 
watching  to  kill  him;  and  a  large  band  of  Kickapoos,  who  arrived  just 
before  him  and  built  their  lodges  near  the  fort,  declared  they  would 
kill  him  if  the  Miamis  did  not. 

Captain  Morris  learned  from  his  Canadian  friends  that  the  severe 
treatment  he  received  was  due  to  Delaware  and  Shawnee  messengers 
who  arrived  before  him  with  fourteen  war-belts  of  wampum  to  incite 
the  Aborigines  to  renewed  hostilities  against  the  British.  They  told 
the  Miamis  of  the  Captain's  coming  and  urged  them  to  put  him  to 
death;  and  they  had  continued  their  journey  southwestward  down  the 
Wabash  and  to  the  Illinois,  the  route  laid  out  for  him  by  Colonel  Brad- 
street.  Notwithstanding  all  this  he  inclined  to  continue  the  journey, 
until  convinced  by  the  evidence  of  those  friendly  to  him  and  by  the 
demonstrations  of   the    Aborigines  that  to   attempt   onward   movement 


would  surely  result  in  his  death.  Reluctantly,  he  decided  to  return 
and,  choosing  a  favorable  hour,  he  started  down  the  Maumee.  Nor  was 
this  return  journev  to  be  free  from  danger.  The  remaining  savages 
who  accompanied  him  from  Sandusky,  finding  him  bereft  of  all  luxuries 
and  presents,  exhibited  great  disrespect  and  forsook  him  when  their 
services  were  needed  in  procuring  food  and  propelling  the  canoe. 
Captain  Morris  described  their  chief  as  a  'Christian'  Huron  (Wyandot) 
from  the  Mission  of  Lorette  near  Quebec,  and  the  greatest  rascal  I 
ever  knew.'  Godefroy  remained  constant,  and  with  little  other  help 
they  arrived  at  Detroit  17th  September,  1764,  suffering  on  the  way 
greatly  from  want  of  food  and  from  fatigue.  Colonel  Bradstreet  and 
his  coinmand  had  visited  Detroit  while  Captain  Morris  was  up  the 
Maumee,  had  left  a  fresh  garrison  there,  and  had  returned  to  Sandusky 
to  further  parley  and  dally  with  the  deceitful  savages  having  occa- 
sional headquarters  there. 

From  '  Colonel  Bradstreet's  thoughts  on  Aborigine  Affairs  '  sent  to 
General  Gage  December  4,  1764,  the  following  is  extracted  : 

Here  I  must  take  notice,  that  from  the  Govern'  of  Pennsylvania  all  the  Shawanese 
and  Delawar  Aborigines  are  furnished  with  rifled  barrel  Guns  of  an  excellent  kind,  and 
that  the  upper  Nations  are  getting  into  them  fast,  by  which  they  will  be  much  less  de- 
pendent upon  us  on  account  of  the  great  saving  of  powder,  this  Gun  taking  much  less 
and  the  shot  much  more  certain  than  any  other  gun,  and  in  their  carrying  on  war.  by 
far  more  prejudicial  to  us  than  any  other  sort. 

Of  all  the  Savages  upon  the  continent,  the  most  knowing,  the  most  intriguing,  the 
less  useful,  and  the  greatest  Villians,  are  those  most  conversant  with  the  Europeans,  and 
deserve  most  the  attention  of  Govern'  by  way  of  correction,  and  these  are  the  Six 
Nations,  Shawanese  and  Delawares  ;  they  are  well  acquainted  with  the  defenseless  state 
of  the  Inhabitants  who  live  on  the  Frontiers,  and  they  think  they  will  ever  have  it  in 
their  power  to  distress  and  plunder  them,  and  never  cease  raising  the  jealousy  of  the 
Upper  Nations  against  us  by  propagating  amongst  them  such  stories  as  make  them  be- 
lieve the  English  have  nothing  so  much  at  heart  as  the  extirpation  of  all  Savages.  The 
apparent  design  of  the  Six  Nations  is  to  keep  us  at  war  with  all  Savages  but  themselves, 
that  they  may  be  employed  as  mediators  between  us  and  them  at  a  continuation  of 
expence,  too  often  and  too  heavily  felt,  the  sweets  of  which  they  will  never  forget  nor 
lose  sight  of  if  they  can  possibly  avoid  it.  That  [the  design]  of  the  Shawanese  and 
Delawares  is  to  live  on  killing,  captivating  [capturing]  and  plundering  the  people 
inhabiting  the  Frontiers  ;  long  experience  having  shown  them  they  grow  richer,  and  live 
better  thereby  than  by  hunting  wild  Beasts.* 

The  effect  of  Colonel  Bradstreet's  dealings  with  the  savages  during 
his  exjsedition,  was  not  to  curb  their  maraudings  but,  rather,  to  increase 
their  self-esteem  and  to  stimulate  their  marauding  propensities.  He 
early  wrote  to  Colonel  Bouquet,  who  was  advancing  from  Pennsyl- 
vania with  the  other  army,  that  his  treaties  with  the  hostiles  would 
make    safe   a   disbandment   of    Colonel    Bouquet's    armv    of    about    six 

*  London  Document  XXXN'II,  New  York  Colonial  Documents  volume  vii,  pa^re  692. 


hundred  men:  hut  the  latter  was  constantly  seeing  the  deceitfulness  of 
the  promises  of  the  savages  to  Colonel  Bradstreet,  and  pressed  forward 
into  Ohio  with  a,  to  the  savages,  new  style  of  warfare.  He  held 
hostages,  sent  others  with  letters  to  Detroit  with  positive  commands 
that  they  feared  to  disobey,  and  marched  to  the  haunts  of  the  most 
hostile  bands  of  Senecas,  Delawares  and  Shawnees  who  had  refused  to 
attend  the  council  at  Niagara;  declaring  to  them  that  his  army  should 
not  leave  them  until  they  had  given  ample  assurances  of  better  be- 
havior in  the  future;  and  "giving  them  twelve  days  in  which  to 
deliver  into  m}-  hands  all  the  prisoners  in  your  possesssion  ;  English- 
men, Frenchmen,  women  and  children,  whether  adopted  into  your 
tribes,  married,  or  living  among  you  under  any  denomination  or  pre- 
tense whatsoever.  And  you  are  to  furnish  these  prisoners  with 
clothing,  provisions,  and  horses  to  carry  them  to  Fort  Pitt.  When 
vou  have  fuUv  complied  with  these  conditions,  you  shall  then  know  on 
what  terms  you  may  obtain  the  peace  you  sue  for."  As  hostages  for 
their  compliance  with  this  demand,  he  held  the  principal  chiefs  of  each 
tribe.  His  ambassadors  proceeded  to  Sandusky  with  his  demands,  now 
more  strict  since  his  should-be  coadutor.  Colonel  Bradstreet,  had 
started  homeward  leaving  the  impression  among  the  savages  that  thev 
had  triumphed  over  him  and  could  continue  their  savagery. 

A  detachment  of  Colonel  Bouquet's  command  also  passed  to  the 
Shawnee  towns  on  the  Scioto  River  '  which  savages  had  been  particu- 
larly active  and  atrocious)  and  to  and  along  the  right  bank  of  the  River 
St.  Mary  to  Fort  Miami  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee.*  Soon  thereafter, 
bands  of  Aborigines  began  to  arrive  at  Colonel  Bouquet's  encamp- 
ment which  he  had  taken  the  precautions  to  fortify,  bringing  with  them 
the  captives  of  the  white  settlers  to  the  number  of  thirty-two  men  and 
fifty-eight  women  and  children  from  Virginia,  and  forty-nine  men  and 
sixty-seven  women  and  children  from  Pennsylvania,  which  thev  had 
accumulated  during  their  manv  raids.  There  were  many  with  Bou- 
quet's command  who  had  been  thus  bereft,  soldiers  and  women,  and 
the  emotional  scenes  witnessed  at  the  meeting  of  the  captives  with 
their  relatives  has  been  described  with  much  of  sentiment  and  pathos 
by  different  writers,"!"  some  of  whom  have  enlarged  upon  the  profes- 
sional wailings  of  the  Aborigine  women  at  the  loss  of  their  captives, 
fictitiouslv    comparing     their   demonstrations   to    the   grief    of    civilized 

'-'■''  See  map  by  Thomas  Hutchins,  assistant  enijineer.  Reproduced  for  Parkman's  Conspiracy  of 
Pontiac.  volume  ii. 

t  See  Parkman's  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac.  vo\iiine  ii :  Harper's  Montfily  Magazine,  volume  xxiii, 
October.  1861.  pages  .577-593;  Rnd  Pennsylvania  Historical  Collections.  Colonel  Bouquet's  Papers  were 
deposited  in  the  British  Museum  Library  with  the  Haldimand  Papers.  Many  of  both  of  these  Papers 
have  been  copied  for  the  Dominion  [or  Parliament]  Library  at  Ottawa,  Canada.  Parts  of  them  may  also 
be  found  in  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Collections. 


people.  Some  of  the  younger  women,  who  had  been  longest  captives 
and  were  married  to  the  Aborigines,  escaped  from  the  military  lines 
and  returned  to  their  forest  homes  in  preference  to  going  back  to  their 
kinsfolk.  This  is  in  evidence  of  the  fact  that  reversion  to  barbarism  is 
strong  in  the  lives  of  many  persons  in  every  civilized  community; 
otherwise  civilizing  influences  would  make  greater  progress.  The 
Aborigines  were  also  made  to  understand  that  they  must  soon  visit  Sir 
AVilliam  Johnson,  agent  of  their  affairs,  and  give  him  assurances  of 
their  iuture  good  behavior,  as  he,  Colonel  Bouquet,  would  not  treat 
with  them,  informing  them  that  his  duty  was  to  conquer  them  by  force 
of  arms.  The  18th  November,  1764,  Colonel  Bouquet's  command, 
and  his  rescued  captives,  started  on  their  return  to  their  Pennsylvania 
and  X'irginia  homes,  by  way  of  Fort  Pitt. 

December  26,  1764,  Sir  William  Johnson  wrote  to  the  Lords  of 
Trade  regarding  the  two  military  expeditions  in  part  as  follows:* 
"The  result  of  this  Expedition  [by  Colonel  John  Bradstreet]  is,  that 
after  loosing  near  one  half  of  the  great  boats  [in  a  storm  on  Lake  Erie 
on  his  return]  the  Troojis  are  returntd  in  a  most  shattered  scituation, 
many  have  jierished  in  tile  Woods,  and  above  forty  are  now  daily  fed 
by  the  Senecas,  'till  they  become  able  to  march,  neither  are  all  my 
Officers  or  Aborigines  yet  come  in,  haveing  been  turned  a  drift  without 
any  provision  on  Lake  Erie,  together  with  several  hundred  of  the 
troops.  .  .  .  On  the  other  hand  Coll.  Bouquet  under  all  the  disad- 
vantages of  a  tedious  &  hazardous  land  march,  with  an  Army  little 
more  than  hall  that  of  the  other  has  penetrated  into  the  heart  of  the 
Countr\'  of  the  Delawares  lS:  Shawanese,  obtained  above  200  English 
Captives  from  amongst  them,  with  14  hostages  for  their  coming  here, 
and  entering  into  a  peace  before  me  in  due  form,  S:"^^  &  I  dailv  exjiect 
their  cliiefs  for  that  jmrpose." 

The  24th  May,  1765,  Sir  ^Villiam  further  rei)orted  his  treaty  of 
peace  with  nine  hundred  Aborigines  of  different  tribes,  including  those 
obligated  by  Colonel  Bouquet.  He  also  reported  renewed  hostilities 
of  the  Miamis,  they  having  captured  a  soldier  who  strayed  a  short  dis- 
tance from  the  garrison  at  Detroit,  and  maltreated  some  French  per- 
sons st'nt  along  the  Maumee  by  the  commandant  to  secure  his  release. 
The  Miamis,  ami  the  tribes  to  the  westward,  were  yet  imbued  with 
Pontiac's  iik'as  ol  resisting  the  British,  which  ideas  were  nourished  in 
the  continued  rejiort  by  Frenchmen  in  the  southwest  and  along  the 
Maumee,  that  French  armies  would  soon  come  to  their  assistance. 
'  Several  French  Familys  of  the  worst  sort  live  at  y<^  Miamis  "... 
wrote  Sir  William  in  his  report.  This  influence  was  still  objecting  to  the 
occupation  of  the  Maumee,  Wabash  and  Illinois  countries  bv  the  British. 

'*  London  Document  XXW'H,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  vii.  pav:e  686. 


To  pacify  this  opposition  Sir  William  Johnson  sent  Colonel  Geort^e 
Croghan  amoni^  these  western  tribes  in  the  spring  of  1765.  This 
sagacious  ambassador  left  Fort  Pitt  May  ir)th  and,  visiting  the  lodges 
by  the  Scioto  River,  induced  the  Shawnees  there  to  deliver  to  him  the 
French  traders  in  their  midst  seven  in  number  who  had  been  influenc- 
ing them  against  the  British.  There  were  seven  other  such  traders 
among  the  Delawares,  all  of  whom  were  taken  or  sent  to  \'incennes  to 
prevent  their  trading  with  and  further  influencing  the  Ohio  Aborigines. 
Colonel  Croghan  and  his  escort  of  fourteeen  men  were  fired  upon  June 
8th  near  the  mouth  of  the  Wabash  River  by  Kickapoo  and  '  Musquat- 
tamie  '  warriors.  Three  were  killed  and  several  were  wounded,  includ- 
ing the  Colonel.  They  were  taken  prisoners  to  Post  \'incent  where 
there  was  a  French  village  of  eighty  houses,  and  a  Piankishaw  village. 
Here  Colonel  Croghan  met  several  Aborigines  \vhom  he  had  liefriended 
in  former  years  and  whose  influence  on  his  captors  was  favorable  to 
him.  Thev  were  taken  up  the  Wabash  to  Ouiotenon  where  other 
Aborigine  friends  of  the  past  were  met  '  who  were  extremely  civil  to  me 
&  my  party. '"^ 

At  Ouiotenon  a  Frenchman  arrix'ed  '  with  a  Pijie  and  Speech'  from 
the  Illinois  through  the  Ivickaiioos  and  '  Musquattamies  '  to  have  Col- 
onel Croghan  put  to  death  by  lire;  but  his  presents  and  personal  ad- 
dress prevailed  and  after  several  conferences  with  all  of  these  tribes  he 
was  fortunate  enough,  not  onl\'  to  influence  them  to  save  his  own  life, 
but  "to  reconcile  these  Nations  to  his  Majesties  Interest  &  obtain  their 
Consent  and  Approbation  to  take  Possession  of  any  Posts  in  their 
countr\-  which  the  F"rench  formerly  ]iossessed,  &  an  offer  of  thi-ir 
service  should  any  Nation  opi^ose  our  taking  possession  of  it,  all  of 
which  they  confirmed  by  four  large  Pipes.  .  .  On  July  13th  The 
Chiefs  of  the  Twightwees  [Miamis]  came  to  me  [Colonel  Croghan  at 
Ouiotenon]  from  the  Miamis  [Maumee  River]  and  renewed  their 
Antient  Friendship  with  His  Majesty  &  all  His  Subjects  in  America  & 
confirmed  it  with  a  Pipe." 

On  the  18th  July,  1765,  this  industrious  and  successful  deputy 
agent  of  Aborigine  affairs  started  for  the  Illinois  country,  accompanied 
by  the  chiefs  of  all  the  tribes  with  whom  he  had  been  treating.  They 
soon  met  the  renowned  Pontiac  with  the  deputies  of  the  Six  Nations  of 
Irofjuois,  and  Delawares  and  Shawnees  who  had  accompanied  the 
Colonel  down  the  Ohio  River  on  this  mission,  and  from  whom  he  had 
l")een  separated.  They  returned  to  Ouiotenon  where  were  delivered  in 
general' council  tht  speeches  sent  from  the  '  four  nations'  or  trilies  of 
the  Illinois  country.  Pontiac  and  the  others  accorded  with  the  former 
agreement  of   the  other  chiefs,  and   all   was  confirmed    by  pipe-smoking 

■■'  London  Document  XXW'III.  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  vii,  paye  7^0, 


and  belts  of  \vam]ium.  Erroneous  reports  and  misconceptions  were 
corrected,  prisoners  held  by  them  were  surrendered  and,  accompanied 
by  many  of  the  chiefs,  Colonel  Croghan  and  party  started  up  the 
Wabash  and  passed  across  the  Portage  to  the  head  of  the  Maumee 
River.      He  wrote  in  his   journal  that 

Within  a  mile  of  the  Twightwee  [Miami]  Village  I  was  met  by  the  chiefs  of  that 
nation  who  received  us  very  kindly.  The  most  part  of  these  Aborigines  knew  me  and 
conducted  me  to  their  village,  where  they  immediately  hoisted  an  English  flag  that  I  had 
formerly  given  them  at  Fort  Pitt.  The  next  day  they  held  a  council  after  which  they 
gave  me  up  the  English  prisoners  they  had,  then  made  several  speeches  in  all  of  which 
they  expressed  the  great  pleasure  it  gave  them  to  see  the  unhappy  differences  which  em- 
broiled the  several  nations  in  a  war  with  their  brethren  (the  E;nglishl  were  now  so  near  a 
happy  conclusion,  and  that  peace  was  established  in  their  country. 

The  Twightwee  village  is  situated  on  both  sides  of  a  river  called  St.  Joseph.  This 
river  where  it  falls  into  the  Miame  [Maumee]  River,  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  this 
place,  is  one  hundred  yards  wide,  on  the  east  side  of  which  stands  a  stockade  fort,  some- 
what ruinous.  The  Aborigine  village  consists  of  about  forty  or  fifty  cabins,  besides  nine 
or  ten  French  houses — a  runaway  colony  from  Detroit  during  the  late  .Aborigine  [Pontiac] 
war.  They  were  concerned  in  it,  and  being  afraid  of  punishment,  they  came  to  this  post 
where  ever  since  they  have  spirited  up  the  Aborigines  against  the  English.  All  the 
French  residing  here  are  a  lazy,  indolent  people,  fond  of  breeding  mischief,  and  spiriting 
up  the  Aborigines  against  the  English,  and  should  by  no  means  be  suffered  to  remain 
here,     'f^he  country  is  pleasant,  the  soil  rich  and  well  watered. 

After  several  conferences  with  these  Aborigines,  and  their  delivering  me  up  all  the 
English  prisoners  they  had,  on  the  2.1th  July  [(jth  August  ?]  we  set  off  for  Detroit  down  the 
Miamee  [Maumee]  River  in  canoes,  having  settled  everything  with  these  several  Nations 
to  the  Westward,  &  was  accompanied  by  several  chiefs  of  those  Nations  which  were  going 
to  Detroit  to  meet  Colonel  Bradstreet  agreeable  to  his  invitation  to  them  last  winter  by 
Mr.  Maisonville.  As  I  passed  by  the  Twightwee  [Miami]  and  the  Ottawa  villages  on  the 
Miamis  [Maumee]  River,  they  delivered  me  all  the  English  prisoners  they  had  &  I  found 
as  f  passed  by  those  towns  that  several  of  the  Aborigines  had  set  off  for  Detroit.* 

This  river  [the  St.  Mary]  is  not  navigable  till  you  come  to  the  place  where  the  St. 
Joseph  joins  it  and  makes  a  considerably  large  stream.  Nevertheless  we  found  a  great 
deal  of  difficulty  in  getting  our  canoes  over  shoals,  as  the  water  at  this  season  was  very 
low.  The  banks  of  the  river  are  high,  and  the  country  overgrown  with  lofty  timber  of 
various  kinds  ;  and  the  land  is  level  and  the  woods  clear. 

About  ninety  miles  from  the  Miamis  of  Twightwee  [head  of  the  Maumee]  we  came 
to  where  the  large  river  [the  Auglaize]  that  heads  in  a  lick,  falls  [meets,  debouches]  into 
the  Miami  [Maumee]  river.  This  they  call  the  forks,  The  Ottawas  claim  this  country, 
and  hunt  here  where  game  is  very  plenty.  From  hence  we  preceded  to  the  Ottawa  village 
[site  of  the  present  Providence,  Lucas  County].  This  nation  formerly  lived  at  Detroit, 
but  is  now  settled  here  on  account  of  the  richness  of  the  country,  where  game  is  always 
found  to  be  plenty.  Here  we  were  obliged  to  get  out  of  our  canoes  and  drag  them 
[occasionally]  eighteen  miles  on  account  of  the  the  rifts  which  interrupted  navigation. 
At  the  end  of  these  rifts  we  came  to  a  village  of  the  Wyandots  who  received  us  very  kindly, 
and  thence  we  proceeded  to  the  mouth  of  the  river  where  it  falls  [debouches  ;  there  are 
neither  falls  nor  rapids]  into  Lake  Erie.  From  the  Miamis  [villages  near  the  head  of  the 
Maumee]  to  the  Lake  it  is  computed  one  hundred  and  eighty  miles  [the  distance  is  nearer 

*London  Doc.  XXXVIII,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  vii,  pages  779,  7H1.    Annals  of  the 
West,  pases  184-85,  and  Butler's  History  of  Kentucliy. 


one  hundred  and  sixty  miles],  and  from  the  entrance  of  the  ri\er  into  the  Lake  to  Detroit 
is  sixty  miles  — that  is  forty-two  miles  up  the  Lake  and  eighteen  miles  up  the  Detroit  River 
to  the  garrison  [Fort]  of  that  name. 

On  the  17th  [August]  in  the  morning  we  arrived  at  the  Fort,  which  is  a  large  stock- 
ade inclosing  about  eighty  houses.  It  stands  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  on  a  high  bank, 
commands  a  very  pleasant  prospect  for  nine  miles  above  and  nine  miles  below.  The 
country  is  thickly  settled  with  F'rench.  Their  plantations  are  generally  laid  out  about 
three  or  four  acres  in  breadth  on  the  river  and  eighty  acres  in  depth.  The  soil  is  good, 
producing  plenty  of  grain.  All  the  people  here  are  generally  poor  wretches,  and  consist 
of  three  or  four  hundred  French  families,  a  lazy,  idle  people,  depending  chiefly  on  the 
savages  for  subsistence.  Though  the  land  with  little  labor  produces  plenty  of  grain,  they 
scarcely  raise  as  much  as  will  supply  their  wants,  in  imitation  of  the  Aborigines  whose 
manners  and  customs  they  have  entirely  adopted  and  cannot  subsist  without  them. 

Colonel  Croghan  and  Colonel  Campbell  commandant  of  Fort  De- 
troit, held  repeated  councils  with  the  Aborigines  there  assembled, 
embracing  those  of  the  Miamis,  Ottowas,  Ouiotenons,  Piankishaws, 
Pottawotomis,  Kickapoos,  '  Muscjuatomis '  Chippewas,  Six  Nations, 
Delawares,  Shawnees  and  Wvandots.  And  thus  was  cleared  the  way 
for  the  complete  British  occujiation  of  the  Maumee,  Wabash  and 
Illinois  counties.  Colonel  Croghan  so  reported  to  Fort  Pitt  and  a 
compan\-  of  the  4"2nd  Regiment  of  Highlanders  under  Captain  Thomas 
Stirling  proceeded   thence  down   the  Ohio    River  to,  and  K.lth  October, 

1765,  received  welcome  possession  of.  Fort  Chartres  from  commandant 
St.  Ange.  These  were  the  first  British  troops  to  enter  the  Illinois 
country.  Major  Arthur  Loftus  early  in  17()4,  with  four  hundred  regulars, 
ascended  the  Mississippi  from  New  Orleans  about  four  hundred  miles 
when  six  of  his  men  were  killed  and  six  wounded  by  Aborigines  in 
ambush,  whereupon  he  returned  to  Pensacola.  '' 

Pontiac   and   other  chiefs    visited     Sir    William    Johnson    July    24, 

1766,  at  Ontario,  New  York,  according  to  invitation  and  promise  given 
at  Detroit  the  preceding  \ear.  They  were  laden  with  presents  and  re- 
turned to  the  Maumee  apparently  satisfied. 

*  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America,  volume  vi.  paee  70,5.  For  account  of  George 
Croghan's  journals,  see  Ibid,  page  "04;  Hildreth's  Pioneer  History:  New  Yoric  Colonial  Documents ; 
Butler's  History  of  Kentuclty.  etc. 



Hostilities  of  British  and  Aborigines — Revolutkwary  War. 

176fi  TO  1783. 

The  Aborigines  had  become  convinced  that  no  more  reHance  could 
be  placed  on  the  French,  and  that  their  wants  would  be  best  supplied 
by  their  becoming,  and  remaining',  friendly  to  the  British;  and  the 
British,  throug'h  the  Secretary  of  State  the  Earl  of  Halifax,  the  Lords 
Commissioners  of  Trade  and  Plantations,  and  of  Sir  William  Johnson 
of  Johnstown,  New  York,  the  able  Superintendent  of  Aborigine  affairs 
for  the  Northern  District  of  America,  had  broadly  planned  for  the 
control  of  the  Aborigines."  These  jilans  and  their  firm  application 
to  the  binding"  of  the  Aborigines  to  the  dictation  of  the  British,  were 
destined  to  cost  the  American  Colonists  many  hundreds  of  additional 
lives  and  an  untold  amount  of  suffering  and  treasure  during  their  many 
vears  of  struggle  for  independence  from  the  other  unjust  imjiositions 
of  the  mother  country. 

Previous  to  this  time  the  Colonies  had  lost  thirty  thousand  of  their 
citizens,  and  incurred  an  expense  of  sixteen  million  dollars  in  their 
efforts  for  protection  against  the  French  and  their  Aborigine  allies.  Of 
this  sum  the  British  parliament  had  re-imbursed  them  atiout  one-third. 
A  large  indebtedness  had  accumulated,  and  the  rates  of  taxation  had 
become  very  l^urdensome.  The  British  debt  had  increased  during  the 
French  wars  about  one  hundred  and  forty  million  pounds  sterling. 
Parliament  attempted  to  tax  the  struggling"  Colonists  to  help  pa\"  the 
home  indebtedness.  Attempts  were  also  made  to  restrict  the  liberty 
of  the  Colonists  in  different  ways  which  led  to  various  expressions  by 
them  of  disapproval.  John  Adams  declared  that  American  Indepen- 
dence was  liorn  at  the  time  of  the  action  and  expressions  of  James  Otis 
against  the  Writs  of  Assistance,  in   Boston  as  early  as  February,  1761. 

Following  the  Stamp  Act  Riots  in  New  York,  Sir  William  Johnson 
wrote  to  the  Lords  of  Trade  under  date  of  31st  January  1766,  that  "The 
Disorders  occasioned  by  our  Riotous  People  here,  it  is  not  my  business 
to  enlarge  upon,  the  Aborigines  have  heard  of  it,  &  desired  to  know  the 
cause.  I  have  given  them  an  answer  with  the  utmost  caution,  well 
knowing  their  Dispositions,  &  that  they  might  incline  to  Interest  them- 
selves   in    the   affair,    or    fall     upon   the    Inhabitants   in   revenge   for  old 

''*  The  Plan  for  the  Future  Mana^iement  of  Abori^fiue  Attairs  is  given  in  full,  in  forty-three  sections, 
in  London  Document  XXXVII.  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  vii.  pages  6,S7  to  &11 ;  also  Sir 
William  Johnson's  recommendations  for  the  modilication  of  the  same,  on  pages  661  to  666,  These  plans 
were  prepared  from  much  experience  and  consideration.  They  show  but  the  beginnings  and  fairer  out- 
lines of  the  methods  by  which,  with  ever-increasing  savagery,  the  British  obtained,  and  maintained, 
their  wonderful  hold  upon  the  savages  within  American  borders  until  after  the  War  of  1S13. 



frauds  which  they  cannot  easily  forjiet."  .  .  It  yet  required  constant 
attention  and  no  little  diplomacy  of  Sir  William,  the  Superintendtnt,  to 
keep  the  restless  spirit  of  the  Aboriffines  constant  to  the  British. '''  The 
French  settlers  in  the  Illinois  Country  a^ain  became  aj^t^ressive  in  trade, 
and  in  sending'  l^elts  and  sentiments  inimical  to  the  British,  to  the  dit- 
ferent  tribes. 

The  desire  for  lands  also  increased  amonsi  the  Colonists.  The 
Superintendent  wrote  to  the  Earl  of  Shelburne,  Secretary  of  State, 
London,  with  date  16th  December,  1766,  that 

The  tfiirst  after  tfie  lands  of  the  Aborigines,  is  become  almost  universal,  the  people, 
who  generally  want  them  are  either  ignorant  of  or  remote  from  the  consequences  of  dis- 
obliging the  Aborigines,  many  make  a  traffic  of  lands,  and  few  or  none  will  be  at  any  pains 
or  expence  to  get  them  settled,  consequently  they  cannot  be  loosers  by  an  Aborigine  War, 
and  should  a  Tribe  be  driven  to  despair,  and  abandon  their  country,  they  have  their  de- 
sire tho'  at  the  expence  of  the  lives  of  such  ignorant  [innocent]  settlers  as  may  be  upon 
it.  .  .  The  majority  of  those  who  get  lands,  being  persons  of  consequence  [British]  in 
the  Capitals  who  can  let  them  Ive  dead  as  a  sure  Estate  hereafter,  and  are  totalh'  ignor- 
ant of  the  Aborigines,  make  use  of  some  of  the  lowest  and  most  selfish  of  the  Country 
Inhabitants  to  seduce  the  Aborigines  to  their  liouses,  where  they  are  kept  rioting  in 
drunkenness  till  they  have  effected  their  liad  purposes. 

Ml-.r.AI.  ToM.AH.AWKS 

Early  traded  to  the  Aborigines  for  peltry  by  the  French  and  British.  They  were  iosc  by  llie  .Abori- 
gines, and  many  years  afterward  were  found  by  American  farmers.  No.  1  was  found  in  .Allen  county. 
Ohio:  2,  3  and  6  at  Fort  Wayne;  No.  2  is  a  hoe,  'siiuaw-ax'  or  adz.  a  useful  implement  and  dangerous 
weapon — the  sharp  pike  of  its  head  was  coiled  backward  in  later  years;  No.  3,  is  tempered  copper.  No.  4. 
found  in  Williams  County.  Ohio,  has  a  pipebowl  as  head,  the  stem  of  the  pipe  passing  along  the  handle. 
No.  5  was  found  in  Paulding  county,  and  Nos.  7  and  8,  to  the  south  and  southwest.  Part  of  the  .Author's 

Fraud  was  also  practiced  ujion  the  Abori^nnes  by  certain  British 
traders.  The  latter  part  of  176H  one  of  them  was  convicted  liefore  a 
court    of   inquiry  of  officers   at    Detroit,    to   which    post   this  Basin    was 

*  sir  William  Johnson  remained  considerate  to  the  Colonists  to  the  time  of  his  death  which  oc 
curred  Ilth  July.  1774;  and  he  was.  also,  a  firm  friend  to  the  Aborigines, 


tributary,  of  bting  one-fifth  short  in  his  \veii;"hts  of  powder  and  lead. 
And  a  more  serious  charge  was  lirought,  viz  :  'Yet  such  is  the  conduct 
of  several  English  and  the  greater  pari  of  the  French,  that  they  are 
endeavoring  all  in  their  power  to  make  the  Aborigines  Quarrel  "... 
This  was  in  January,  1767;  and  in  this  communication  to  the  Lords 
of  Trade,  a  'Post  or  Mart'  was  suggested  for  the  Maumee  River,  also 
one  by  the  Waliash,  whereas  three  years  before  he  thought  the  post  at 
Detroit  sufficient  for  this  territory.  In  his  report  to  the  Secretary  of 
State  London  in  Septemlier,  ]7(J7,  the  Superintendent,  Sir  William 
Johnson,  reported  among  other  matters  that 

Sandoiisky  whicli  has  not  l:>eeu  re-established  [since  its  capture  by  Pontiacs  savages] 
is  not  a  place  of  much  consequence  of  Trade,  it  is  chiefly  a  post  at  which  several  Penn- 
syh'ania  Traders  embarked  for  Detroit.  St.  Joseph's  [  near  Lake  Michigan]  and  the 
Miamis  [  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee  River]  have  neither  of  them  been  yet  re-established, 
the  former  is  of  less  consequence  for  Trade  than  the  latter  which  is  a  place  of  some  im- 
portance. .  .  At  the  Miamis  there  may  be  always  a  sufficiency  of  provisions  from  its 
vicinity  to  Lake  Erie,  and  its  easiness  of  access  by  the  River  of  that  name  at  the  proper 
season,  to  protect  which  the  Fort  there  can  at  a  small  expence  be  rendered  tenable 
agst  any  Coup  du  mains.  .  .  this  would  greatly  contribute  to  overcome  the  present 
excuse  which  draws  the  traders  to  rove  at  will  and  thereby  exposes  us  to  the  utmost 
danger.  * 

Sir  \\'illiam  Johnson  again  suggested  December  3,  17ti7,  that  re- 
ligious missionaries  'would  have  hajipy  effects.'  The  question  of  sup- 
plying" the  Aborigines  with  inissionaries  had  been  suggested  at  different 
times,  but  no  appropriation  for  this  purpose  was  made  further  than  for 
those  formerly  sent  aiuong  the  Six  Nations  to  neutralize  the  infJucnce 
favorable  to  France  exerted  by  the  French  Jesuits. 

The  question  of  a  boundary  line  to  the  Aborigine  domain,  beyond 
which  European  settlers  for  agriculture  should  not  go,  had  been  oc- 
casionallv  talked  about,  and  from  1765  was  mentioned  liy  the  Superin- 
tendent of  such  affairs  as  the  Ohio  River  from  Kittanning  to  near  its 
mouth  for  this  western  region.  This  was  practically  in  consonance  with 
the  former  influence  of  the  French  who  desired  to  shut  out  the  British 
from  Ohio  :  and  this  boundary  question,  although  never  definitely  agreed 
upon  bv  the  British  in  their  dealings  with  the  savages,  was  made  much 
of  by  them  later  to  incite  and  to  keep  alive  the  savage  antipathy  of  the 
Aborigines  to  the  Colonists  from  the  beginning  of  the  Revolutionary 
War  even  down  to  the  close  of  the  War  of  1H12. 

Early  in  176H  the  French  to  the  southwest  joined  their  brethren  of 
New  Orleans  in  revolt  against  the  Spanish  authority  and  formed  a  gov- 
ernment of  their  own,  which  endured  l")Ut  a  year  or  two;  and  this  revival 
of  the   French   national   siiirit   at  St.  Louis  and  the  Illinois  country,  at- 

■"  London  Document  XL  New  York  Colonial  Documents  volume  vii.  paces  974,  975.    Over  twenty 
volumes  of  the  Sir  William  Johnson  MSS.  are  in  the  New  York  State  Library,  Albany. 


traded  the  French  and  Aborigines  of  this  Basin  again  to  the  detriment 
of  the  British.  In  June,  1769,  this  stir  became  sufficient  to  cause  alarm, 
and  the  strengthening  of  the  fortification  at  Detroit.  Also  the  14th 
August,  1770,  Sir  William  Johnson  wrote  to  the  Earl  of  Hillsborough, 
Secretary  of  State  that 

The  Aborigines  of  Ohio  and  the  southwest  are  at  present  in  a  state  of  uncertainty 
as  to  what  course  they  shall  take.  .  .  I  have  taken  measures  to  be  informed  as  early 
as  possible  with  the  proceedings  &  issues  of  the  Congress  which  they  are  about  this  time 
to  hold  at  the  great  plains  of  Sioto  near  the  Ohio,  where  some  are  endeavouring  to 
form  Confederacys  for  \'erv  bad  purposes,  secretly  countenanced  and  supported  by 
French  Traders.  Renegadoes  and  all  those  Aborigines  who  have  not  hitherto  been 
heartily  attached  to  the  English,  but  with  wonderful!  art  have  for  a  time  past  endeav- 
oured to  shake  the  fidelity  of  the  Six  Nations,  thro  the  means  of  some  of  the  Seneca 
Towns  who  are  most  dissatisfied  with  our  conduct.*     . 

In  further  illustration  of  the  state  of  affairs  on  the  eve  of  the  Revo- 
lutionary War,  and  of  the  very  great  power  the  Aborigine  allies  of  the 
British  exerted  against  the  Colonists  when  fully  marshalled  for  the  work, 
the  following  excerpts  are  made  from  Sir  William  Johnson's  letter  to 
the  Secretary  of  State  18th  Feliruary,  1771,  viz  : 

The  apprehensions  which  I  long  since  communicated  of  an  Union  between  the  North- 
ern &  Southern  Aborigines  and  which  your  Lordship  makes  particular  mention  of  in  Vour 
letter  No.  14  is  really  a  matter  of  the  most  serious  nature,  for  if  a  verry  small  part  of 
these  people  have  been  capable  of  reducing  us  to  such  straits  as  we  were  in  a  few  years 
since,  what  may  we  not  expect  from  such  a  formidable  alliance  as  we  are  threatened 
with,  when  at  the  same  time  it  is  well  known  that  we  are  not  at  this  time  more  capable 
of  Defence,  if  so  much,  as  at  the  former  period.  This  is  in  some  measure  the  conse- 
quence of  their  becoming  better  acquainted  with  their  own  strength  and  united  capacity 
to  preserve  their  importance  &  check  our  advances  into  their  country. t     . 

Nothing  seriously  inimical  to  British  interests,  however,  was  con- 
summated by  the  Aborigines  at  tht'ir  large  meeting  at  Scioto,  nor 
resulted  from  the  proposed  alliance  here  mentioned.  The  frequent 
councils  held  with  Sir  W^illiam  Johnson  by  the  Six  Nations  durin.g  this 
and  succeeding  years,  and  the  emissaries  from  these  tribes  in  British 
employ,  together  with  British  deputies,  kept  the  western  tribes  from 
actively  warring  against  the  British.  .Mexander  M'Kee,  who  in  later 
years  exerted  a  cruel  influence  against  ,\mericans  in  this  Basin  and 
southward,  was  a  Deputy  Superintendent  of  Aborigine  Affairs,  and 
'  Resident  on  the  Ohio'  8th  March,  1774.  At  first  he  was  active  to 
keep  peace  between  the  Aborigines  and  tlie  settlers  ;  but  after  the 
commencement  of  the  Revolutionary  War  he  was  as  active  in  inciting 
the  savages  against  the  Americans.  June  20,  1774,  Sir  William  John- 
son wrote  to  the  Secretarv  of  State,  that 

*  London  Document  XLII,  New  York  Colonial  Documents,  volume  viii,  paize  227. 

t  The  British  dreaded  the  confederation  of  the  savaces  against  them  by  the  French:  but,  early 
rccognizinc  them  as  the  best  of  allies  for  themselves,  they  used  their  best  endeavors  to  federate  them 
against  the  Americans,  with  much  success  in  later  years. 


For  more  than  ten  years  past,  the  most  dissolute  fellows  united  with  debtors,  and 
persons  of  wandering  disposition,  have  been  removing  from  Pensilvania  &  Virginia  &ca 
into  the  Aborigine  Countr\-,  towards  lV  on  the  Ohio.  &  a  considerable  number  of  settle- 
mts  were  made  as  earl}- as  1  Tli.')  when  my  Deputy  [George  Croghan]  was  sent  to  the 
Illinois  from  whence  he  gave  me  a  particular  account  of  the  uneasiness  occasioned 
iimongst  the  Aborigines.  Many  of  these  emigrants  are  idle  fellows  that  are  too  lazy  to 
cultivate  lands,  &  invited  by  the  plenty  of  game  they  found,  have  employed  themselves 
in  hunting,  in  which  they  interfere  much  more  with  the  Aborigines  than  if  they  pursued 
agriculture  alone,  and  the  Aborigine  hunters  (who  are  composed  of  all  the  Warriors  in 
each  nation)  already  begin  to  feel  the  scarcity  this  has  occasioned,  which  greatly  in- 
creases their  resentment. 

The  Earl  of  Dartmouth,  Secretary  of  State,  did  not  approve  of 
this  westward  migration,  and  julv  (hit  he  wrote  to  the  Superintendent 
of  Aborigine  Affairs  as  follows  : 

I  received  a  few  days  ago  from  Lord  f)unmore  [Governor  of  Virginia]  that  some 
persons.  Inhabitants  of  Virginia,  have  purchased  of  the  Illinois  Aborigines  a  very  large 
tract  of  land  extending  thirty  leagues  up  the  River,  and  I  wish  that  this  Transaction  had 
met  with  such  Discouragement  from  that  Government  as  the  nature  of  it  deserved.  There 
are  many  reasons  urged  by  Lord  Dunmore  in  favor  of  this  measure,  but  they  have  no 
weight  with  me.  and  as  I  shall  continue  of  opinion  that  such  a  proceeding  cannot  fail 
of  being  attended  with  the  most  dangerous  and  alarming  consequences. 

Loval  British  subjects,  however,  were  not  to  suffer  such  dire  con- 
sequences as  was  feared  by  the  Secretary.  Such  sufferin}^  was  to  come 
to  pioneer  Americans  who  sought  homes  in  the  West,  and  joined  their 
countrymen  in  the  East  aijainst  unjust  impositions  of  the  mother  coun- 
try. Earl\'  in  1774  the  Ohio  Aborigines  renewed  their  murderous  raids 
upon  the  \'irginia  frontier.  The  settlers  retaliated  and,  without  full  op- 
portunity or  desire  for  discrimination,  they  took  the  lives  of  some  non- 
combatants.  Some  friends  of  the  Seneca  Chief  Logan,  of  the  Mingo 
band,  were  among  this  number  and  he  thereupon  entered  upon  a  course 
of  revenge  with  dire  effect,  particularly  upon  the  innocent.  Governor 
|ohu  Murray  Earl  of  Dunmore  was  ur.ged  by  his  I't'Oiile  to  raise  an 
armv  to  suppress  the  savages."'  Accordingly,  late  in  the  summer,  he 
marched  against  them  with  an  army  of  aliout  three  thousand  men,  starting 
in  three  divisions.  Two  ol  these  soon  came  together  to  form  the  left 
under  General  Andrew  Lewis:  and  this  division  was  attacked  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Great  Kanawha  River  lOth  October  by  one  thousand  to 
twelve  hundred  savages  of  the  Western  Confederacy  led  by  the  noted 
Shawnee  Chief  Cornstalk.  In  the  fierce  battle  that  ensued  the  Virginians 
lost  fiftv-two  privates  and  half  their  commissoned  officers  killed,  and 
one  hundred  and  forty  odd  were  wounded,  while  the  Aborigine  loss  was 
pr<jl)ably  about  one  hundred  and  thirty  in  both  killed  and  wounded  :  but 
one  writer  at  least  gives  the  number  as  a  full  hundred  more. 

^See  American  Archives  IV.  volume  i;  Hraniz  Mayer's  Logan  and  Cresap :  Magazine  of  Ameri- 
can History,  volume  i ;  and  Roosevelt's  The  Winning  of  the  West,  volume  i,  G.  P.  Putnam's  Sons,  1897. 


This  division  proceeded  to  the  Shawnee  towns  by  the  Scioto  River, 
according^  to  the  orders  of  Governor  Dunmore  who  was  there  in  com- 
mand of  the  right  division,  and  who  there  arranged  terms  of  peace  with 
the  savages.'^  These  terms,  however,  were  not  to  benefit  the  Americans, 
even  of  this  army  for  long,  as  during  the  march  homeward  meetings  of 
the  suliordinate  officers,  and  of  the  privates,  were  held  and  resolutions 
were  passed  declaring  that  they  would  no  longer  submit  to  British 

The   Revolutionary  War. 

Sir  William  Johnson  died  11th  July,  1774;  and  his  chief  deputy, 
and  son-in-law.  Colonel  Guy  Johnson,  immediately  succeeded  to  the 
British  office  of  Superintendent  of  Aborigine  Affairs.  He  immediately 
adopted  measures  to  assure  the  different  tribes  of  Aborigines  that  there 
would  not  be  any  change  in  the  relation  of  the  British  Government 
toward  them.  But  the  rapidly  changing  events,  culminating  in  the  out- 
break of  the  Revolutionary  War,  made  it  necessary  for  him  to  flee  from 
his  country  seat  near  Johnstown,  New  York,  to  Canada  in  May,  1775, 
where,  in  Montreal,  he  yet  endeavored  to  preserve  the  friendship  of  the 
savages  for  the  British.  He  went  to  London,  was  confirmed  in  the 
superintendency,  and  came  to  New  York  City  where  he  co-operated  with 
General  William  Howe.  His  last  effective  work  in  this  office  was  done 
with  the  Six  Nations  at  Niagara.  He  was  succeeded  23rd  March,  1782, 
by  Sir  John  Johnson,  son  of  the  late  Sir  William.  Meantime  the  active 
work  with  and  by  the  western  Aborigines  was  directed  by  the  western 
military  posts,  Detroit  being  the  principal  one. 

Under  the  French  regime,  and  until  after  the  Revolutionary  War 
under  the  British,  the  commandant  of  the  military  post  at  Detroit,  to 
which  this  Basin  was  subject,  exercised  the  functions  of  both  a  civil 
and  a  military  officer  with  absolute  power.  The  22nd  June,  1774,  under 
the  Quebec  Actt  (which  was  so  obnoxious  to  the  Colonists  as  to  be 
cited  in  the  Declaration  of  Independence)  a  civil  government  was  first 
provided  for  the  territory  which  centered  at  or  was  subject  to  Fort 
Detroit  —  including  all  the  Territory  Northwest  of  the  Ohio  River  at 
least.  This  Act  vested  the  legislative  power  in  the  Governor,  then  Sir 
Guy  Carleton  who  was  afterward  Lord  Dorchester,  in  the  Lieutenant 
Governor,  or  Commander  in  Chief,  and  in  a  Council  of  not  less  than 
seventeen  nor  more  than  twenty-three  persons  to  be  appointed  b^-  the 
King.  The  criminal  law  of  England  was  presumed  to  be  the  guide; 
but,  generally,  the  law  was   but   the   will   of  the   commandant,  or  of  the 

*For  a  description  of  these  combatants,  and  of  this  most  severe  combat,  see  The  Winning  of  the 
West  by  Theodore  Roosevelt,  volume  i  Chapter  ix.  based  on  the  American  Archives.  4th  series  volume  i, 
and  Whittlesey's  Fugitive  Essays. 

t  For  copy  of  the  Quebec  Act  see  the  American  Archives.  Fourth  Series  volume  i.  page  216, 


notary  or  justice  of  the  peace  of  tiis  appointing.  This  was  more  par- 
ticularly the  case  as  the  lines  of  war  became  more  rigidly  established. 
Governor  Carleton  proclaimed  martial  law  June  9,  1775,  and  the  culti- 
vated savagery  of  the  Aborigines  was  then  systematically  and  forcefully 
directed  against  the  American  frontier  settlements,  the  murdering  par- 
ties being  generally  led  liy  British  officers. 

The  notorious  tory  Doctor  John  Connelly,  who  had  been  for  about 
three  years  in  collusion  with  Earl  Dunmore  against  Pennsylvania  and 
against  the  patriots  generally,  in  July,  1777,  endeavored  to  enlist  volun- 
teers among  Americans  in  the  western  country  to  operate  with  the 
savages  against  loyal  Americans.  They  were  to  be  supplied  with  mu- 
nitions from  Detroit.  Congress  became  apprised  of  such  movements 
and  instituted  measures  to  prevent  disaffection  among  the  frontier 
people.      Connelly  was  soon  captured  by  the  loyal  Americans. 

The  Americans  also  desired  the  help  of  the  Aborigines,  or  at  least 
their  neutrality.  To  obtain  this  result  Congress  appointed  Judge  James 
Wilson  of  Pennsylvania,  General  Lewis  Morris  of  New  York  and  Doctor 
Thomas  Walker  of  Virginia,  commissioners  to  treat  with  them.  Arthur 
St.  Clair,  afterwards  first  Governor  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  was  their 
secretary  ;  and  he  enlisted  nearly  five  hundred  volunteers  to  march  against 
Detroit  if  the  neutrality  of  the  Aborigines  could  be  secured.  This  neu- 
trality could  not  be  obtained,  and  the  suggested  march,  like  many  other 
projects  of  these  times,  was  not  entered  upon  ;  nor  did  the  efforts  of  the 
commissioners  to  the  Aborigines  result  in  much  favor  to  the  Americans. 

The  ofiice  of  Lieutenant  Governor  and  Superintendent  of  Abo- 
rigine Affairs  was  created  by  the  British  for  Detroit,  the  Maumee 
region,  Vincennes  and  Michilimackinac.  Captain,  afterwards  Colonel, 
Henry  Hamilton  of  the  15th  Regiment  of  British  troops,  was  appointed 
to  this  office  for  Detroit  where  he  arrived  9th  November,  1775:  and  he 
was  deferred  to  regarding  the  other  posts.  He  proved  tactful,  cruel 
and  remorseless.  It  appears  that  the  British  had  been  preparing  the 
Aborigines  for  war  against  the  Americans  on  the  former  French  plan 
against  the  I^ritish,  jirevious  to  this  date,  and  that  councils  had  been 
held  with  different  tribes  at  Detroit  for  this  inirpose.  War  belts  of 
wampum  were  sent  to  every  tribe  with  invitations  to  visit  Detroit. 
There  councils  and  feastings  were  repeatedly  held  in  which  rum  flowed 
freely  with  every  incitement  calculated  to  inflame  the  savages  against 
the  Americans  who  were  endeavoring  to  crowd  them  from  their  lands, 
and  now  had  rebelled  against  the  good  King,  their  father,  who  was  dis- 
tributing so  many  presents  and   kindnesses   to   his  Aborigine  children." 

Earl\-  in  September,  1776,  Hamilton  wrote  to  Lord  George  Ger- 
main "  that  the  Ottawas,  Chippewas,  Wyandottes  and  Pottawatomies, 
with  the  Seiiecas  would    fall    on   the  scattered    settlers  on   the   Ohio  and 


.;,fj^s-»«<^^,  •      ■  ,  V; 

its  branches  .  .  .  whose  arrogance,  disloyalty  and  imprudence  has 
justl\-  drawn  upon  them  this  deplorable  sort  of  war.'"^.  .  .  Gover- 
nor Carleton,  who 
was  a  good  disci- 
plinarian  and 
prompt  to  o  b  e  y 
the  orders  of  his 
superior  officer, 
enjoined  Hamilton 
6th  October,  1776, 
'to  keep  the  Abor- 
igines in  readiness 
to  join  me  in  the 
Spring,  or  march 
elsewhere  as  they 
m  ay  be  most 
wanted.'!  War 
jiarties  of  savages 
were  thoroughly 
(_'  ( 1  u  i  \y  p  e  d  and, 
commanded  l)v 
British  officers  + 
were  sent  out  from 
Detroit,  first  to  the 
eastward  and  later 
to  the  south  and 
southwest  also, 
wherever  they 
could  find  the  most  defenseless  American  settlements  in  Ohio,  Penn- 
sylvania and  Kentucky',  to  murder  and  plunder. 

Fort  Henr\-,  at  the  site  of  the  present  Wheeling,  was  attacked  by 
one  of  these  parties  which,  though  finally  driven  away,  inflicted  loss  of 
life  upon  the  small  garrison.  Harrodsburg,  Kentucky,  was  assailed 
loth   March,  1777,  but    its   Itrave  and  efficient   defenders   repulsed    the 


(From  Schoolcraft) 

*  Secretary  Germain  had  complained  of  Governor  Carleton  for  hesitatinR  to  employ  the  savages 
against  tlie  Americans  toward  whom  Germain  was  very  vindictive;  and  he  reproved  every 
commander  who  slrowed  signs  of  mei"cy  in  his  conduct  of  this  business.  He  found  in  Hamilton  a  ready 
agent  in  carrying  out  his  cruel  schemes  — Harper's  Encyclopaedia  of  United  States  History  volume  iv, 
page  64.     Some  writers  date  Hamilton's  communication  one  year  later  than  the  above. 

1  Haldimand  Papers.  The  Papers  relating  to  the  Revolutionary  War  preserved  by  General  Sir 
Frederick  Haldimand.  of  most  interest  to  the  historian,  number  one  hundred  and  sixty-four  volumes. 
In  1857  they  were  presented  to  the  British  Museum  Library  by  his  nephew  William  Haldiman.  They 
have  been  copied  largely  for  the  Parliament  or  Dominion  Library  at  Ottawa.  Canada.  Other  papers  of 
great  interest  to  the  student  of  history  may  also  be  there  found. 

i  The  term  British  is  applied  by  the  writer  to  all  those  persons  engaged  in  the  interests  of  the 
British  Government,  whether  English,  Scotch,  Irish,  French  or  American  born. 


savages,  who  met  like  successful  opposition  at  Boonsboro  15th  April 
and  again  4th  July.  Four  were  wounded  including  Captain  Boon. 
Logan's  Station  was  also  attacked  and  one  man  killed  and  two  others 
mortally  wounded  while  guarding  women  who  were  milking  the  cows 
outside  the  stockade. 

Governor  Hamilton  reported  to  Secretary  Germain  under  date 
27th  July,  1777,  that  he  had  sent  out  fifteen  war  parties  composed  of 
two  hundred  and  eighty-nine  savage  warriors  with  thirty  British  oiScers 
and  rangers.  The  26th  September,  Hamilton  was  given  full  control  of 
this  western  country,  he  having  passed  the  probationary  period  in  his 
worse  than  barbarous  work  satisfactorily'  to  the  British  Government. 
He  rei^orted  to  Governor  Carleton  15th  January,  177w,  that  "The 
parties  sent  from  hence  have  been  generally  successful,  though  the 
Aborigines  have  lost  men  enough  to  sharpen  their  resentment  :  they 
have  brought  in  28  prisoners  [Americans]  alive,  twenty  of  which  they 
presented  to  me,  and  129  scalps."*. 

Daniel  Boon,  pioneer  of  Kentucky,  with  twenty-six  companions 
were  captured  February  7,  1778.  While  making  salt  at  the  Blue  Licks 
they  were  quietly  surrounded  by  eighty  or  ninety  Miamis  of  the  Mau- 
mee  led  by  two  Frenchmen  named  Baubin  and  Lorimer.  With  his 
usual  discretion  Boon  decided  it  best  to  surrender  on  condition  of  being 
well  treated.  They  were  taken  to  Chillicothe  and  then  to  Detroit 
where  Hamilton  offered  the  Aborigines  one  hundred  pounds  for  Boon. 
They  refused  to  sell  him  for  this  price.  The  10th  April  they  took  him 
into  Ohio  where  he  further  ingratiated  himself  in  their  favor,  and  they 
adopted  him  into  the  tribe.  At  Chillicothe  in  June  he  saw  a  war  part\- 
on  its  way  against  Boonsboro,  and  he  escaped  thither.  He  made  the 
journey  of  one  hundred  and  sixty  miles  in  four  days,  with  not  to  exceed 
one  meal  of  food  on  the  way.  He  was  tried  by  court-martial  for  sur- 
rendering at  Blue  Licks,  was  acquitted,  and  promoted  to  the  rank  of 

August  H,  177H,  between  three  and  four  hundred  Shawnees  and 
Miamis,  led  by  their  chiefs.  Captain  Daigniau  de  Ouindre  (written 
Duquesne  by  Major  Boon)  and  eleven  other  Frenchmen,  appeared  be- 
fore the  stockade  at  Boonsboro  with  both  the  British  and  French  flags, 
and  demanded  surrender  in  the  name  of  his  Britannic  Majesty,  George 
HI.  Upon  request  Major  Boon  was  granted  two  days  in  which  to  de- 
cide, and  he  lost  no  opportunity  meantime  to  gather  the  live  stock  and 
other  necessaries  within  the  jialisades.  There  was  further  parlej-ing, 
with  dangerous  deception  on  the  part  of  the  enemy,  followed  by  the 
besieging  of  the   place   for   nine   days.      The    casualties  to  the  Kentuck- 

'*History  of  Detrcit  and  Michigan,  hy  Silas  Farmer,   volume  i,  1889;    From   Michican  Historical 


ians  were  two  killed  and  four  wounded  ;  and  the  enemy  suffered  but 
little  more.*  August  20th  the  enemy  withdrew,  and  Boonsboro  was  not 
again  seriously  attacked  during  the  war.  The  marauding  parties  sent 
against  the  frontier  settlements  were  usually  much  smaller  than  the 
one  last  mentioned.  August  25th,  fifteen  Miamis  were  started  ;  Sep- 
tember 5th,  thirty-one  Miamis  ;  September  Uth,  one  Frenchman,  five 
Chippewas,  and  fifteen  Miamis,  are  the  statements  of  a  few  of  the  indi- 
vidual reports.  Hamilton  reported  16th  September  that  his  parties 
had  taken  thirty-four  prisoners,  17  of  which  they  delivered  up,  and 
eighty-one  scalps."  T 

Major  Arent  Schuyler  De  Peyster,  at  different  times  commandant 
of  Detroit,  reported  a  form  of  presentation  to  Lieutenant  Governor 
Hamilton  on  return  of  the  savages  who  had  been  sent  on  marauding 
expeditions,  as  follows:  "Presenting  sixteen  scalps,  one  of  the  Dela- 
ware chiefs  said,  Listen  to  your  children,  the  Delawares  who  are  come 
in  to  see  you  at  a  time  they  have  nothing  to  apprehend  from  the  enemv, 
and  to  present  you  some  dried  meat,  as  we  could  not  have  the  face  to 
appear  before  our  father  empty."  + 

All  scalps  were  paid  for  ;  and  at  the  starting  out  of  the  savages  for 
their  raids,  the  governor,  and  sometimes  the  commandant,  encouraged 
them  b\-  singing  the  war  song,  by  the  gift  of  some  weapon,  and  by  pas- 
sing their  weapons  through  his  own  hands,  thus  'taking  hold  of  the  same 
tomahawk  '  to  show  full  sympathy  with  them  in  their  murderous  work. 
On  their  return  to  Detroit  they  were  sometimes  welcomed  by  firing  the 
fort's  cannon.  Hamilton  was  also  charged  with  having  standing  prices 
for  American  scalps,  but  generally  none  for  prisoners,  thus  inducing  the 
savages  to  at  once  kill  all  weak  or  resisting  prisoners  reserving  such  as 
could  carry  the  plunder  for  them  to  Detroit  where  it  would  be  deter- 
mined what  disposition  could  best  be  made  of  them.  These  war  parties 
went  out,  and  returned,  through  this  Basin  :  and  many  of  them  were 
recruited  from  this  region. 

It  was  at  these  trying  times  that  Captain  Alexander  M'Kee,  a 
native  of  Pennsylvania,  his  two  negro  servants,  with  Matthew  Elliott, 
Simon   Girty   and  a   few  others,   deserted    Pittsburg   2ftth  March,  177H, 

'^See  The  Winning  of  the  West,  by  Theodore  Roosevelt,  volume  ii,  paue  30  et  seq. 

tThe  late  Samuel  Prescott  Hildreth,  M.  D.,  communicated  to  The  American  Pioneer  of  July.  1H43, 
volume  i,  pages  291,  292,  the  confession  in  the  year  179H  of  the  noted  savaye  '  Silver  Heels  '  that  he  had 
taken  the  scalps  of  sixteen  white  people,  among  the  number  beiny  Abel  Sherman  who  resided  near  where 
he  boasted  of  taking  the  scalp  in  large  size,  of  dividing  it  carefully,  and  selling  the  parts  as  two  scalps  in 
Detroit  for  fifty  dollars  each. 

Possibly  many  of  the  scalps  and  prisoners  referred  to  above  by  Hamilton,  were  taken  at  the  Mas- 
sacre of  Wyoming,  Pennsylvania,  as  many  of  the  savages  who  participated  in  that  crime  went  from  this 
western  region,  led  by  Captain  Henry  Bird  of  the  8th  British  Regiment. 

t  The  enquiring  reader  can  learn  more  of  this  horrible  story  by  referring  to  General  Lewis  Cass' 
communication  to  the  North  American  Review,  and  to  Rev.  David  Zeisberger's  Diary,  volume  i,  page  37. 
Also  to  the  Haldimand  Papers,  passim,  and  Farmer's  History  of  Detroit. 



and  the  Americans  who  had  trusted  them,  and  made  their  way  to  Detroit 
where  they  joined  the  British.  Soon  thereafter  throutfh  their  influence 
over  twenty  other  persons  deserted  for  Detroit.  In  Pittsburt;,  where  the 
efficient  number  of  patriots  was  small  and  the  dangers  great,  these  de- 
sertions caused  alarm  and  anxiety.  These  traitors  stopped  with  the  Dela- 
ware Aborigines  '  Moravians  )  by  the  Tuscarawas  River,  a  tributary  of  the 
Muskingum,  and  influenced  them  against  the  Americans.  The  reports 
carried    to    Detroit    led  to  communications  with  these  Aborigines  by  the 

[  From  Catlin ) 

British,  which  in  turn  led  the  Americans  to  the  belief  that  they  were  in 
accord  with  the  British.  This  belief,  with  the  large  number  of  Delawares 
known  to  be  with  the  war  parties,  caused  the  sad  massacre  of  a  part  of 
the  Moravian  band  by  Pennsylvanians,  reference  to  which  will  be  again 

M'Kee,  Elliott  and  Girty  were  received  at  Detroit  with  great  joy 
bv  Governor  Hamilton'''  a  man  of  their  own  type.  M'Kee  was  com- 
missioned Captain  and  interpreter  in  the  British  Aborigine  Department 
and,  later,  was  advanced  to  Colonel  and  to  Commissary  and  Department 
Aborigine  Agent.  Simon  Girty  was  retained  as  interpreter  and  sent  to 
the  Senecas  CMingoes)  with  whom  he  was  to  live,  keep  them  friendly 
to  the  British,  and  to  accompany  them  on  their  raids  against  the  Ameri- 
cans. James  and  George  Girty  also  deserted  to  Detroit,  the  former 
arriving  there  15th  August,  177H,  and  the  latter  Hth  August,  1779.t 

*  Hamilton's  letter  of  April  25.  1778,  with  Haldiniand  Papers. 

tTherp  were  four  brothers   in  this  Girly,   or  Gerty,   family.     The  father,  Simon,  was  killed  in  17.t1 
vhile  in  a  drunken  bout  with  the  .^borinines.     He  was  Irish,   and  his  wife  was   EmiUsh.     The  names  of 


The  resources  of  the  Americans  were  fully  employed  for  their  pro- 
tection against  the  British  and  their  AhoriKine  allies  in  the  East  ;  but  it 
was  apparent  that  somethini^"  more  should  be  done  to  prevent  or 
counteract  the  activities  of  these  enemies  from  the  West.  Early  in  the 
sprini;'  of  1778  Virginia,  or  rather  Governor  Patrick  Henry,  for  the 
purpose  of  drawing  the  enemy  away  from  her  borders  and  from  Ken- 
tucky, gave  the  energetic  Major  George  Rogers  Clark  (  who  had  been 
aiding  in  the  protection  of  Kentucky)  authority  to  gather  four  com- 
panies of  soldiers  to  make  his  bravely  planned  expedition  for  the  cap- 
ture of  the  British  forts  in  the  Illinois  country.  With  great  difficulty 
about  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  were  gathered.  They  boated  down 
the  Ohio  River  to  the  Falls,  and  thence  to  Fort  Massac  whence  they 
went  overland.  In  the  evening  of  July  Fourth  thev  surprised  and 
captured  without  bloodshed  the  British  post  at  Kaskaskia,  and  on  the 
Hth  the  post  and  depository  at  Cahokia  about  sixty  miles  up  the 
Mississippi  River  were  captured  in  like  manner :  and  the  French 
soldiers  and  settlers  of  these  places  took  the  oath  of  allegiance  to 
the  United  States  with  joy  upon  being  informed  by  Major  Clark 
of  the  recent  a-lliance  of  France  with  the  United  States.  Information 
of  this  alliance  and  of  these  surrenders  was  communicated  to  the 
French  at  Vincennes  and  they,  being  desirous  of  an  opportunity  to 
antagonize  the  British,  conspired  against  them,  and  one  night  in 
August  they  expelled  the  British  sentiment  from  the  garrison  and 
hoisted   the  American    flag  over  the   fort.      Colonel   Clark,  Colonel  by 

their  children  were:  1.  Thomas,  born  in  1739  by  the  SuS')uehanna  River,  Pennsylvania.  He  resided  at 
Pitt?;bure  loyal  to  the  United  States.  2,  Simon,  born  in  1741  just  above  Harrisburg.  He  was  appointed 
as  interpreter  for  the  Six  Nations  at  Pittsburi;  1st  May,  1776.  but  was  discharged  1st  August  "for  ill  be- 
havior.' The  Patriots  appointed  him  2nd  Lieutenant  in  1777.  There  will  be  occasional  reference  on  the 
following  pages  to  his  evil  conduct  while  with  the  Hritisli.  He  died  near  Aniherstburg,  Canada,  18th 
February,  1818.  after  a  savage  course  toward  his  countrymen,  and  several  years  blindness.  3.  James, 
born  in  1743.  was  of  good  stature,  and  not  so  much  addicted  to  intoxication  as  Simon  and  George.  He 
married  a  Shawnee  and  became  a  trader  with  the  Aborigines  in  after  years  with  posts  at  different  times 
at  St.  Marys,  Ohio:  near  the  head  of  the  Maumee,  at  Detiance;  and  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Maumee  op- 
posite Girty  Island  which  took  its  name  from  him.  He  died  l.^th  April,  1817.  in  Canada.  4.  George  Girty, 
born  in  1745.  He  married  a  Delaware  woman  who  bore  him  several  children.  He  died  while  intoxicated 
at  the  trading  post  of  liis  brother  James  at  the  Shawnee  village  by  the  Maumee  two  or  three  miles  below 
Fort  Wayne  just  before  the  War  of  1H13.     His  family  remained  with  the  Delawares. — Buttertield. 

These  three  notorious  brothers  were  captured  by  the  Aborigines  in  August,  1756.  Simon  was  taken 
by  the  Senecas,  James  by  the  Shawnees,  and  George  by  the  Delawares.  In  1759  they  were  all  returned 
to  their  friends  at  Pittsburg.  After  their  desertion  to  the  British  in  1778-79  they,  with  M'Kee,  Elliott, 
and  other  deserters,  were  attainted  of  high  treason  by  the  Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylvania.  The  Girtys 
and  Elliott  went  into  the  employ  of  the  British  on  pay  of  two  dollars  a  day,  with  one  and  a  half  rations, 
and  were  given  one  gun  each,  and  three  horses  for  riding  and  packing.  The  savage  deeds  of  the  Girtys, 
even  tliose  of  Simon  which  were  the  worst,  have  been  excused  on  account  of  their  three  years  captivity 
with  the  savages  in  early  life.  Such  excuse  is  not  just  to  civilization.  It  is  true,  also,  thai  all  their  early 
life  was  passed  in  the  midst  of  alarms  and  bloodshed ;  but  so  was  that  of  all  the  frontier  children,  some  of 
whom  suffered  longer  captivity,  and  nearly  all  of  whom  became  patriots  and  conformed  to  the  rules  of 
legal  warfare  and  were,  later,  exemplary  citizens.  The  Girty  brothers  were  incited  to,  and  given  op- 
portunity for  their  horrible  work  by  Governor  Henry  Hamilton's  precepts,  examples,  and  employment 
of  them  for  such  work.  Such  men  were  sought  by  the  officers  and  agents  of  the  British  government  to 
lead  the  savages,  and  the  British  thus  became  a  party  to  and  responsible  for  their  acts. 


recent  promotion,  having  thus  gained  control  of  all  of  the  British 
posts  in  the  southwest,  gave  his  attention  to  allaying  the  savagery  of 
the  Aborigines  toward  the  Americans,  and  with  good  success  in  the 
Illinois  country. 

In  October,  1778,  the  Legislature  of  Virginia,  acting  under  the 
Colonial  Charters  of  King  James  I,  April  10,  1606,  May  23,  1609,  and 
March  12,  1611,  organized  the  Northwestern  Territory,  or  as  much  of 
it  as  could  be  controlled  by  Colonel  Clark,  into  the  County  of  Illinois* 
and  appointed  Colonel  John  Todd,  junior.  County  Lieutenant  or 
Military  Commandant.  The  15th  June,  1779,  this  officer  issued  a 
proclamation  from  Kaskaskia  regarding  lands,  those  occupied  by  the 
French  and  others,  and  this  same  month  a  court  of  civil  and  criminal 
jurisdiction  was  instituted  at  Vincennes  with  Colonel  J.  M.  Legras 
president. t 

Colonel  Clark's  successes  gave  great  joy  in  Virginia  and  through- 
out the  East,  and  naturally  the  account  of  them  was  received  at  De- 
troit with  alarm  ;  thev  even  frustrated  Hamilton's  projected  attack  on 
Fort  Pitt  early  in  1778.  The  building  by  the  Americans  this  year  of  Fort 
Mcintosh  by  the  upper  Ohio,  and  Fort  Laurens  by  the  upper  Tuscarawas, 
caused  yet  further  apprehension  among  the  British.  They  strengthened 
Fort  Detroit  •.  and  Governor  General  Frederick  Haldimand  listened  with 
more  attention  to  the  complaints  of  residents  of  Detroit  against  Lieu- 
tenant Governor  Hamilton  and  his  appointe  Justice  of  the  Peace,  Philip 
Dejean,  and  they  were  indicted  at  Montreal  7th  September,  1778,  for 
"divers  unjust  and  illegal,  Terranical  and  felonious  acts  and  things  con- 
trary to  good  Government  and  the  safety  of  His  Majesty's  Liege  sub- 
jects." These  presentments  were  sent  to  Secretary  Germain  at  London 
endorsed  with  the  excuse  that  the  condition  of  affairs  justified  stringent 
measures  on  the  part  of  Hamilton.]! 

Governor  Hamilton's  continuance  in  office  showed  entire  confi- 
dence and  sympathy  of  the  British  Government  in  and  with  the  savage 
work  he  was  doing.  To  recover  lost  ground,  and  to  continue  in  the 
favor  of  his  Government,  Hamilton  renewed  his  efforts  with  the  sav- 
ages bv  messengers  to  the  tribes,  and  to  the  commandants  of  the 
remaining    British    posts,  along  the  western  lakes,    requesting   them  to 

'■' Tliis  Territory  was  before  nominally  included  in  the  County  of  Botetourt.  Virginia,  established 
by  the  House  of  Burgesses  in  1769.  Like  the  average  early  county,  Botetourt  has  been  divided  to 
form  new  counties  from  time  to  time  until  the  remaining  part  in  Virginia  is  now  only  of  ordinary  size. 

t  See  Virginia  Statutes  at  Large,  volume  ix,  page  557.  Theodore  Roosevelt  writes,  in  his  Winning 
of  (/le  West,  that  Colonel  Todd's  MS.  '  Record  Book  '  in  the  Library  of  Colonel  Durrett  of  Louisville 
is  the  best  authority  for  these  years  in  the  new  County  of  Illinois.  The  material  part  of  this  record  is 
embraced  in  Edward  G.  Mason's  Illinois  in  the  18th  Century.  This  also  gives  account  of  the  tinancial 
troubles  after  the  departure  of  General  Clark's  troops. 

+  Haldimand  Papers.     Also  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Collections. 


incite  the  Lake  Aborigines  against  Colonel 
Clark  and  the  American  settlements  in  the 
southwest.  Hamilton  wrote  to  Governor 
Haldimand  the  17th  September  that  '  next 
year  there  will  be  the  greatest  number  of 
savages  on  the  frontier  that  has  ever  been 
known,  as  the  Six  Nations  [Iroquois  of  New 
York]  have  sent  belts  around  to  encourage 
those  allies  who  have  made  a  general  alli- 

The  turn  in  affairs  was  becoming  so  evi- 
dent against  the  British  that  Colonel  Hamil- 
ton decided  to  proceed  to  Vincennes  against 
Colonel  Clark,  in  person.  The  thought  of 
getting  away  from  Detroit  for  a  time  must 
have  lieen  a  relief  to  him  —  and  he  was  sure 
of  success,  for  he  wrote  to  Governor  Haldi- 
mand "that  the  British  were  sure  to  succeed 
if  they  acted  prom]itly,  for  the  Aborigines 
were  favorable  to  them,  knowing  they  alone 
could  give  them  supplies.  .  .  The  Sjjan- 
iards  [along  the  Mississippi  River]  are 
feeble  and  hated  by  the  French  ;  the  French 
are  fickle  and  have  no  man  of  capacity  to 
advise  or  lead  them  ;  and  the  Rebels  [.\meri- 
icans]  are  enterprising  and  brave,  but  want 
resources"  —  a  just  estimate. 

.After  great  preparations  Hamilton's  com- 
mand left  Detroit  the  7th  October,  177b, 
with  fifteen  large  bateaux  and  numerous 
pirogues,  each  with  carrying  capacity  of  from 
1800  to  3000  pounds:  the  largest  ones  being 
laden  with  food,  clothing,  tents,  ammunition, 
and  the  inevitable  rum  and  other  presents 
for  the  savages.  His  force  at  the  outset  of 
his  expedition  consisted  of  one  hundred  and 
seventv-seven  white  soldiers  as  follows  : 
Thirtv-six  British  regulars  with  two  lieuten- 
ants ;  seventy-nine  Detroit  militia  under  a 
major  and  two  captains;  forty-five  volunteers, 
mostlv  Frenchmen,  under  Captain  Lamothe  ; 
and  seventeen  members  of  the  Aliorigine 
Department    including    three    captains    and 


four  lieutenants  who  led  the  sixty  Aborigines  that  started  with 
them  from  Detroit  as  well  as  the  Miamis  and  others  gathered  to  them 
along  the  Maumee  and  Wabash  —  the  whole  number  accreting  to 
about  five  hundred  upon  arrival  at  Vincennes.  Oxen,  carts  and  a  six- 
pounder  cannon  were  sent  along  on  shore  with  the  beef  cattle,  all  to 
stop  at  the  portages  to  aid  in  carrying  the  supplies  and  l)oats  to  the 
next  river.  Those  in  the  boats  had  snow,  a  high  wind  and  rough 
water  to  deal  with  across  Lake  Erie,  and  were  nearly  upset  by  the 
waves  before  they  could  be  landed  '  on  an  oozy  flat  close  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Maumee.'  The  Maumee  was  at  a  low  stage  of  water,  and  about 
sixteen  days  were  required  to  take  the  boats  from  its  mouth  to  its  head 
(  see  chapter  on  the  Maumee  River  ).  Most  of  the  supplies  were  left 
under  guard  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee  during  the  winter.  Here  the 
savages,  the  Miamis  principally,  had  remained  friendly  to  the  British, 
as  had  the  Eel  River  and  Wea  bands  of  this  trifle,  and  the  warriors 
that  were  assembled  readily  fell  in  line  for  the  march  after  the  regular 
council,  feasting  and  present  giving  were  completed.  The  16th  De- 
cember the  advance  of  Hamilton's  army  appeared  before  the  fort  at 
Vincennes,  and  demanded  its  surrender.  Captain  Leonard  Helm  was 
in  command  and,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  his  French  militia  gar- 
rison had  deserted  him  to  run  to  the  British  on  their  approach*  leav- 
ing him  with  only  one  American,  Moses  Henry,  the  Captain  refused 
to  surrender  the  fort,  and  did  not  until  the  next  day  when  Governor 
Hamilton,  who  had  learned  by  the  deserting  French  of  his  loneliness, 
came  up  with  the  army  and  promised  him  that  he  would  be  well  treated. 
The  7th  February,  1779,  Colonel  Clark  started  from  Kaskaskia 
through  the  floods  for  Vincennes  and,  after  great  hardships  from  the 
cold,  from  hunger,  and  the  overflowed  country,  his  command  of  one 
hundred  and  seventy  men  arrived  at  Vincennes  the  evening  of  the  '23rd 
and  invested  Fort  Sackville.t  This  strong  fort,  armed  with  cannon 
and  swivels,  was  so  thoroughly  besieged  by  Clark's  men  who  were 
armed  only  with  rifles,  that  Hamilton  surrendered  it  and  its  garrison 
the  next  afternoon,  and  the  American  flag  was  again,  and  ])ermanentl\:, 
hoisted. t  Two  days  later  twenty-seven  of  the  prisoners  of  war,  includ- 
ing  Colonel    Hamilton    the   other   officers    and    regulars,    were    started 

*  An  oflicer  of  the  French  militia  who  had  been  contntissioned  by  the  British,  and  later  by  Colonel 
Clark  (who  carried  blank  commissions  from  Patrick  Henry.  Governor  of  Virpinia)  was  examined  by 
Colonel  Hamilton  and  both  commissions  were  found  in  his  pocket.  Apparently  it  was  of  little  import- 
ance to  the  French  which  of  the  contending  parties  came  alonn — they  could  declare  allegiance  to  either 
in  a  moment. 

t  Named  in  honor  of  the  cruel  British  Colonial  Secretary  Lord  George  Germain.  Viscount  Sack- 
ville,  a  friend  of  Lieutenant  Governor  Hamilton  whom  Colonel  Clark  designated  the  Hair  Buyer  from 
his  purchase  of  American  scalps  from  his  savage  war-parties  at  Detroit. 

t  For  description  of  Colonel  George  Rogers  Clark's  troops  and  their  patriotic,  energetic  and  suc- 
cessful work  in  the  southwest,  see  The    Winning  of  the   West,  by  Theodore  Roosevelt. 


undL-r  guard  for  Virginia  where  the  officers  were,  after  due  trial,  con- 
victed of  gross  and  most  cruel  atrocities  enacted  principally  b}-  their 
agents  from  Detroit  under  their  incitements.  These  acts  were  so  far 
outside  the  rules  of  warfare  that  in  punishment  .  .  '  this  Board 
has  resolved  that  the  Governor,  the  said  Henry  Hamilton,  Philip 
Dejean,  and  William  La  Mothe  [his  officers  and  partners  in  savagery] 
prisoners  of  war,  be  put  into  irons,  confined  in  the  dungeon  of  the 
public  jail,  debarred  the  use  of  pen,  ink  and  paper,  and  excluded  all 
converse  except  with  their  keeper.  And  the  Governor  [Patrick  Henry] 
orders  accordingly." — Virginia  State  Papers. 

Hamilton  was  released  on   parole   10th   October,  17^0,  and  went  to 
New  York  whence  he  sailed  for  England   in   March,   1781.      The   militia  , 
surrendered    with  Hamilton  were  paroled  by  Colonel  Clark  and  the}-  re- 
turned to  Detroit,  it  being  impracticable  to  maintain  them  at  \'incennes, 
so  far  from  the  base  of  supplies. 

A  few  davs  after  the  capture  of  Vincennes  a  detachment  of  fift\- 
soldiers  in  boats  with  swivels,  sent  by  Colonel  Clark  for  this  purpose, 
captured  Colonel  Hamilton's  boats  laden  with  S50,000  worth  of  supplies, 
and  their  British  con\'oy,  while  on  their  way  from  winter  quarters  at  the 
head  of  the  Maumee,  to  and  down  the  Wabash  River  for  Hamilton's 

Some  savages,  principall\'  Shawnees,  with  headquarters  at  old 
Chillicothe  on  the  east  tributary  of  the  Little  Miami  River,  becoming 
particularly  annoying  to  the  frontier  settlers.  Colonel  John  Bowman 
County  Lieutenant,  with  one  hundred  and  sixty  Kentuckians,  co- 
operating with  nearly  as  many  others  under  Colonel  Benjamin  Logan, 
marched  against  them  in  May,  1779,  destroyed  their  huts,  caiitured 
about  one  hundred  and  sixtv  horses  and  other  property,  but  were  ob- 
liged to  retire  with  a  loss  of  eight  or  nine  of  their  troops  killed,  with- 
out inflicting  much  other  loss  on  the  enemy.  This  expedition  had  a 
wholesome  effect,  however,  for  Captain  Henry  Bird  had  at  this  time 
marshalled  a  war  party  of  two  hundred  savages  who  immediately  de- 
serted him  upon  learning  of  the  Kentucky  expedition.'' 

Al)out  this  time  Colonel  Rogers  and  Cajitain  Benliam  with  a  small 
command  of  Americans  suffered  defeat  near  the  mouth  of  the  Licking 
River,  with  a  loss  of  forty-five  or  more  of  their  men.T 

The  active  series  of  murderous  maraudings,  instigated  by  Lieu- 
tenant Governor  Hamilton  at  Detroit,  lessened  for  a  time  after  his  de- 
parture  for   Vincennes  ;    but   after    his    capture  by    the    Americans  the 

*  Captain   Bird's  letter  from  '  Upper  St.  Duski'  (  Sandusky )  June  9,  1779,  to   Captain  Lernoult  com- 
mandant of  Kort  Lernoult,   Detroit — Canadian  Archives. 

tFor  account  of  this  disaster,  and  a  pathetic  account  of  the  resources  of  wounded  woodsmen,  see 
Marshall's  and  Butler's  History  of  Kentucky,  the  Annals  of  the  West.  etc. 


British  redoubled  their  efforts  in  the  West.  Regular  troops  and  militia 
were  sent  from  Niagara  to  Detroit  to  strengthen  Fort  Lernoult,  the  new 
tort  huilt  there  late  in  1778  and  early  the  following  year,  and  named  in 
honor  of  Captain  Richard  Beringer  Lernoult  the  officer  who  drafted  its 
plan  and  who  succeeded  to  the  command  after  the  departure  of  Colonel 
Hamilton.  The  work  of  the  savages  in  the  spring  of  1779  not  proving 
satisfactory  to  the  British,  inquiries  as  to  the  cause  were  instituted. 
Governor  Haldimand  wrote  to  Captain  Lernoult  July  23rd,  that  "  I  ob- 
serve with  great  concern  the  astonishing  consumption  of  Rum  at 
Detroit,  amounting  to  17,520  gallons  per  year."  Such  profuse  flow  of 
this  intoxicant  impaired  the  ability  of  the  savages  for  constant  activity. 
Only  active  persons  were  wanted  ;  and  the  British  organization  and  dis- 
cipline pervaded  every  quarter.  Governor  William  Tryon  of  New  York 
wrote  to  Lord  George  Germain  Secretary  of  State,  London,  under  date 
of  July  2lS,  1779,  that  .  .  .  "  My  opinions  remain  unchangeable  re- 
specting the  utility  of  depradatory  excursions.  I  think  Rebellion  must 
soon  totter  if  those  exertions  are  reiterated  and  made  to  ex- 
tremity." ' 

Captain  Lernoult  at  Detroit  did  not  prove  himself  equal  to  the 
demands  of  his  more  cruel  superiors,  and  he  was  superseded  in  October 
by  Major  Arent  Schuyler  DePeyster,  a  New  York  tory  of  pronounced 
character.  Efforts  were  renewed  to  establish  war  parties  of  savages. 
Some  scalps  were  brought  in,  but  the  letters  of  the  new  commandant  to 
Governor  Haldimand  under  date  of  October  20,  and  November  20,  show 
disgust  at  the  great  quantities  of  rum  drank  by  the  savages,  and  their 
inefficiency  —  they  refusing  to  make  further  effective  raids  from  fear  of 
American  retaliation. 

The  successes  of  the  American  troops  in  the  West  under  Colonel 
Clark,  and  the  placing  of  lands  on  the  market,  induced  many  families 
to  remove  west  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains  in  1779.  The  winter  began 
early  and  was  of  unusual  severity  from  cold  and  depth  of  snow.  Hunt- 
ing was  attended  with  great  difficulties,  and  game,  when  found,  was  in 
poor  condition.  Many  wild  animals,  as  well  as  the  domesticated  ones, 
died  from  insufficient  food  and  water,  and  from  the  cold.  The  bears, 
hibernating  in  hollow  trees,  were  in  the  best  condition  and  they  were 
much  sought.  The  wild  turkeys  and  grouse  were  the  next  best  game 
for  food.  The  supply  of  corn  iZea  Mays)  which  was  the  only  bread- 
stuff for  most  of  the  people,  was  early  exhausted  in  many  settlements, 
and  great  suffering  was  experienced  particularly  by  those  who  came  too 
late  to  raise  a  crop.  With  the  ojiening  of  spring  new  settlers  came  in 
increased   numbers.      Three  hundred  large  family  boats  arrived  at  the 

♦London  Document  XLVII.  Wew  York  Colonial  Documents  volume  viii,  paee  " 


Falls  of  the  Ohio,  near  the  present  Louisville,  with  immigrants  from 
the  East  during  the  spring  of  1780.*  It  is  but  fair  to  ascribe  their  re- 
moval largely  to  the  lauded  fertility  of  the  soil  and  the  mild  climate, 
while  admitting  that  the  desire  to  avoid  conscription  for  the  Revolu- 
tionary army  was  an  additional  incentive. 

The  citizens  and  garrison  of  Detroit  had  also  suffered  from  the  se- 
verity of  the  winter  and  the  scarcity  of  food  supplies.  The  savages 
relied  almost  wholly  on  that  post  for  their  supplies,  and  they  were 
generally  inactive  during  the  cold  weather.  They  were  started  out 
early  in  the  spring,  however,  and  Colonel  DePeyster  reported  May  16, 
1780,  that  .  "  .  "The  prisoners  daily  brought  in  here  are  part  of  the 
thousand  families  who  are  flying  from  the  oppression  of  Congress  in 
order  to  add  to  the  number  already  settled  at  Kentuck,  the  finest  coun- 
try for  new  settlers  in  America  :  but  it  happens,  unfortunately  for  them, 
to  be  the  best  hunting  ground  of  the  Aborigines  which  they  will  never 
give  up  and,  in  fact,  it  is  our  interest  not  to  let  the  Virginians,  Mary- 
landers,  and  Pennsylvanians  get  possession  there,  lest,  in  a  short  time, 
they  become  formidable  to  this  post."  .  .  Ma>'  "itith  he  wrote  to 
Captain  Patt.  Sinclair,  who  succeeded  him  at  Michillimackinac  as  nom- 
inal Lieutenant  Governor  and  Superintendent  of  Aborigine  Affairs,  that 
"everything  is  quiet  here  [Detroit]  except  the  constant  noise  of 
the  war-drum.  All  the  Seiginies  [Saginaws?]  are  arrived  at  the  in- 
stance of  the  Shawnees  and  Delawares.  More  Aborigines  from  all  quar- 
ters than  ever  known  before,  and  not  a  drop  of  rum  !"  .  .  He  wrote 
to  Governor  Haldimand  June  1st  that  he  had  already  fitted  out  two 
thousand  warriors  and  sent  them  along  the  Ohio  and  Wabash  Rivers. 

Great  efforts,  including  an  expenditure  of  near  S300,000  had  been 
made  in  the  fitting  out  of  a  larger  war-party  than  usual  to  wholly  subdue 
the  fast  increasing  numbers  of  Americans  in  southern  Ohio  and  Ken- 
tucky. The  first  of  June  this  party,  composed  of  about  six  hundred 
savages  and  a  number  of  Canadians  led  by  Captain  Henry  Bird,  started 
from  Detroit.  They  were  well  equipped,  including  two  (one  writer  says 
six)  pieces  of  artillery,  this  being  the  first  of  such  parties  to  take  the 
heavier  guns.  They  passed  up  the  Maumee  and  Auglaize  Rivers,  theii; 
number  being  augmented  by  the  savages  along  their  route  until,  with  a 
force  of  nearly  one  thousand  men,  they  appeared  June  2'2nd  before 
Ruddell's  Station  on  the  south  tributary  of  the  Licking  River  in  Ken- 
tucky. Captain  Ruddell,  having  no  heavy  guns,  decided  to  surrender 
on  promise  that  the  people  gathered  within  the  stockade  should  be 
prisoners  of  the  Canadians  alone  ;  but  the  Aborigines  made  haste  and  at 
the    first   opportunity    seized    the    men,    women   and   children,    many   of 

*Mann  Butler's  History  of  Kentucky,  pace  S 


whom  they  massacred  and  the  others  they  carried  into  captivity.  The 
Station  was  completely  destro^-ed.  Martin's  Station  was  taken  in  the 
same  way  and  its  occupants  suffered  the  same  fate.  Bryan's  (or  Bry- 
ant's )  and  Le.xington  Stations  were  assailed  on  this  expedition  onlv 
by  savages  without  artillery,  who  were  repulsed;  but  they  took  away 
some  live-stock  that  was  grazing  without  \.hv  stockades. 

Possibly  Captain  Bird,  and  some  other  British  companions  of  the 
Aborginies,  endeavored  to  exercise  some  control  over  the  Aborigines  to 
prevent  gross  and  indiscriminati.'  butchery  of  captives.  They  well  knew, 
however,  before  starting  out  with  these  'war-parties'  that  the  savages 
would  have  their  way;  that  the  savages  permitted  their  company  only 
for  the  help  derived  from  them  to  further  their  savage  desires  :  and, 
furthermore,  that  it  was  from  their  savage  selfishness  alone  that  they 
spared  the  life  of  any  captive,  hoping  thereby  to  find  a  desirable  help- 
mate, to  have  a  keener  enjoyment  of  savagery  in  the  future  torture,  or 
more  sensuous  enjoyment  from  the  rum  to  bo  purchased  with  the  price 
of  the  ransom. 

Colonel    De  Peyster    wrote    further,    6th    July,    1780,    that      .      .      . 

I  am  so  hurried  with  warparties  coming  in  from  all  quarters  that  I 
do  not  know  which  way  to  turn  myself"  .  .  .  The  4th  August  he 
reported   to   Colonel    Bolton,  his  superior  officer  on  the  lakes  that 

I  have  the  pleasure  to  acquaint  you  that  Captain  Bird  arrived  here 
this  morning  with  about  150  prisoners,  mostlv  Germans  who  speak 
Englisii,  the  remainder  coming  in,  for  in  sjiite  of  all  his  endeavors  to 
prevent  it  the  Aborigines  broke  into  the  forts  and  seized  many.  The 
whole  will  amount  to  about  3.')0.  .  .  Thirteen  have  entered  into  the 
Rangers,*  and  many  more  will  enter,  as  the  prisoners  are  greatly 
fatigued  with  traveling  so  far  [from  carrying  the  plunder,  and  from  the 
scourgings  imposed  upon  them]  some  sick  and  some  wounded. 
P.  S.  Please  excuse  the  hurry  of  this  letter — the  Aborigines  engross 
my  time.  We  have  more  here  than  enough.  Were  it  not  absolutely 
necessary   to   keep   in  with  them,  they  would  tire  my  patience."  t 

^Proclamations  weie  issued  from  Detroit  and  elsewhere  durinp  the  Revolutionary  War  in  which 
qreat  inducements  were  ottered  to  the  Americans  to  join  the  British  army.  These  inducements  to  join, 
coupled  with  threats  to  all  who  refused,  were  scattered  broadcast  throuch  every  pioneer  settlement,  and 
many  of  the  less  patriotic,  of  the  adventurous  and  bloodthirsty  characters,  were  thereby  led  into  the 
British  ranks. 

tThe  late  General  Lewis  Cass,  in  a  communication  to  the  North  American  Review,  thus  quotes  an 
eyewitness  to  the  return  of  Captain  Bird's  Savages :  .  .  "  Hearing  the  usual  signals  of  success  [sounds 
indicating  the  number  of  scalps  and  prisoners  given  on  the  approach  of  a  war-party  to  Detroit]  I  walked 
out  of  town  and  soon  met  the  party.  The  squaws  and  young  .Aborigines  had  ranged  themselves  on  the 
side  of  the  road  with  sticks  and  clubs,  and  were  whipping  the  prisoners  with  great  severity.  Among  these 
were  two  yoiulg  girls,  thirteen  or  fourteen  years  old,  who  escaped  from  the  party  and  ran  for  protection 
to  me  and  a  naval  officer  who  was  with  me.  With  much  trouble  and  some  danger,  and  after  knocking 
down  two  of  the  Aborigines,  we  succeeded  in  rescuing  the  girls,  and  fled  with  them  to  the  Council  House. 
Here  they  were  safe,  because  this  was  the  goal  where  the  right  of  the  .Aborigines  to  beat  them  ceased. 
Ne\t  morning  I   received   a  message  by  an  orderly-sergeant  to  wait  upon  Colonel  De  Peyster  the  com- 


Colonel  Clark  had  in  mind  an  expedition  against  the  savages  in 
Ohio  before  Captain  Bird's  invasion  of  Kentucky  ;  and  now  making 
haste  to  Kentuckv  with  two  companions,  he  so  aroused  the  riflemen 
that  nine  hundred  and  seventy  were  on  the  march  the  2nd  of  August, 
carrying  a  three-pounder  cannon  on  a  pack-horse.  Their  first  objective 
point  was  Old  Chillicothe,  which  they  found  deserted,  and  the  huts  of 
which  they  burned.  They  arrived  before  Old  Piqua  by  the  Miami  River 
in  the  morning  of  8th  August.  This  town  is  described  as  laid  out  in  the 
manner  of  the  French  villages,  and  substantially  built.  The  strong  log- 
houses  stood  far  apart,  fronting  the  stream  and  were  surrounded  by 
growing  corn.  A  strong  blockhouse  with  loopholed  walls  stood  in 
the  middle.  Thick  woods,  broken  by  small  prairies,  covered  the  roll- 
ing country  about  the  town.  Colonel  Benjamin  Logan,  second  in  com- 
mand, became  separated  with  a  part  of  the  Kentuckians  from  those 
with  Colonel  Clark  who  led  his  men  across  the  river  and  finally  routed 
the  enemy  before  Logan  came  up.  The  Americans  lost  seventeen  killed 
and  a  large  number  wounded.  The  enemy's  loss  was  less.  Colonel 
Clark  burned  the  houses  and  destroyed  the  corn,  at  Piqua  and  at  an- 
other village  with  storehouses  of  British  and  French  traders."  He  did 
not  find  Captain  Bird's  cannon  which  was  left  at  one  of  the  upper 
Miami  towns  on  his  return  from  Kentucky,  and  which  his  bombadier 
in  charge  buried  on  the  approach  of  the  Americans. 

Detroit  was  developed  by  the  British  as  their  headquarters  in  the 
West  from  the  time  of  their  succeeding  the  French  in  ITtiO  ;  and  so  it 
remained  until  the  year  1796.  It  was  the  great  rallying  center  of  all  the 
western  tribes  of  savages  during  this  time  :  and  the  Americans  had, 
during  the  Revolutionary  War,  many  projects  for  its  ca])ture  on  this 
account.  General  Lachlin  M'Intosh,  Colonel  Daniel  Brodhead,  Gen- 
eral George  Rogers  Clark,  Colonel  Le  Balme,  General  William  Irvine, 
and  others  proposed  plans  for  this  purpose. 

The  march  of  M'Intosh  into  Ohio  with  one  thousand  soldiers,  and 
their  building  Fort  Laurens  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Tuscarawas 
River  in  the  fall  of  1778,  was  a  good  step  toward  Detroit  and  it  had  a 
repressing  effect  upon  the  savages  for  a  time;   but  this  fort  soon  ex- 

mandine  officer.  I  found  the  naval  officer,  who  was  witli  nie  the  precedint:  day,  already  there.  The 
Colonel  stated  that  a  serious  complaint  had  been  preferred  against  us  by  M'Kee  the  airent  for  the  Abo- 
rigines, for  interfering  with  the  .aborigines,  and  rescuing  two  of  their  prisoners.  He  said  the  Aborigines 
had  a  right  to  their  mode  of  warfare,  and  that  no  one  should  interrupt  them  ;  and  after  continuing  this 
reproof  for  some  time  he  told  me  if  I  ever  took  such  liberty  again,  he  would  send  me  to  Montreal  oi'tjue- 
bec.  The  naval  officer  was  still  more  severely  reprimanded,  and  threatened  to  have  his  uniform  stripped 
from  his  bacli  and  to  be  dismissed  from  his  Majesty's  service  if  such  an  incident  again  occurred.  And 
although  I  stated  to  the  Colonel  that  we  saved  the  lives  of  the  girls  at  the  peril  of  onr  own,  he  abated 
nothing  of  his  threats  or  harshness."     .     . 

*See  Roosevelt's  Winning  of  the  West  vol.  ii,  paces  104  to  111,  for  full  description  of  this  foray, 
based  on  the  Durrett.  Bradford,  M'Afee  and  Haldimand  MSS. 


perienced  so  many  losses  of  men  and  horses  from  the  rallyin^r  foe  that 
it  was  abandoned  in  August,  1779. 

Colonel  DePeyster  commandant  of  Detroit  reported  to  General 
Frederick  Haldimand  Governor  of  Canada  on  November  13,  1780,  as 
follows  : 

,  A  body  of  Canadians,  as  the  French  are  called,  commanded  by  Colonel  La  Balm* 
were  defeated  on  the  5th  instant  by  the  Miami  Aborigines  near  that  village  [at  the  head 
of  the  Maumee  River].  The  Colonel  and  between  thirty  and  forty  of  his  men  were  killed, 
and  Mens.  Rhy,  who  styles  himself  aid-de-camp,  taken  prisoner.  They  relate  that  they 
left  the  Cahokias  on  the  iird  of  October  with  41  men;  that  a  large  body  were  to  follow 
them  to  the  Ouia  [Ouiotenon]  from  whence  Colonel  La  Balm  proceeded  to  the  Miamis 
[now  Fort  Wayne,  Indiana,]  with  one  hundred  and  three  men  and  some  Aborigines, 
without  waiting  for  the  junction  of  the  troops  expected,  leaving  orders  for  them  to  follow, 
as  well  as  those  he  expected  from  Post  Vincent.  His  design  was  to  attempt  a  coup-de- 
main  upon  Detroit,  but  finding  his  troops,  which  were  to  consist  of  400  Canadians 
[Frenchmen]  and  some  Aborigines,  did  not  arrive,  after  waiting  twelve  days  they  plun- 
dered the  place  [the  Miami  \'illages  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee]  and  were  on  their  way 
back  when  the  Aborigines  assembled  and  attacked  them. 

Three  days  later,  16th  November,  Colonel  De  Peyster  again  re- 
ported that  La  Balme's  command  entered  the  Miami  village,  took  the 
horses,  destroyed  the  horned  cattle,  and  plundered  a  store  he  (  DePeyster) 
allowed  to  be  kept  there  for  the  convenience  of  the  Aborigines.  This 
information  was  carried  to  Detroit  by  Miamis  who,  also,  delivered  to 
De  Peyster  Colonel  La  Balme's  personal  effects,  including  a  watch  set 
with  diamonds,  his  double-barrel  gun,  regimentals,  spurs  and  papers. 
Governor  Haldimand  acknowledged  the  receipt  of  the  Colonel's  '  Com- 
mission,  etc.'t 

General  George  Rogers  Clark,  recently  promoted  to  Brigadier  Gen- 
eral, again  revived  his  plan  to  capture  Detroit.  He  wrote  to  President 
Washington  who  knew  the  full  imiiortance  of  such  an  expedition,  but 
he  replied  that  .  .  "  It  is  out  of  my  power  to  send  any  reinforce- 
ments to  the  westward.      If  the  States  would    fill    their  Continental  bat- 

*  Augustin  Molton  de  la  Balme  reported  that  he  came  from  France  with  General  La  Fayette;  that 
he  had  served  as  a  lieutenant-colonel  of  cavalry  in  France,  and  as  colonel  in  the  .American  army. 
Richard  Winston,  Deputy,  wrote  to  Colonel  Jolin  Todd  Lieutenant  of  Illinois  County,  31  October,  17W, 
that  .  .  There  passed  this  way  a  Frenchman  callinc  himself  Colonel  la  Balme  in  the  American  service. 
I  look  upon  him  as  a  nralcontenl,  much  disgusted  at  the  Virginians.  Yet  I  must  say  he  did  some  good — 
he  pacified  the  Aborigines.  He  was  received  by  the  inhabitants  1  French  1  just  as  the  Hebrews  would  re- 
ceive the  Messiah.  He  was  conducted  from  the  Post  here  [Kaskaskial  by  a  large  detachment  of  the 
inhabitants,  as  well  as  different  tribes  of  Aborigines.  He  went  from  here  against  Detroit,  being  well 
assured  tliat  the  Aborigines  were  on  his  side.  He  got  at  this  place  and  the  Kahos  ICahokial  about  fifty 
volunteers  who  are  to  rendezvous  at  Oliia  tOuiotenonl.  Captain  Duplaise  from  here  went  along  with 
him  on  his  way  to  Philadelphia,  there  to  lay  before  the  French  ambassador  all  the  grievances  this  country 
labors  under  by  the  Virginians,  which  is  to  be  strongly  backed  by  Monsieur  de  la  Balme.  'Tis  the  gen- 
eral opinion  that  he  will  take  Baubin,  the  general  partisan  at  Miamis  Ihead  of  the  Maumee  Riverl  and 
from  thence  to  Fort  Pitt.  .  .  He  passed  about  one  month  here  without  seeing  Colonel  Montgomery, 
nor  did  Colonel  Montgomery  see  him.— Virginia  State  Papers,  vol.  i,  page  380. 

ISee  Haldimand  Papers;  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historial  Coliections,  and  Farmer's  History  of  De- 
troit and  Michigan,  volume  i. 


talions  we  would  be  able  to  oppose  a  regular  and  permanent  force  to 
the  enemy  in  every  quarter.  If  thev  will  not,  thev  must  certainly  take 
measures  to  defend  themselves  by  their  militia,  however  expensive  and 
ruinous  the  system."  .  .  Clark  went  to  Virginia  and  laid  his  plans 
before  Governor  Thomas  Jefferson  who  favored  them  and,  in  17^0-81, 
about  £500,000  depreciated  currency  was  expended  for  this  purjiose. 
There  was  wanted,  however,  £300,000  more  to  complete  contracts.  This 
sum  could  not  well  be  raised  ;  nor  were  the  troops  forthcoming,  for 
various  questions  arose  to  deter  volunteers  from  enlisting  in  this  expe- 
dition—  objections  to  going  so  far  from  home  :  disputes  regarding  boun- 
dary lines  ;  and  the  jealousies  between  Colonial  and  local  officers,  being 
those  most  prominent. 

The  various  claims  of  the  eastern  States  to  the  territor}'  west  of 
Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  had  been  the  cause  of  friction  between  these 
States  for  years.  These  claims  were  based  on  the  Colonial  Charters  and 
treaties  with  the  Aborigines,  which  were  indefinite  regarding  boundar\- 
on  account  of  the  great  extent  of  the  unsurve\ed  regions.  It  was  finally 
advocated  that  each  State  cede  her  claim  to  the  Union.  In  October, 
1780,  Congress  passed  an  Act  providing  that  territory  so  ceded  should 
be  disposed  of  for  the  benefit  of  the  United  States  in  general  :  and  that 
the  States  organized  therein  should  be  of  good  extent  —  not  less  than 
one  hundred  nor  more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  square.  This 
Act  had  a  good  effect  and  accordingly,  1st  March,  17^1,  New  York  as- 
signed her  claims  ;  but  the  other  States  did  not  act  for  three,  four  and 
five  years. 

The  savages  renewed  their  depredations  during  the  spring  of  17*^1, 
and  raided  far  into  Kentucky,  and  to  the  eastward.  Colonel  Archibald 
Lochrey  Cor  Loughry )  Lieutenant  of  Westmoreland  County,  Penn- 
sylvania, with  about  one  hundred  men  who  went  west  two  years  before 
with  Colonel  Clark,  started  to  rejoin  him  by  the  Ohio  below  the  mouth  of 
the  Miami  River  for  the  projected  expedition  against  Detroit.  They  were 
assailed  by  savages  24th  August,  1781,  about  forty  were  killed  and  the 
others  taken  prisoners  to  Detroit,  including  the  Colonel.  The  savages 
were  soon  thereafter  reinforced  by  one  hundred  white  men,  and  they 
then  raided  south  of  the  Ohio  River. 

These  and  other  serious  disasters  caused  fresh  and  increased  terror 
among  all  the  frontier  settlements.  Governor  Jefferson  appealed  to 
President  Washington  for  aid  and  received  reply,  written  from  New 
Windsor  "28th  December,  1781,  that  .  .  "  I  have  ever  been  of  the 
opinion  that  the  reduction  of  the  post  of  Detroit  would  be  the  only  cer- 
tain means  of  giving  peace  and  securitv  to  the  whole  western  frontier, 
and  I  have  constantly  kept  my  eyes  upon  that  object  ;  but  such  has  been 
the  reduced  state  of  our  Continental  force,  and  such  the  low  ebb  of  our 


funds,  fspt-cially  of  late,  that  I  fiavu  never  had  it  in  my  power  to  make 
the  attempt."  .  .  General  Clark  was  meantime  kejU  busy  on  the  de- 
fensive against  the  savages. 

General  William  Irvine  of  Fort  Pitt  also  investigated  the  condition 
of  affairs  at  Detroit  with  regard  to  an  attack  on  that  fort.  He  reported 
to  President  Washington  that  .  .  "  the  British  there  had  made  treaties 
in  November,  1781,  with  thirteen  nations  [tribes]  of  Aborigines;  and 
at  the  conclusion  they  were  directed  to  keep  themselves  compact  and 
ready  to  assemble  on  short  notice.  Secondly,  the  Moravians  [Delaware 
Aborigines  who  were  instructed  to  neutrality  by  the  missionaries]  are 
carried  into  captivity  [to  or  near  Detroit]  and  strictly  watched  and 
threatened  with  severe  punishment  if  they  should  attempt  to  give  us 
[Americans]  information  of  their  movements.  Thirdlv,  part  of  the 
Five   [Six]  Nations  [the   Senecas]  are  assembled  at   Sandusky." 

At  this  time,  7th  February,  1782,  the  information  was  gathered 
that  the  forces  at  Detroit  were  composed  of  three  hundred  regular 
troops,  from  seven  hundred  to  one  thousand  Canada  militia,  and  about 
one  thousand  Aborigine  warriors  who  could  be  assembled  within  a  few 
days  time.'^  It  was  also  estimated  at  this  time  that  an  American  army 
to  successfully  attempt  an  expedition  against  Detroit  should  consist  of 
at  least  one  thousand  regular  soldiers  and  one  thousand  militia,  with 
cannon,  and  supplies  for  at  least  three  months.  But  it  was  impossible 
for  the  Americans  to  gather  such  an  army  for  this  purpose  and,  conse- 
(|uently,  the  well-prepared  savage  allies  of  the  British  continued  to 
inflict  great  havoc  along  the  extensive  frontier. 

The  savages  becoming  more  aggressive,  the  Americans  determined 
on  more  positive  defensive  and  offensive  measures.  A  marauding  party 
of  savages  murdered  a  woman  and  child  near  the  Ohio  River  and  muti- 
lated their  liodies.  These  savages  were  pursued  by  about  one  hundred 
and  sixty  militia  from  Washington  County,  Pennsylvania,  under  Colonel 
David  Williamson,  to  Gnadenhuetten  a  settlement  of  Moravian  (United 
Brethren  )  missionaries  by  the  Tuscarawas  River  a  tributary  of  the 
Muskingum.  These  missionaries  and  their  Delaware  Aborigine  fol- 
lowers had  been  taken  to  Detroit  by  forces  under  British  command  to 
answer  to  Commandant  DePeyster  regarding  charges  of  being  friendly 
to  Americans.  They  were  there  exonerated  of  the  charge  and  taken  to 
Sandusky.  Being  here  short  of  provisions,  a  number  returned  to 
Gnadenhuetten  for  supplies  ;  and  these  Christian  Aborigines  Colonel 
Williamson's  command  assailed  the  8th  March,  1782,  killed  and 
scalped  sixty-two  adults  and  thirty-four  children.  It  appears  that  the 
savages   who  committed   the   recent   murders   made   good   their  escape 

^  A  review,  or  rough  census  of   all  the  tribes  of  Aborigines  tributary  to  Detroit  in  1782.  gave  the 
total  number  as  11.402 — Haldiniand  Papers, 


after  warning  the  mission  Delawares  to  do  likewise  or  they  would 
surely  all  be  killed.  Onh-  two,  youths,  of  the  mission  Delawares  at 
Gnadenhuetten  and  Salem  escaped  to  find  their  way  to  Sandusky  and 
tell  the  fate  of  the  others.*  These  Delawares  were  suspected  of  aiding, 
if  not  participating  in,  the  marauding  incursions  with  the  warriors  of 
their  tribe  and  others — see  ante  page  134.  They  had  been  several  times 
warned  of  the  danger  of  their  position,  aud  even  invited  by  Colonel 
Brodhead  in  1781  to  remove  to  Fort  Pitt,  without  effect.  The  mission 
Delawares  at  Schoenbrunn,  a  few  miles  distant,  escaped  Colonel  Wil- 
liamson's soldiers  and  went  to  Sandusky,  to  the  Maumee,  and  later 
suffered  several  other  removals.  Their  huts,  with  the  others,  were 

This  slaughter  has  an  ugly  look  on  the  page  of  histor\\  It  has 
been  a  favorite  subject  of  comment  adverse  to  the  Americans  by  many 
persons,  particularlv  those  who  seek  every  opportunity  to  condemn  all 
disciplinary  dealings  with  the  savages  ;  and  of  those  who  overlook  the 
desperation  to  which  the  Americans  were  driven  by  them.  It  was  the 
action  of  men,  or  at  that  time  was  looked  upon  with  favor  by  men  who 
saw  at  that  moment  no  other  course  to  pursue  for  the  protection  of 
their  own  lives  and  the  lives  of  their  families.  The  Delawares  had  for 
many  years  the  reputation,  even  among  their  fellow  Aborigines  of 
other  tribes,  of  being  particularly  deceitful,  treacherous  and  blood- 
thirsty, and  this  onslaught  was  the  reaping  of  but  a  jiart  of  the  whirl- 
wind which  many  of  the  tribe  had  sown  in  past  years. 

An  unfortunate  American  expedition  against  Sandusky  occurred 
early  in  June,  17h2,  with  defeat  and  great  loss  of  life,  including  that  of 
its  commander.  Colonel  William  Crawford,  who  was  taken  prisoner 
and  tortured  to  death  with  fire  and  woundings  by  the  Delawares  in  the 
most  horrilile  manner. t  Emboldened  by  this  success  against  Ameri- 
cans, savage  war-parties  again  increased  in  number  and  daring. 
Captains  M'Kee  and  Caldwell  reported  to  the  commandant  at  Detroit 
the  latter  part  of  August,  that  they  had  ...  "  the  greatest  body  of 
Aborigines  collected  on  an  advantageous  piece  of  ground  near  the 
Picawee  village  that  has  been  assembled  in  this  quarter  since  the  com- 
mencement of  the  war  .  .  .  eleven  hundred  on  the  ground  and 
three  hundred  more  within  a  days  march.  "  .  .  This  great  gathering 
was  to  oppose  the  (reported)    coming  of   General  Clark.      Scouts  soon 

-'-  Histon/  of  the  Mission  of  the  United  Brethren  Among  the  Aborigines  in  North  America,  by 
Henry  Loskiel,  London,  1794.  Part  iii,  pages  180,  181.  For  many  details  of  this  massacre  see,  also. 
Roosevelt's  The  Winning  of  the  West:  Heckewelder's  Narrative  of  the  Mission  of  the  United  Brethren  , 
Zeisber«er's  Diary:  The  Pennsylvania  Packet:  U.  S.  Department  MSS.  No.  41,  volume  iii;  Hale's 
Trans-Allegheny  Pioneers,  and  the  Haldimand  Papers. 

t  For  a  full  account  of  Crawford's  unfortunate  campaign  see  Expedition  Against  Sandusky,  by 
Consul  W.  Butterfield,  Cincinnati,  1873. 


reported  that  Clark  was  y;ivin^-  attention  in  another  direction  and  the 
savages  divided,  mostly  into  small  bands. 

Somewhat  over  three  hundred  of  these  savages  led  by  Captains 
William  Caldwell,  M'Kee  and  perhaps  Elliott,  and  one  or  more  of  the 
Girtys  and  other  renegades,  passed  southward  across  the  Ohio  River, 
avoiding  the  gunboat  and  riflemen  patrols  that  had  been  guarding  the 
border,  and  attacked  Bryan's  Station  in  Kentucky  the  16th  August. 
They  were  repulsed  with  a  loss  of  five  killed  and  several  wounded,  while 
the  loss  by  the  garrison  was  four  killed  and  three  wounded.  They 
retreated,  and  were  followed  by  the  rallying  Kentuckians  who  were  un- 
wiseh'  led  against  their  superior  number  the  19th  at  the  Blue  -Licks, 
and  defeated  with  a  loss  of  seventy  killed,  twelve  wounded,  and  seven 
captured.  As  was  often  the  case,  the  enemy  suffered  loss  of  a  much 
less  number  —  only  one  Frenchman  and  six  Aborigines  being  here  killed 
and  ten  Aborigines  wounded.*  The  loss  of  Americans  amounted  to 
nearly  one-half  the  number  present,  and  nearly  one-tenth  of  the  avail- 
able force  in  central  Kentucky.  It  was  the  last  severe  raid,  however, 
suffered  by  this  region,  for  General  George  Rogers  Clark  was  soon  afield 
again,  from  his  station  at  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio,  and  led  the  hastily 
gathered  one  thousand  and  fifty  mounted  riflemen  into  Ohio.  They 
passed  rapidly  to  the  headquarters  of  the  savages,  principally  Shawnees, 
by  the  headwaters  of  the  Miami  Rivers  where,  the  10th  November, 
they  overtook  and  killed  ten  of  the  fleeing  enemy,  took  seven  prisoners, 
and  released  two  Americans.  All  the  cabins  and  huts  were  burned, 
also  a  great  quantity  of  corn  and  provisions  which  destruction  reacted 
directly  against  the  British  inasmuch  as  they,  from  motives  of  economy 
to  themselves,  encouraged  the  planting  of  corn  by  Aborigine  women, 
and  every  bushel  destroyed  meant  so  much  the  more  to  be  supplied  by 
them  for  the  feeding  of  their  savage  allies.  The  dislodged  savages 
found  refuge  by  the  Auglaise  and  Maumee  Rivers.  They  were  followed 
as  far  as  the  British  trading  post  at  the  beginning  of  the  portage  to  the 
Auglaise  River  bv  Colonel  Benjamin  Logan  of  Clark's  command  with 
one  hundred  and  fiftv  men  who  destroyed  the  trading  post  there. 

May  23,  17H2,  the  British  Cabinet  agreed  to  pro]iose  independence 
to  the  United  States.  Armistice  was  declared  to  the  armies  as  soon  as 
practicable  thereafter,  but  months  were  necessary  to  control  the  savage 
allies  of  Great  Britain  to  acquiescence  in  the  terms  of  peace.  A  pro- 
jected expedition  into  northwestern  Ohio  by  Colonel  Williamson  from 
Fort  M'Intosh  was  stopped  by  this  armistice.  November  30th  the 
preliminary  treaty  was  signed  at  Paris,  closing  the  Revolutionary  War. 

"^  For  details  of  this  severe  battle,  see  account  in  Roosevelt's  Winning  of  the  West,  here  based  on 
Levi  Todd's  (Colonel  John  Todd  was  anionc  the  killed)  Boon's  and  Locan's  letters  given  in  the  Virginia 
State  Papers  vol.  iii,  paces  376,  2y0,  3ilO  and  333,  which  show  some  other  writers  inaccurate. 


Continued  British  Aggressions.      The  Aborigines. 

The  Treaty  of  Paris  was  concluded  at  Versailles  3rd  September, 
1783,  about  ten  months  after  the  preliminary  agreement  closing  the 
Revolutionary  War.  This  Treaty  distinctly  set  forth  that  the  territory 
southward  of  the  middle  of  the  Great  Lakes  and  their  connecting  waters, 
and  eastward  of  the  middle  of  the  upper  Mississippi  River,  should  be- 
long to  the  United  States,  and  that  Great  Britain  should  withdraw  her 
troops  from  Detroit  and  other  parts  of  this  territory. 

As  with  the  British  on  their  succeeding  the  French  in  17B0,  the 
Aborigines  were  willing  to  go  with  the  nation  which  extended  to  them 
the  most  presents,  and  which  most  freely  indulged  their  sensualities. 
In  May,  17H3,  Benjamin  Lincoln  the  American  Secretary  of  War  sent 
Ephraim  Douglas  to  the  Aborigines  of  Ohio,  and  the  west,  to  win  and 
encourage  their  friendliness  to  the  United  States.  He  arrived  at  San- 
duskv  the  7th  June  and  passed  some  days  with  the  Deiawares  there,  and 
the  Wvandots,  Ottawas  and  Miamis  along  the  lower  Maumee.  The 
4th  July  he  arrived  at  Detroit  and  Colonel  De  Peyster  there  called  a 
council  at  which  the  following  named  tribes  were  represented,  viz; 
Chippewa,  Delaware,  Kickapoo,  Miami,  Ottawa,  '  Oweochtanos'  Pianke- 
shaw,  Pottawotami,  Seneca,  Shawnee,  and  Wyandot:  and,  reported  Mr. 
Douglas,  .  .  '  Most  of  them  gave  evident  marks  of  their  satisfac- 
tion at  seeing  a  subject  of  the  United  States  in  the  country.  They  car- 
ried their  civilities  so  far  that  my  lodging  was  all  day  surrounded  with 
crowds  of  them  when  at  home,  and  the  streets  lined  with  them  to  attend 
my  going  abroad,  that  they  might  have  an  opportunity  of  seeing  and 
saluting  me,  which  they  did  not  fail  to  do  in  their  best  manner  with 
every  demonstration  of  joy."  .  .  Mr.  Douglas  returned  to  Niagara 
the  11th  July,  and  his  further  reports  lead  to  the  inference  that  he  did 
not  comprehend  the  full  cause  of  the  adherence  of  the  savages  to  the 
British  during  the  war,  nor  the  mercenary  cause  of  their  dogging  his 
steps  during  his  visit  :  and  that  he  had  no  foreboding  of  the  manv 
bloody  years  that  were  to  follow.  The  British  allowances  had  largely 
ceased  at  the  close  of  the  war.  The  savages  were  therefrom  now  short 
of  rum  and  provisions:  and  they  hoped  to  find  in  the  new  regime  fresh 
and  more  liberal  supplies.* 

*The  cause  of  the  popularity  and  continued  successes  of  the  British  with  the  savages  durint;  the 
Revolutionary  War  is  plain.  They  outbid  the  Americans  in  their  lavish  giviny  of  intoxicants  and  articles 
that  delit^hted  the  savage  palates  and  eyes,  and  in  the  general  aid  extended  them  for  the  free  indulgence 
of  their  bloodthirsty  natures.  The  British  expenditures  for  this  purpose  during  the  Revolutionary  War 
grew  apace,  and  in  the  view  of  the  central  office  the  amounts  became  'enormous'  and  'amazing,'  aggre- 
gating millions  of  dollars.  From  35th  December,  1777,  to  31  st  August,  1778,  there  were  received  at  De- 
troit 371, 4«1  barrels  flour ;  42,176  lbs.  fresh  beef;  16,473  lbs.  salt  beef;  203.932  lbs.  salt  pork;  ig.T.W  lbs. 
butter  ;  and  great  quantities  of  mutton,  corn,  peas,  oatmeal,  rice,  and  rum.  In  the  summer  of  177H  fifty- 
eight-and-a-half  tons  of  gunpowder  was  sent  to  Detroit  from  Niagara  of  which  the  savages  received  the 
largest  share,  as  there  were  in  Detroit  30th  August,  1778,  but  four  hundred  and  eighty-two  militia  with 


The  British  Government  was  fully  apprised  of  the  difficulties  and 
the  improper  aggressiveness  of  their  conduct  toward  the  American  Abori- 
gines before  and  after  the  close  of  the  war.  Colonel  DePeyster  early 
saw  the  danger  of  the  course  prescribed  for  him  and  wrote  to  Governor 
Haldimand  that 

I  have  a  very  difficult  card  to  play  at  this  post  [Detroit]  which  differs  widely  from 
the  situation  of  affairs  at  Michilimackinac.  Niagara,  and  others  in  the  upper  district  of 
Canada.  It  is  evident  that  the  back  settlers  [southward  from  Detroit]  will  continue  to 
make  war  upon  the  Shawanese.  Delawares  and  Wyandots,  even  after  a  truce  shall  be 
agreed  to  betwixt  Great  Britain  and  her  revolted  Colonies.  In  which  case,  while  we  con- 
tinue to  support  the  Aborigines  with  troops  (which  they  are  calling  aloud  for)  or  only 
with  arms,  ammunition,  and  necessaries  we  shall  incur  the  odium  of  encouraging  incur- 
sions into  the  back  settlements  —  for  it  is  evident  that  when  the  Aborigines  are  on  foot, 
occasioned  by  the  constant  alarms  they  receive  (rem  the  enemies  entering  their  country, 
they  will  occasionally  enter  the  settlements  and  bring  off  prisoners  and  scalps  —  so  that 
while  in  alliance  with  a  people  we  are  bound  to  support,  a  defensive  war  will,  in  spite  of 
human  prudence,  almost  always  terminate  in  an  offensive  one. 

Immediately  after  the  Treaty  of  Paris  the  British  began  to  ex- 
perience the  embarrassment  of  their  desired  relation  to  the  Aborigines  — 

little  use  for  ammunition  in  and  near  the  fort.  David  Zeisberger,  the  Moravian  Missionary,  compelled 
by  the  British  to  remove  to  Detroit,  wrote  in  his  Diary,  volume  i,  pate  32,  under  date  31st  October,  1781, 
that  ..."  We  met  to  day  Ljust  east  of  the  mouth  of  the  Maumee  River]  as  indeed  every  day  as  far 
as  Detroit,  a  multitude  of  Aborigines  of  various  Nations,  who  were  all  bringing  from  Detroit  horse-loads 
of  wares  and  k'ifts,  and  in  such  number  that  one  would  think  they  must  have  emptied  all  Detroit."     . 

The  following  list  shows  the  character  and  ijuanlity  of  some  of  the  articles  estimated  by  the  British 
as  wanting  for  the  Aborigines  at  Detroit  for  the  year  ending  30th  August,  17H3,  before  the  treaty  of  peace, 
viz  :  330  pieces  Blue  strouds  ;  20  pieces  Red  strouds  ;  10  pieces  Crimson  slrouds ;  10  pieces  Scarlet  strouds  ; 
.  20  pieces  Scarlet  cloth  8s,  6d  Sterling:  4,000  Pr.  2^  Pt.  Blankets;  300  3  Pt.  Blankets  ;  500  Pr.  2  Ft.  Blankets; 
500  Pr.  1^2  Pt.  Blankets;  1000  fine  2}2  Pt.  Blankets;  1000  pieces  4^  linen,  sorted;  ia>  pieces  striped  cali- 
niancs;  100  pieces  striped  cotton;  2,000  lbs.  Vermillion  in  1  lb.  bags;  .50  pieces  coarse  nmslin;  20  pieces 
Russia  Sheeting;  100  Doz.  Blk  silk  handkerchiefs;  20  Doz.  Colored  silk  handkerchiefs;  30  Doz.  Cotton 
handkerchiefs;  250  pieces  ribbon  assorted  ;  200  Gross  Bed  lace;  200  Gross  gartering  ;  30  pieces  embossed 
serge;  500  felt  Hats  ^2  laced;  KXt  Castor  Hats  '2  laced;  50  Beaver  Hats  ^2  laced;  500  Pieces  White  Melton; 
20  Pieces  Coating,  blue  and  brown;  20  Pieces  Brown  Melton;  30  Pieces  Ratteen,  Blue  and  Brown;  1(X) 
Common  Saddles;  4a)  Bridles;  .500  Powder  Horns;  20  Doz.  Tobacco  Boxes;  30  Doz.  Snuff  Boxes;  .SO 
Gross  Pipes;  300  large  feathers,  red,  blue,  green;  300  Black  ostrich  feathers;  200  Pairs  shoes;  251-t  Pairs 
Buckles;  100  Pieces  Hambro  lines;  10  Doz.  Mackerel  lines ;  '0  Doz.  Spurs;  ,50  Gro.  Morris  BeJls;  .50  Gro. 
Brass  Thimbles ;  6  Pieces  Red  serge  ;  10  Pieces  White  serge  ;  6  Pieces  Blue  serge  ;  10  Gross  Jews  harps  ; 
500  Fusils  [Flintlock  Muskets];  2tX)  Rifled  Guns  small  bore;  50  Pair  Pistols;  5  Doz.  Couteaux  de  Chasse 
I  hunting  knives];  .50.000  Gun  Flints;  60  Gro  Scalping  Knives;  [The  books  of  one  jobber  in  Detroit  also 
show  '  sixteen  gross  red  handled  scalping  knives  at  ltX)s  per  gross,'  and,  again,  'twenty  four  dozen  red 
handled  scalping  knives,'  sold  to  one  retailer  within  a  period  of  seven  weeks  in  the  summer  of  I7S;i];  10 
Gross  Clasp  Knives;  20  Gross  Scissors;  20  Gross  Looking  Glasses;  10  Doz.  Razors;  300  lbs.  Thread  as- 
sorted ;  20  pieces  spotted  swan  skin ;  13. IKK)  lbs.  Gunpowder;  36,000  lbs  Ball  and  shot;  1  Gro  Gun  locks; 
500  Tomahawks;  .500  Half  axes;  300  Hoes;  30  Gross  tire  steel;  10,000  Needles  ;  400  Pieces  calico;  SO  pounds 
Rose  Pink;  1.500  lbs  Tobacco;  600  lbs.  Beads  assorted;  40  Gross  Awl  Blades;  40  Gross  Gun  Worms;  30 
Gross  Box  combs;  6  Gross  Ivory  combs;  20  Nests  Brass  Kettles;  20  Nests  Copper  Kettles;  20  Nests  Tin 
Kettles;  CO  Nests  Hair  Trunks;  3(X)  lbs.  Pewter  Basins;  100  Beaver  Traps;  20  Gross  Brass  finger  rings; 
5,000  lbs.  iron;  I0(X)  lbs  steel;  WO  lbs  Soap;  6  barrels  White  Wine;  5  Barrels  Shrub;  400,000  Black  Wam- 
pum; lOO.OtK)  White  Wampum. 

Silver     Works  : 

la.tKX)  large  Brooches;  7000  Small  Brooches;  300  Large  Gorgets;  300  Large  Moons;  550  Ear  Wheels;  550 
Arm  Bands;  1.500  Prs.  large  Ear  bobs;  1500  Prs.  Small  Ear  bobs;  Some  medals  chietly  large;  A  large  as- 
sortment Smith  and  Armorers  hies.  —  i  Signed  J  A.  S.  DePeyster,  Major  King's  Regt,  Detroit  and  its  De- 


of  the  difficulties  in  retaining  their  influence  with  them  while  lessening 
expenditures  on  their  behalf.  Colonel  DePeyster  reported  from  Detroit 
to  Governor  Haldimand's  secretary  ll^th  June,  1783,  before  the  arrival 
of  Ambassador  Douglas,  that  .  .  .  "We  are  all  in  expectation  of 
news.  Everything-  that  is  bad  is  spread  through  the  Aborigines'  coun- 
try but,  as  I  have  nothing  more  than  the  King's  proclamation  from 
authority,  I  evade  answering  impertinent  questions.  Heavens!  if  goods 
do  not  arrive  soon,  what  will  become  of  me?  I  have  lost  several  stone 
weight*  of  flesh  within  these  twent\-  days.  I  hope  Sir  John  [Sir  John 
Johnson  British  Superintendent  of  Aborigine  Affairs]  is  to  make  us  a 

To  prevent  comjilications  and  consequent  quarrels,  Congress  in 
1783  forbade  the  purchase  of  land  from  the  Aborigines  by  individuals 
or  companies.  Agent  Ephraim  Douglas  reported  February  2,  1784, 
that  early  in  the  fall  of  1783  Sir  John  Johnson  assembled  the  different 
western  tribes  of  Aborigines  at  Sandusky  (American  territory)  and, 
having  prepared  them  with  lavish  distribution  of  presents,  addressed 
them  in  a  speech  to  this  purport,  Simon  Girty  being  the  interjireter, 
viz:  .  .  .  "That  the  King  his  and  their  common  father  had  made 
peace  with  the  Americans,  and  had  given  them  the  land  possessed  by 
the  British  on  this  continent  ;  but  that  the  report  of  his  having  given 
them  any  part  of  the  Aborigines'  lands  was  false,  and  fabricated  by  the 
Americans  for  the  purpose  of  provoking  the  Aborigines  against  their 
father  ;  that  they  should,  therefore,  shut  their  ears  against  it.  So  far 
the  contrary  was  proved  that  the  great  river  Ohio  was  to  be  the  line 
between  the  Aborigines  in  this  quarter  and  the  Americans,  over  which 
the  latter  ought  not  to  pass  and  return  in  safety.  " 

The  impartial  and  unreserved  historian  must  attribute  a  large  pro- 
portion of  the  trouble  the  United  States  has  had  with  the  savages,  inclu- 
ding their  many  savage  butcheries,  to  the  perfid>-  and  arrogant  meddle- 
someness of  the  British  from  the  first.  They  were  repeatedly  im- 
portuned to  withdraw  from  this  territory  according  to  the  terms  of  the 
Treatv  at  Paris,  and  to  let  the  savages  in  American  territory  alone. 
President  Washington  sent  Baron  de  Steuben  of  the  United  States  Army 
to  Governor  Haldimand  l'2th  Jul\',  1783,  to  ask  that  orders  be  issued 
for  the  withdrawal  of  British  troops  from  Detroit  and  other  posts  in 
American  territory  whence  they  persisted  in  dominating  the  savages 
throughout  Ohio  and  the  southwest. t  The  recjuest  was  refused,  and 
statements  made  that  the  treaty  was  provisional,  and  that  no  orders  had 
been  received  to  surrender  the  posts.      Governor  George  Clinton  of  New 

*An  English  stone  weiirht  in  the  sense  here  used  is  fourteen  pounds  avoirdupois. 

t  See  letter  on  the  the  subject  of  an  Established  Militia  and  Military  Arrangements,  addressed  to 
the  Inhabitants  of  the  United  States  by  Baron  de  Steuben  New  York.  1784,  in  which  is  a  suggested 
treatment  of  the  British  at  this  time. 


York  was  refused  the  surrender  of  Fort  Niagara  May  10,  1784.  Another 
unsuccessful  demand  for  their  surrender  was  made  July  12,  1784,  through 
(the  then)  Lieutenant  Colonel  William  Hull.*  The  British  continued 
to  hold  the  posts  of  Detroit,  Michillimackinac,  Niagara  and  Oswego 
until  the  year  1796;  and  in  1794  they  built  Fort  Miami  by  the  lower 
Maumee  ;  whence  they  were  a  menace  to  the  peace,  and  lives,  of  Ameri- 
can settlers  in  this  Northwest  Territory,  as  shown  on  subsequent  pages. 


The   Aborigines  —  Organizations  —  Hostilities  —  Defeats. 
1784  TO  1791. 

The  Aborigines  continued  unsettled  and  threatening,  and  the 
United  States  Government  continued  a  pacific  policy.  The  Legislature 
of  New  York  for  some  time  after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War 
favored  the  expulsion  from  American  territory  of  the  Six  Nations 
(Iroquois  of  New  York)  on  account  of  their  instability  and  treachery; 
but  it  was  finally  decided  by  Congress  to  bear  with  them,  to  keep  them 
as  fully  as  possible  from  British  influence  and  try  to  civilize  them 
through  treaty  and  confining  them  to  narrower  limits,  by  gradually  and 
nominally  purchasing  their  claims  to  territory  unnecessary  to  them. 
Accordingly  the  2"2nd  October,  1784,  a  treaty  was  effected  at  Fort 
Stanwix,  on  the  site  of  the  present  Rome,  New  York,  when  the  Six 
Nations  relinquished  all  claim  to  the  western  country.  These  claims 
were  based  on  their,  and  the  British,  idea  of  right  of  conquest  from  the 
western  tribes,  but  they  did  not  want  to  accord  the  Americans  any  such 

Virginia  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  her  right,  title  and  claim  to 
the  country  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River  March  1,  1784. t  Congress 
was  prepared  for  this  act  and  the  committee,  of  which  Thomas  Jeffer- 
son was  Chairman,  reported  the  same  day  a  plan  for  its  teniporar\- 
government.  The  names  proposed  for  the  divisions  of  this  Territory 
(see  engraving)  not  meeting  with  approval,  they  were  erased  from  the 
plan  tlie  23rd  April  ;  and  later  this  suggested  plan  for  division  was 

'■'•'■  American  State  Papers,  Foreign  Relations  volume  i,  page  181  e(  sequentia. 

t  For  account  of  the  claims  of  the  States  to  the  Northwest  Territory,  see  Hinsdale's  The  Old 
Northwest:  Donaldson's  Pu6//c  Doma/n .-  Hildreth's  H/s(ory  0/  Washington  County:  Smith's  The  St. 
Clair  Papers:  Cutler's  Life,  Journal  and  Correspondence  of  Manasseh  Cutler,  etc.  These  claims 
were  not  altogether  valid.     The  Territory  belonged  to  the  United  States  from  conquest. 


PtAN  roR 

MARCH  lH/754 

Continuing  its  humane  policy  towards  the  Aborigines,  the  United 
States,  bv  commissioners  George  Rogers  Clark,  Richard  Butler  and 
Arthur  Lee,  met  the  chiefs  of  the  Chippewa,  Delaware,  Ottawa  and 
Wyandot  tribes  at  Fort  M'Intosh  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Ohio  River 
at  the  mouth  of  Beaver  Creek  about  twenty-nine  miles  below  Pitts- 
burg and  'ilst  January,  1785,  effected  a  treaty  in  which  the  limits  of 
their  territory  were  agreed  upon  as  the  Mauniee  and  Cuyahoga  Rivers, 
and  from  Lake  Erie  to  a  line  running  westward  from  Fort  Laurens  bv 
the  Tuscarawas  to  the  portage  on  the  headwaters  of  the  Miami  River. 
Reservations  were  made  by  the  United  States  of  tracts  six  miles  square 
at   this  portage,  at  the  mouth  of  the   Maumee,  and  two  miles  square  at 

Lower  Sandusky.  Three  chiefs 
were  to  remain  hostages  until  all 
American  prisoners  were  surren- 
dered b\-  them. 

Overtures  for  treaty  and  peace 
were  also  made  to  the  Miami,  Pot- 
tawotami,  Piankeshaw,  and  other 
western  tribes  but,  through  the 
influence  of  the  British  and  French 
with  whom  they  associated  and  who 
were  in  opposition  to  the  American 
system  of  government,  land  surveys, 
and  definite  land  titles,  the  desired 
treat\-  could  not  be  effected.  But  a 
large  council  of  these  tribes  was 
held  at  Ouiotenon  the  next  August 
where  savage  raids  on  American 
frontier  settlements  were  incited. 

The  19th  April,  1785,  the  Legis- 
lature of  Massachusetts  released  to 
the  General  Government  her  claims 
in  the  Northwestern  Territory,  ex- 
cei)ting  Detroit  and  vicinit\-  which 
were  released  30th  May,  IHOO. 

The  desire  for  western  lands  for  settlement  by  immigrants  from 
the  East  being  so  great  following  the  Treaty  at  Fort  M'Intosh,  with 
the  desire  for  action  to  adjust  titles,  that  Congress,  20th  May,  17''^5, 
passed  An  Ordinance  for  Ascertaining  the  Mode  of  Disposing  of 
Lands  in  the  Western  Territory  '  which  provided  for  the  survey  and 
marking  of  lines,  townships,  water  power  sites,  etc.  On  account  of 
several  disorderly  persons  having  crossed  the  River  Ohio  and  settled 
upon   unappropriated    lands'    Congress    passed    an   Act  June  15th  pro- 

^    ''»i-i'P5»«U5'^''^'-'5'^**Si\yin 


hibiting  such  intrusions,  and  commanding  the  intruders  to  depart  with 
their  families  and  effects  without  loss  of  time,  as  they  shall  answer  the 
same  at  their  peril.'  This  action  was  taken  to  protect  the  lives  of  the 
would-be  settlers  as  two  members  of  the  four  families  who  settled  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Scioto  River  were  killed  b}'  savages  in  April:  also 
to  allay  the  antipathy  of  the  savages  while  preparing  the  country  for 
formal  settlement.  It  was  during  this  summer  that  the  extensive  pur- 
chases of  land  by  the  Ohio  Company  of  Associates,  and  by  John  Cleves 
Symmes,  were  negotiated. 

Great  Britain,  with  her  usual  selfish  arrogance,  continued  to  hold 
all  the  Great  Lake  forts.  John  Adams,  United  States  Minister  to 
Great  Britain,  reported  to  Congress  30th  November,  1785,  that  he  had 
demanded  that  the  British  withdraw  their  forts  and  posts  from  Ameri- 
can territory,  and  that  they  objected  with  the  statement  that  some  of 
the  States  had  violated  the  Treaty  of  Paris  in  regard  to  the  payment  of 
their  debts  to  Great  Britain.* 

A  few  regular  troops  occasionally  passed  along  the  Ohio  River 
from  Fort  Pitt  to  and  from  Vincennes  and  Kaskaskia,  escorting  officers, 
carrving  dispatches  and  convoying  supplies.  The  22nd  October,  1785, 
Fort  Finney  was  built  by  Major  Finney's  command  on  the  bank  of  the 
big  Miami  River  about  one  mile  above  its  mouth  ;  and  here  the  31st 
January,  1786,  commissioners  effected  a  treaty  with  the  Shawnees, 
with  Wyandots  and  Delawares  as  witnesses,  wherein  land  was  allotted 
to  them  southwest  of  that  allotted  at  the  Treaty  of  Fort  M'lntosh,  and 
extending  to  the  Wabash  River,  with  like  conditions.  Hostages  were 
retained  for  the  return  of  American  captives,  as  at  the  other  treaties  ; 
but  thev  escaped,  and  very  few  captives  were  returned.  The  Miami 
and  western  Aborigines  were  urged  to  participate  in  these  treaties,  but 
thev  again  declined,  being  yet  under  British  influence. t  There  con- 
tinued a  great  removal  of  settlers  from  the  East  to  the  Ohio  Valley;  and 
depredations  on  them  by  these  savages  became  so  frequent  and 
exasperating  that  a  thousand  Kentuckians  under  General  Clark  marched 
to  Vincennes  against  the  Wabash  tribes  in  the  fall  of  1786  ;  but  poor 
supplies  and  disaffection  among  the  volunteers  caused  a  return  of  the 
army  without  punishing  the  enemy.  An  expedition  of  nearly  eight 
hundred  mounted  riflemen  under  Colonel  Benjamin  Logan  was  also 
fitted  out  against  the  hostile  Shawnees.      This  expedition  detourred  the 

"^The  British  armies  impressed  into  their  service  and  took  away  some  of  the  negro  slaves  of 
Americans;  and  these  States  desired  to  offset  the  value  of  these  slaves  against  the  levies  of  the  British. 
See  Benjamin  Franklin's  articles  on  '  Sending  Felons  to  America.'  and  his  '  Retort  Courteous  '  for  some 
just  sarcasm  regarding  the  urgent  haste  of  the  British  to  be  paid  by  the  people  whose  property  they 
had  destroyed.  Compare  The  Laws  of  Virginia  regarding  these  claims.  Also  the  several  Letters  of 
Henry  Knox  Secretary  of  War,  No.  1.50,  volume  i. 

t  See  the  United  States  State  Department  MSS.  No,  .%.  pages  345,  395;  and  No.  150. 
Also  the  Haldimand  Papers  during  1784  to  1786. 


headwaters  of  Mad  River,  in  the  present  Clark  and  Champaign  coun- 
ties, Ohio,  burned  eight  large  towns,  destroyed  many  fields  of  corn, 
killed  about  ten  warriors  including  the  head  chief,  and  captured  thirty- 
two  prisoners.*^ 

The  14th  September,  17^6,  Connecticut  released  her  claims  to  lands 
in  the  Northwestern  Territory  in  favor  of  the  United  States  excepting 
her  '  Western  Reserve  '  from  the  forty-first  degree  of  latitude  to  that  of 
forty-two  degrees  and  two  minutes,  and  from  the  western  line  of  Penn- 
sylvania to  a  north  and  south  line  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles  to  the 
west  ;  and  that  State  opened  an  office  for  the  disposal  of  that  part  of  the 
Reserve  east  of  the  Cuyahoga  River,  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  ter- 
ritory allotted  the  Aborigines.  This  cession  cleared  this  Basin  of  claims 
bv  individual  States. 

With  the  increasing  po])ulation  west  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains 
the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  became  a  paramount  question, 
and  some  misconceptions  regarding  Secretary  John  Jay's  efforts  toward 
a  treaty  with  Spain  caused  some  commotion  in  the  Ohio  Valley  to  the 
increase  there  of  even  the  spirit  of  independence  from  the  East.t  Gen- 
eral George  Rogers  Clark,  whose  commission  had  been  withdrawn  '2nd 
July,  1783,  on  account  of  his  services  not  being  necessary  and  to 
curtail  expenses,  acting  with  others  at  Vincennes  decided  to  garrison  the 
abandoned  Post  Vincennes.  A  compan\'  of  men  was  enlisted  early  in 
October,  1786,  and  the  goods  of  Spanish  merchants  at  Vincennes  and 
along  the  Ohio  were  seized  with  a  'determination  that  they  should  not 
trade  up  the  river  if  they  would  not  let  the  Americans  trade  down  the 
Mississippi.'  The  Council  of  Virginia  decided  positively  against  these 
measures  28th  February,  1787,  and,  by  resolution  of  Congress  24th  Ajiril, 
the  United  States  troops  on  the  Ohio  were  directed  to  take  immediate 
and  efficient  measures  'for  dispossessing  a  body  of  men  who  had,  in  a 
lawless  and  unauthorized  manner,  taken  possession  of  Post  Vincennes 
in  defiance  of  the  proclamation  and  authority  of  the  United  States';  and 
the  recently  brevetted  Brigadier  General  Josiah  Harmar  with  a  small 
force  of  United  States  soldiers  took  possession  of  the  post,  allowing 
Clark  and  his  followers  to  return  to  their  homes.  Thus  was  narrowly 
averted  a  war  between  the  United  States  and  Spain  and  France  combined. 
The  Americans  engaged  in  these  overt  acts  wrote  to  their  friends  that 
Great  Britain  stands  ready  with  open  arms  to  receive  and  sup])ort  us. 
They  have  already  offered  to  open  their  resources  for  our  sup]5lies.'  + 

*  M'Donald's  Western  Sketches:  Dillon's  History  of  Indiana.  For  full  description  of  the  temper 
of  the  savaaes  and  of  the  settlers,  and  of  ettorts  of  the  treneral  Koverninent  for  peace,  see  U.  S.  State 
Department  MSS.  Nos.  30.  .56,  60  and  l.iO.     Also  Draper  MSS.  Wisconsin  Historical  Society  Library. 

t  See  Reports  of  Se'cretary  John  Jay ;  State  Department  MSS.  No.  .HI,  volume  ii;  Thomas  M.  Green's 
The  Spanish  Conspiracy,  page  .'^1.  etc. 

+  See  Draper  MSS.  Wisconsin  State  Historical  Society  Library ;  and  State  Dept.  MSS.  Washintton. 



The  animus  of  Great  Britain  at  this  time  is  further  shown  by  a  let- 
ter of  22nd  March,  1787,  from  Sir  John  Johnson  to  Joseph  Brant,  the 
most  prominent  Aborigine  Chief  in  the  Six  Nations,  regarding  the  miH- 
tary  posts  still  held  by  the  British  in  American  territory  as  follows  :  '  It 
is  for  your  sake,  chiefly,  that  we  hold  them.  If  you  become  indifferent 
about  them  they  may,  perhaps,  be  given  up  .  .  whereas,  by  sup- 
porting them  you  encourage  us  to  hold  them,  and  encourage  the  new 
settlements  .  .  every  day  increased  by  numbers  coming  in  who  find 
they  cannot  live  in  the  States."  .  .  Arthur  St.  Clair,  Representative 
from  Pennsylvania,  also  reported  13th  April,  1787,  to  Congress  the  con- 
tinued infraction  of  the  Treaty  regarding  these  posts  by  Great  Britain.  * 
The  manv  different  schemes  calculated  to  embarrass  the  struggling 
young  Republic,  to  deprive  it  of  its  rights,  and  even  to  disrupt  it  alto- 
gether, were  apparently  aided  if  not  initiated  by  the  British.  The  noted 
Virginia  loyalist  Doctor  John  Connolly,  before  mentioned,  a  full  British 
subject  and  resident  in  Canada,  again  became  active,  traversing  the 
Maumee  in  his  journeyings  in  1787-88-89  between  Detroit  and  Kentucky 
with  efforts  to  alienate  the  Kentuckians  from  the  East  and  to  ally  them 
with  the  British  for  the  purpose  of  capturing  the  Spanish  territory  on 
the  Mississippi  and  controlling  the  Mississippi  Basin.  General  James 
Wilkinson  charged  that  Connolly  was  an  emissary  direct  from  Lord 
Dorchester  then  Governor  of  Canada  —  and  Wilkinson  himself  was  not 

free  from  suspicion  of  being  en- 
gaged in  similar  schemes,  even 
for  the  secession  of  Kentucky' 
from  the  United  States.  The 
probability  of  the  correctness  of 
Wilkinson's  charge,  however, 
was  strengthened  by  the  fact 
that  in  June  of  this  year  the 
British  garrison  at  Detroit  was 
largelv  reinforced  by  soldiers 
from  lower  Canada,  and  the 
next  year  the  fortifications  were 
rebuilt  and  strengthened  by 
order  of  Lord  Dorchester  who 
was  then  there.  These  warlike 
preparations  continued  for  some  length  of  time,  and  similar  prepara- 
tions  were    occasionally    made    for    several    years. t     Benedict    Arnold 

*  Journals  of  Congres  s.  volume  iv,  payes  73.5,  739. 

t  See  James  Wilkinson's  Memo/rs  vol.  ii;  Charles  E.  A.  Gayarri5's  History  of  Louisiana,  vol.  Hi; 
State  Dept.  MSS.;  Virginia  State  Papers,  vol.  iv.  Draper  MSS.;  Gardoqui  MSS.,  etc.  For  accounts  of 
the  treachery  and  savagery  of  the  Aborikiines  of  these  years  see  U.  S.  State  Department  MSS.  vol.  iii. 
No.  1511;  and  Draper  MSS. 


was  reported  as  being  in  Detroit  about  the  1st  June,  1790,  inspecting 
the  troops;  and  the  25th  August  President  Washington  took  official 
notice  of  these  British  preparations  which  were  evidently-  for  a  Miss- 
issippi campaign. 

The  Congressional  Committee  on  the  Territory  Northwest  of  the 
Ohio  River  reported,  7th  July,  17H6,  a  plan  for  its  division  on  the 
lines  existing  to  day,  exce]iting  that  a  line  running  due  east  and  west 
from  the  southernmost  shore  of  Lake  Michigan  was  drawn  as  the  north 
line  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  and  Illinois,  and  the  Straits  of  Mackinaw  were 
the  northern  line  of  Michigan.  The  map  then  used  showed  the  south 
end  of  Lake  Michigan  too  far  north,  as  will  be  described  on  later  page. 

The  full  Ordinance  for  the  government  of  this  Territory  was  made 
a  law  the  13th  July,  17H7.  This  'Ordinance  of  1787'  marks  an  era  in 
legislative  history,  and  it  has  received  large  attention  by  many  writers. 
The  principal  officers  of  the  Northwestern  Territory  under  this  Ordin- 
ance were  appointed  on  the  5th  October,  1787,  to  enter  u]ion  their 
duties  1st  February,  1788,  as  follows  :  Governor,  Major  General 
Arthur  St.  Clair;  Judges,  Samuel  H.  Parsons,  James  M.  Varnum,  and 
John  Armstrong;  Secretary,  Winthrop  Sargent.  John  Cleves  Symmes 
was  subsequently  appointed  to  the  place  declined  by  John  Armstrong. 
It  has  been  estimated  that  within  a  year  after  the  organization  of  this 
Territory  twenty  thousand  men,  women  and  children  from  the  eastern 
States  passed  down  the  Ohio  River  to  settle  in  this  Territory  or  in 

The  renewal  of  military  prejiarations  by  the  British  had  an  exciting 
effect  upon  the  Aborigines  who  had  long  been  impatient  of  their  en- 
forced quiet.  The  increasing  settlements  in  southern  Ohio,  and  south 
of  that  river,  on  lands  relinquished  by  the  Aborigines  in  treaty,  and  the 
completion  of  the  organization  of  the  Territory  Northwest  of  the  Ohio 
River,  were  eagerly  accepted  as  incentives  for  repeating  their  murderous 
raids  upon  the  settlements. 

To  allay  the  restlessness  known  to  exist  among  the  Aborigines 
Congress,  the  21st  July,  1787,  directed  the  Superintendent  of  Aborigine 
Affairs  for  the  Northern  Department,  or  if  he  was  unable  to  attend  to 
it  then  General  Josiah  Harmar,  to  proceed  to  the  most  convenient 
place  and  make  treat}'  with  the  Aborigines  of  the  Wabash  River 
country  and  the  Shawnees  of  the  Southern  part  of  this  Basin  and  of 
the  Scioto,  and  to  grant  them  all  assurances  consistent  with  the  honor 
and  dignity  of  the  United  States.  These  and  repeated  like  efforts  for 
peace  were  unavailing.  Thereupon  the  first  instructions  bv  Congress 
to  Gove-nor  St.  Clair  in  1788  were  ;  1.  Examine  carefully  into  the 
real  temper  of  the  Aborigines.  2.  Remove  if  possible  all  causes  of 
controversy,   so    that  peace  and   harmony    may   be   established   between 


the  United  States  and  the  Aborigine  tribes.  3.  Regulate  trade  among 
the  Aborigines.  4.  Neglect  no  opportunity  that  otters  for  extinguish- 
ing the  Aborigine  claims  to  lands  westward  as  far  as  the  Mississippi 
River,  and  northward  as  far  as  the  completion  of  the  forty-first  degree 
of  north  latitude.  5.  Use  every  possible  endeavor  to  ascertain  the 
names  of  the  real  head  men  and  warriors  of  the  several  tribes,  and  to 
attach  these  men  to  the  United  States  by  every  possible  means.  6. 
Make  every  exertion  to  defeat  all  confederations  and  combinations 
among  the  tribes  ;  and  conciliate  the  white  people  inhabiting  the 
frontiers,  toward  the  Aborigines. 

The  County  of  Washington  in  the  Northwest  Territory  was  organ- 
ized in  17HH  within  the  present  limits  of  Ohio:  and  Governor  St.  Clair 
and  the  J.udges  adopted  and  published  laws,  both  civil  and  criminal, 
for  the  government  and  protection  of  the  Territory.  These  laws,  how- 
ever, were  not  operative  in  the  Maumee  River  Basin  for  many  years  on 
account  of  the  Aborigine  and  British  dominance. 

»  Governor  St.  Clair  succeeded  in  effecting  another  treaty  9th  Jan- 
uary, 17h9,  this  time  at  Fort  Harmar  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum 
River,  with  the  Six  Nations,  also  with  the  Chippewas,  Delawares, 
Ottawas,  Pottawotamis,  Sacs,  and  Wyandots  ;  all  confirming  the 
boundary  of  the  Aborigine  claims  to  be  limited  between  the  Cuyahoga 
and  Maumee  Rivers,  and  Lake  Erie  and  a  line  extending  from  Fort 
Laurens  to  Loramie,  with  the  reservations  to  the  United  States  and 
other  agreements  embraced  in  the  treaties  of  Forts  M'Intosh  and 
Finney.  These  Aborigines  at  this  treaty  received  from  the  United 
States  an  additional  sum  of  six  thousand  dollars.  But  a  few  weeks, 
however,  sufficed  to  again  demonstrate  their  insincerity,  and  treachery 
—  their  maraudings  being  resumed  with  the  opening  o£   spring.* 

General  Henrv  Knox  Secretary  of  War  reported  to  President 
Washington  13th  June,  1789,  that  murders  by  savages  were  still  being 
committed  on  both  sides  of  the  Ohio  River  and  that  the  inhabitants 
were  exceedingly  alarmed  through  the  extent  of  six  or  seven  hundred 
miles,  that  the  settlers  had  been  in  constant  warfare  with  the  savages 
for  many  years  ;   that 

The  injuries  and  murders  have  been  so  reciprocal  that  it  would  be  a  point  of 
critical  investigation  to  know  on  which  side  they  have  been  the  greatest.  Some  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Kentucky  during  the  past  year,  roused  by  recent  injuries,  made  an 
incursion  into  the  Wabash  country  and,  possessing  an  equal  aversion  to  all  bearing  the 
name  Aborigines,  they  destroyed  a  number  of  peaceable  Piankeshaws  who  prided  them- 
selves in  their  attachment  to  the  United  States.  .  .  By  the  best  and  latest  informa- 
tion it  appears  that  on  the  Wabash  and  its  communications  there  are  from  fifteen  hun- 
dred   to    two    thousand    warriors.       An  expedition   with  a  view   of  extirpating  them,  or 

'    See  state-  DepaitinenI  MSS.  Nos,  56.  71,  151;   Draper  MSS.:  and    Virginia   State  Papers,  vol.  iv, 
page  149. 


destroying  their  towns,  could  not  be  undertaken  with  a  probability  of  success  with  less 
than  an  army  of  two  thousand  five  hundred  men.  The  regular  troops  of  the  United 
States  on  the  frontiers  are  less  than  six  hundred,  of  which  number  not  more  than  four 
hundred  could  be  collected  from  the  posts. 

The  posts  referred  to  were  Forts  Pitt,  Harmar,  Steulx-n  at  the 
Falls  of  the  Ohio,  and  Vincennes.  The  Kentuckians  again  decided  to 
avenge  some  wrongs  they  had  recently  suffered  and,  26th  August,  1789, 
Colonel  John  Hardin  led  two  hundred  volunteer  cavalrymen  across 
the  Ohio  River  at  the  Falls  to  the  Wabash.  They  killed  six  Aborigi- 
nes, burned  one  deserted  town,  and  destroyed  the  corn  found,  return- 
ing the  28th  September  without  the  loss  of  a  man. 

President  Washington  addressed  Governor  St.  Clair  the  6th 
October  desiring  full  information  regarding  the  Wabash  and  Illinois 
Aborigines  and  requesting  that  war  with  them  be  averted  if  possible  ; 
but  authorizing  him  to  call  not  to  exceed  one  thousand  militiamen 
from  Virginia  and  five  hundred  from  Pennsylvania,  if  necessary,  to 
cooperate  with  the  Federal  troops.  The  Governor  was  also  directed 
to  proceed  to  execute  the  orders  of  the  late  Congress  regarding  French 
and  other  land  titles  at  Vincennes  and  the  Illinois  country  and  other 
matters  of  organization.  A  little  later  in  the  autumn  of  1789  Major 
Doughty's  troops  built  Fort  Washington,  within  the  site  of  the  present 
City  of  Cincinnati,  which  fort  served  a  useful  purpose  for  several 
years.  Governor  St.  Clair  and  the  judges  started  from  Marietta  about 
the  1st  Januarv,  1790,  by  boat  and  stopped  at  Fort  Washington  where 
they  organized  the  county  of  Hamilton,  and  changed  the  name  of  the 
settlement  about  Fort  Washington  from  that  of  Losantiville  to  Cin- 
cinnati. Proceeding  down  the  river,  they  arrived  at  Clarksville  Hth 
January,  and  thence  to  the  Illinois  country  where  they  organized  St. 
Clair  County  to  embrace  all  the  Territory  west  of   Hamilton  County. 

In  consonance  with  President  Washington's  instructions,  a  promi- 
nent French  merchant  of  Vincennes,  .Vntoine  Gamelin,  who  well  under- 
stood the  temper  of  the  savages  and  by  whom  he  was  favorably  known, 
was  commissioned  by  Major  John  F.  Hamtramck  to  visit  and  conciliate 
those  Aborigines  along  the  Wabash  and  Maumee  Rivers.  He  started 
on  the  5th  April,  1790,  and  his  report  evidenced  a  desire  of  the  older 
men  of  the  weaker  tribes  for  peace  ;  but  the}'  could  not  stop  their  young 
men  who  'were  being  constantly  encouraged  and  invited  to  war  by  the 
British'  and  they  were  dominated  by  the  stronger  tribes  who,  in  turn 
were  dominated  by  the  British  from  whom  they  received  their  sujiplies. 
All  reproached  him  for  coming  to  thetn  without  presents  of  intoxicants 
and  other  supplies.  The  23rd  April  Mr.  Gamelin  arrived  at  the  Miami 
town,  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee  River,  where  the  Miamis,  Delawares, 
Pottawotamis  and  Shawnees  united  in  telling  him  they  could  not  give 
reply    until    they    consulted    the    British    commandant    of    the    fort   at 


Detroit  ;  and  they  desired,  and  obtained,  a  copv  of  the  message  of  the 
United  States  to  them  for  the  purpose  of  showing  it  to  him.  The  British 
traders  at  this  village  were  ]iresent  at  the  meetings.  The  Aborigines 
promised  to  send  to  Major  Hamtramck  at  Vincennes,  in  writing,  their 
answer  within  thirty  days,  which  was  their  way  of  getting  rid  of  him. 

Commissioner  Gamelin,  being  unable  to  accomplish  more  with  the 
savages,  started  from  the  Miami  village  on  his  return  the  :2nd  May  ; 
and  on  the  11th  reports  were  received  at  Vincennes  that  three  days 
after  his  departure  an  American  captive  was  roasted  and  eaten  by  the 
cannibals  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee  River  :  and  that  all  the  tribes  had 
sent  out  war-parties,  in  addition  to  those  already  operating  along  the 
Ohio  River,  who  ambuscaded  many  new  immigrants. 

With  hope  to  check  the  more  active  savages,  the  latter  half  of 
April  Brigadier  General  Josiah  Harmar,  United  States  Agent  to  the 
Aborigines,  with  one  hundred  regular  troops,  seconded  by  General 
Charles  Scott  with  two  hundred  and  thirty  Kentucky  volunteers,  made 
a  detour  of  the  Scioto  River.  They  destroyed  the  food  supplies  and 
huts  of  the  hostile  savages  but  shot  only  four  of  them  —  reporting  that 
'wolves  might  as  well  have  been  pursued.' 

Early  in  July,  1790,  Judge  Henry  Inness  of  Danville,  Kentucky, 
wrote  to  the  Secretary  of  War  that 

1  have  been  intimately  acquainted  with  this  district  from  178.'i,  and  I  can  with  truth 
say  that  in  this  period  the  Aborigines  have  always  been  the  aggressors  —  that  any  incur- 
sions made  into  their  country  have  been  produced  by  reiterated  injuries  committed  by 
them  —  that  the  predatory  mode  of  warfare  they  have  carried  on  renders  it  difficult,  and 
indeed  impossible,  to  discriminate,  or  to  ascertain  to  what  tribe  the  offenders  belong. 
Since  my  first  visit  to  the  district  in  November,  1783.  I  can  venture  to  say  that  more 
than  fifteen  hundred  persons  have  been  killed  and  taken  prisoners  by  the  Aborigines  ; 
and  upwards  of  twenty  thousand  horses  have  been  taken  away,  with  other  property  con- 
sisting of  money,  merchandise,  household  goods,  wearing  apparel,  etc.,  of  great  value. 
The  government  has  been  repeatedly  informed  of  those  injuries,  and  that  they  continued 
to  be  perpetrated  daily,  notwithstanding  which  the  people  have  received  no  satisfactory 
information  whether  the  government  intended  to  afford  them  relief  or  not.  .  .  I  will, 
sir,  be  candid  on  this  subject,  not  only  as  an  inhabitant  of  Kentucky  but  as  a  friend  to 
society  who  wishes  to  see  order  and  regularity  preserved  in  the  Government  under  which 
he  lives.  The  people  say  they  have  groaned  under  their  misfortunes — they  see  no  pros- 
pect of  relief  —  they  constitute  the  strength  and  the  wealth  of  the  western  country,  and 
yet  all  measures  heretofore  attempted  have  been  committed  for  execution  to  the  hands  of 
strangers  who  have  no  interest  in  common  with  the  West.  They  are  the  great  sufferers 
and  yet  have  no  voice  in  the  matters  which  so  vitally  affect  them.  They  are  even  accused 
of  being  the  aggressors,  and  have  no  representative  to  state  or  to  justify  their  conduct. 
These  are  the  general  sentiments  of  the  western  people  who  are  beginning  to  want  faith 
in  the  Government,  and  appear  determined  to  avenge  themselves.  For  this  purpose  a 
meeting  was  lately  held  in  this  place  by  a  number  of  respectable  characters,  to  determine 
on  the  propriety  of  carrying  on  their  expeditions  this  fall. 

Earlv  in  June,  1790,  when  yet  at  Kaskaskia,  Governor  St.  Clair  re- 
ceived from  Major  Hamtramck   report  of   the   failure  of  his  and  Game- 


lin's  mission  to  the  hostile  savages,  and  of  the  hopelessness  of  being 
able  to  make  a  treaty  for  peace.  Committing  the  Resolutions  of  Con- 
gress relative  to  lands  and  settlers  along  the  Wabash  River  to  Win- 
throp  Sargeant  Secretary,  who  then  proceeded  to  organize  the  County 
of  Knox,  Governor  St.  Clair  returned  by  way  of  the  rivers  to  Fort 
Washington  where  he  arrived  the  11th  julv.  Here  General  Harmar 
reported  to  him  many  raids  and  murders  by  the  savages,  and  "it  was 
agreed  and  determined  that  General  Harmar  should  conduct  an  ex- 
pedition against  the  Maumee  towns,  the  residence  of  all  the  renegade 
Aborigines,  from  whence  issued  all  the  parties  who  infest  our  frontiers. 
The  Governor  remained  with  us  but  three  days.  One  thousand  militia 
were  ordered  from  Kentucky,  and  the  Governor  on  his  wa}'  to  New 
York  the  seat  of  the  general  government,  was  to  order  five  hundred 
from  the  back  counties  of  Pennsylvania.  The  liSth  September  was  the 
time  appointed  for  the  militia  to  assemble  at  Fort  Washington."  *  .  . 
Active  preparations  were  instituted  by  General  Harmar  for  this 
campaign  the  object  of  which  was  not  alone  the  present  chastisement 
of  the  savages,  but  also  for  the  building  of  one  or  more  forts  by  the 
Maumee,  and  the  establishing  of  a  connecting  line  of  refuge  posts  for 
supplies  and  from  which  sorties  could  be  made  to  intercept  the  savages. t 

fn  a  spirit  of  deference  that  appears  not  only  undesirable  but  ser- 
vile at  this  distance.  Governor  St.  Clair  sent  on  the  19th  September 
from  Marietta  'by  a  private  gentleman'  a  letter  to  Major  Patrick  Mur- 
ray-, Commandant  at  Detroit,  reading  that  "this  is  to  give  you  the  full- 
est assurance  of  the  pacific  disposition  entertained  towards  Great  Britain 
and  all  her  possessions;  and  to  inform  you  explicitly  that  the  expedition 
about  to  be  undertaken,  is  not  intended  against  the  post  \'0u  have  the 
honor  to  command."  .  .  The  only  redeeming  feature  of  this  letter 
is  this  sentence:  "After  this  candid  explanation,  sir,  there  is  every 
reason  to  expect,  both  from  your  own  personal  character,  and  from  the 
regard  j'ou  have  for  that  of  your  nation,  that  those  tribes  will  meet  with 
neither  countenance  nor  assistance  from  any  under  your  command,  and 
that  you  will  do  what  in  your  power  lies  to  restrain  the  trading  people 
from  whose  instigations,  there  is  too  good  reasons  to  believe,  much  of 
the  injuries  committed  b}'  the  savages  has  proceeded." 

The  command  under  General  Josiah  Harmar  Commander-in-Chief 
of  the  Army  of  the  United  States  marched  northward  from  near  Fort 
Washington,  4th  October,  1790.  It  was  composed  of  fourteen  hundred 
and  fifty-three  soldiers,  viz  :  three  hundred  and  twenty  regulars  ( in- 
cluding one  artillery  company  with  three  light  brass  cannon,  the  largest 

■'  Ebenezer  Denny's  Military  Journal  page  343.     Published  by  the  Pennsylvania  Historical  Society. 

t  InterestinE  details  reearding   this   proposed  forward   movement   may  be   found  in  the  American 
State  Papers.  Aborigine  Affairs  volume  i,  page  100  et  sequentia. 


a  six  pounder)  in  two  battalions  ;  eleven  hundred  and  thirty-three  mili- 
tia from  Kentucky  in  four  battalions,  three  of  infantry  and  one  of  moun- 
ted riflemen  ;  and  one  battalion  of  infantry  from  Pennsylvania.  Some 
of  the  Iventuckv  militia  were  'raw  and  unused  to  the  L;un  or  the  woods; 
indeed  many  were  without  guns  [when  they  reported  at  Fort  Washing- 
ton] and  many  of  those  they  have  want  repairing.  Our  artificers  were 
employed  in  putting  to  right  the  militia  arms.  General  Harmar  was 
much  disheartened  at  the  kind  of  people  from  Kentucky.  One-half  cer- 
tainly serve  no  other  purpose  than  to  swell  the  number.  .  .  The 
colonels  disputed  about  the  command.  .  .  There  was  much  trouble 
in  keeping  the  officers,  with  their  commands  in  their  proper  order,  and 
the  pack  horses,  etc.,  compact.'      .      .      — Denny's  Military  Journal. 

The  following  account  of  the  experiences  of  General  Harmar's 
army  on  the  march  to  and  within  the  Maumee  River  Basin  is  taken 
from  the  diary  of  Captain  John  Armstrong  of  the  United  States  troops, 
when  not  otherwise  noted,  viz:  * 

October!],  17!)0.  The  Army  moved  at  half  past  nine  o'clock  ;  marched  a  north- 
west course  seven  miles  to  a  branch  where  French  traders  formerly  had  a  number  of 
trading  houses  —  thence  a  north  course  four  miles  to  a  small  branch  and  encamped  at 
five  o'clock.     The  country  we  passed  over  is  very  rich  and  level.     Eleven  miles. 

October  12th.  The  Army  moved  at  half  past  nine  o'clock  ;  our  course  a  little  west 
of  northwest  —  crossed  a  stream  at  seven  miles  and  a  half  running  to  the  northeast  on 
which  there  are  several  old  camps,  much  deadened  timber  which  continues  to  the  River 
Auglaize  [River  St.  Mary]  about  a  mile.  Here  has  been  a  considerable  village  —  some 
houses  still  standing.  This  stream  is  a  branch  [tributary]  of  the  Omi  [Maumee]  River, 
and  is  about  twenty  yards  wide.  From  this  village  to  our  encampment  our  course  was 
a  little  to  the  north  of  west.      Rich  level  land.      Fourteen  miles. t 

October  IHth.  The  Army  moved  at  ten  o'clock  ;  just  before  they  marched,  a  pris- 
oner [a  Shawnee]  was  brought  in,  and  Mr.  Morgan  from  Fort  Washington  joined  us. 
We  marched  to  the  W.  of  N.  W.  four  miles  to  a  small  stream  through  low  swampy  land 
—  then  a  course  a  little  to  the  N.  of  W.  passing  through  several  small  prairies  and  open 
woods  to  an  Aborigine  village  on  a  pretty  stream.  Here  we  were  joined  by  a  detach- 
ment from  Fort  Washington,  with  ammunition.     Ten  miles.  J 

October  14th.  At  half  past  ten  in  the  morning  Colonel  Hardin  was  detached  for 
the  Miami  village  [at  head  of  Maumee  River]  ||  with  one  company  of  Regulars  and 
six  hundred  militia  —  and  the  Army  took  up  its  line  of  march  at  eleven  o'clock:  a  N.  W. 
course;  four  miles  a  small  branch  —  the  country  level  —  many  places  drowned  lands  in 
the  winter  season.     Ten  miles. 

*  See  Dillon's  History  of  Indiana  paije  267,  and  Draper  MSS.  in  Wisconsin  Historical  Society's 

t  .  .  Half  pound  powder  and  one  pound  lead  served  out  to  each  rifleman,  and  twenty-four  rounds 
cartridges  to  the  musketry.  Commandinc  officers  of  battalions  to  see  that  their  men's  arms  are  in  fiood 
order  and  loaded.     .     .     Denny's  Military  Journal  pace  .147. 

^  Marched  through  a  thick  brushy  country.  Encamped  on  great  branch  [tributary]  of  the  Miami 
or  Omee  [Maumee!  River  [the  River  St.  Maryl  near  the  ruins  of  La  Source's  old  house,  about  one 
hundred  and  tnirty-five  miles  from  Fort  Washington  —  Denny,  page  347. 

II  In  consequence  of  intelligence  gained  of  the  prisoner  that  the  Aborigines  were  clearing  out  as 
fast  as  possible,  and  that  the  towns  would  be  evacuated  before  our  arrival  ...  it  was  impossible 
for  the  army  to  hastep  much,     .     .     Marched  over  beech  and  white  oak  land  generally,  and  no  running 


October  l."">th.  The  army  moved  at  eight  o'clock,  N.  W.  course,  two  miles,  a  small 
branch;  then  north  a  little  west,  crossing  a  stream,  three  miles,  N.  W.  course  — 
the  Army  halted  at  half  past  one  o'clock  on  a   branch  running  west.     Eight  miles.* 

October  Kith.  The  .^rmy  moved  at  forty-five  minutes  after  eight  o'clock  ;  marched 
nine  miles  and  halted  fifteen  minutes  after  one  o'clock.  Passed  over  a  level  country, 
not  very  rich.  Colonel  Hardin  with  his  command  took  possession  of  the  Miami  town 
[head  of  Maumee  River]  yesterday  at  four  o'clock  —  the  Aborigines  having  left  just 
before.  Nine  miles  (over  beech  and  swamp  oak  land  —  Denny).  Colonel  Hardin  found 
that  the  Aborigines  had  left  behind  them  some  cows,  and  large  quantities  of  corn  and 
vegetables  ;  and  the  militia,  in  parties  of  thirty  or  forty  regardless  of  discipline,  strolled 
about  in  search  of  plunder. 

October  17th.  The  Army  moved  at  fifteen  minutes  after  eight  o'clock  ;  and  at  one 
o'clock  crossed  the  Maumee  River  to  the  village  (.several  tolerably  good  log  houses,  said 
to  have  been  occupied  by  British  traders;  a  few  pretty  good  gardens  with  some  fruit 
trees,  and  vast  fields  of  corn  in  almost  every  direction  —  Denny  ).t  The  river  is  about 
seventy  yards  wide  —  a  fine,  transparent  stream.  The  River  St.  Joseph,  which  forms 
the  point  on  which  the  [main]  village  stood,  is  about  twenty  yards  wide  [low  stage  of 
water]  and,  when  the  waters  are  high,  navigable  a  great  way  up  it.  Major  M'MuUen 
and  others  reported  that  the  tracks  of  women  and  children  had  been  discovered  on  an 
Aborigine  path  leading  from  the  village,  a  northwest  course,  towards  the  Kickapoo 
towns  [on  Eel  River].  General  Harmar,  supposing  that  the  Aborigines,  with  their 
families  and  baggage,  had  encamped  at  some  point  not  far  from  the  Miami  village, 
determined  to  make  an  effort  to  discover  the  place  of  their  encampment,  and  to  bring 
them  to  battle.  Accordingly  on  the  morning  of  the  18th,  he  detached  Colonel  Trotter, 
Major  Hall,  Major  Ray,  and  Major  M'Mullen,  with  a  force  amounting  to  three  hundred 
men,  and  composed  of  thirty  regular  troops  [under  command  of  Captain  John  Armstrong 
the  writer  of  this  record]  forty  of  Major  Fontaine's  light  horse,  and  two  hundred  and 
thirty  active  riflemen.  The  detachment  was  furnished  with  three  days'  provision,  and 
ordered  to  examine  the  country  around  the  Miami  village.  After  these  troops  under  the 
command  of  (?olonel   Trotter  had  moved  about  one  mile  from  the  encampment,  the  light 

water.  Country  very  flat  and  appears  as  if  at  particular  seasons  it  was  altoyether  under  water.  .  , 
This  ni^ht  the  horses  were  ordered  to  be  tied  up,  that  the  army  might  start  by  daylieht.  with  a  view  of 
keeping  as  near  to  Colonel  Hardin  as  possible.  The  distance  to  the  Aborigine  towns  [head  of  Maumee 
River]  this  morning  [14th  October!  when  the  detachment  went  ahead,  supposed  to  be  about  thirty-tive 
miles  —  Denny,  347. 

'''  Every  exertion  made  to  get  forward  the  main  body.  Difficult  march  this  day  [October  l.^thl  over 
beech  roots  and  brush.  Encamped  on  the  [tributary]  waters  of  the  Omee  [Maumeel  about  one  hundred 
and  lift.v-three  miles  from  Fort  Washington.  Horses  were  again  tied,  grass  cut  and  brought  to  them  that 
the  army  might  not  be  detained  next  morning,  as  had  frequently  been  the  case :  for  although  repeated 
orders  were  given  to  the  horse-masters  to  hopple  well  their  horses,  and  directions  to  ttie  officers  and 
men  not  to  suffer  them  to  pass  through  the  lines,  many  of  them,  owing  to  the  scarcity  of  food,  broke  loose 
and  passed  the  chain  of  sentries  and  were  lost.  Patrols  of  horsemen  are  ordered  out  every  morning  at 
daylight  to  scour  the  neighboring  woods  and  bring  in  any  horses  that  might  have  passed  the  lines: 
and  the  pickets  turned  out  small  parties  for  the  same  purpose.  The  cattle,  also,  every  pains  taken  to 
secure  them.  At  evening  when  the  army  halts  the  cattle  guard,  which  is  composed  of  an  officer  and 
thirty  men,  build  a  yard  always  within  the  chain  of  sentries,  sometimes  in  the  square  of  the  encamp- 
ment and  place  themselves  round  the  inclosure,  which  secures  them.—  t)enny,  page  ,348. 

t  There  were  seven  or  more  Aborigine  villages  near  .ih^, three  rivers  within  a  few  miles,  at  the  time 
of  General  Harmar's  visit,  or  later,  approximaSp/>,.  as.  fo^ljyws :  Two  of  the  Miamis,  the  principal  one 
situate  on  the  east  bank  of  the  St.  Joseph  Rivei,-a|.its  mouth,  and,  the  other  of  thirty  cabins  was  on  the 
west  bank  a  little  above.  The  Delaw^afiCS  h^di  two  towns  of  forty  cabins  about  three  miles  above  the 
mouth  of  the  River  St.  Mary.  Th^-Pottai-votamis  had, one  town  of  thirty  cabins  on  the  east  bank  of  the 
St.  Joseph  about  three  miles  above  ifs  mputh  ;  and  the  Shawnees  had  two  towns  three  miles  below  the 
head  of  the  Maumee.  one  on  the  north  bank  called  Chillicothe  having  fifty-eight  cabins,  and  one  on 
the  south  bank  with. sixteen  cabins.     See  Map  anfe  page  9*/.  


horsemen  discovered,  pursued,  and  killed  an  Aborigine  on  horseback.  Before  this  party 
returned  to  the  columns,  a  second  Aborigine  was  discovered,  when  the  four  field  officers 
left  their  commands  and  pursued  the  Aborigine — leaving  the  troops  for  the  space  of 
about  half  an  hour  without  any  directions  whatever.  The  flight  of  the  second  Aborigine 
was  intercepted  by  the  light  horsemen,  who  despatched  him  after  he  had  wounded  one 
of  their  party.  Colonel  Trotter  then  changed  the  route  of  his  detachment  and  marched 
in  various  directions  until  night,  when  he  returned  to  the  camp  at  the  Miami  village.* 
The  return  of  Colonel  Trotter  to  camp,  on  the  evening  of  the  18th,  was  unexpected 
by  General  Harmar,  and  did  not  receive  his  approbation.  Colonel  Hardin  asked  for  the 
command  of  the  same  detachment  for  the  remaining  two  days  [first  allotted  Trotter] 
and  his  request  was  granted.  On  the  morning  of  the  liHh  the  detachment  under  com- 
mand of  Colonel  Hardin  marched  a  northwest  course  on  the  Aborigine  patht  which  led 
towards  the  Kickapoo  towns  ;  and  after  passing  a  morass  about  five  miles  distant  from  the 
Miami  village,  the  troops  came  to  a  place  where,  on  the  preceding  day,  a  party  of  Abo- 
rigines had  encamped.  At  this  spot  the  detachment  made  a  short  halt,  and  the  com- 
manding officer  stationed  the  companies  at  points  several  rods  apart.  After  the  lapse  of 
about  half  an  hour  the  companies  in  front  were  ordered  to  move  on ;  and  Captain  Faulk- 
ner's company  was  left  on  the  ground,  the  Colonel  having  neglected  to  give  him  orders  to 
march.  The  troops  moved  forward  about  three  miles,  when  they  discoverd  two  Aborigi- 
nes on  foot,  who  threw  off  their  packs  and,  the  brush  being  thick,  made  their  escape. 
About  this  time  Colonel  Hardin  despatched  Major  Fontaine  with  part  of  the  cavalry  in 
search  of  Captain  Faulkner,  supposing  him  to  be  lost ;  and  soon  afterwards  Captain 
Armstrong,  who  commanded  the  regulars,  informed  Colonel  Hardin  that  a  gun  had  been 
fired  in  front  which  might  be  considered  as  an  alarm  gun,  and  that  he  had  seen  the 
tracks  of  a  horse  that  had  come  down  the  road  and  returned.  The  Colonel,  however, 
moved  on  without  giving  any  orders  or  making  any  arrangements  for  an  attack  ;  and 
when  Captain  Armstrong  discovered  the  fires  of  the  Aborigines  at  a  distance,  and 
informed  Colonel  Hardin  of  the  circumstance  that  officer,  saying  that  the  Aborigines 
would  not  fight,  rode  in  front  of  the  advanced  columns  until  the  detachment  was  fired  on 
from  behind  the  fires.  The  militia,  with  the  exception  of  nine  who  remained  with  the 
regulars  and  were  killed,  immediately  gave  way  and  commenced  an  irregular  retreat, 
which  they  continued  until  they  reached  the  main  army.+  Hardin,  who  retreated  with 
them,  made  several  ineffectual  attempts  to  rally  them.  The  small  band  of  regulars, 
obstinately  brave,  maintained  their  ground  until  twenty-two  [of  the  thirty]  were  killed, 
when  Captain  Armstrong,  Ensign  Hartshorne,  and  fi\-e  or  six  privates,  escaped  from  the 
carnage,  eluded  the  pursuit  of  the  Aborigines,  and  arrived  at  the  camp  of  General 
Harmar.  The  number  of  Aborigines  who  were  engaged  on  this  occasion  cannot  be     They  were  led  by  a  distinguished"  Miami  chief  whose  name  was   Mish-e- 

*  The  18th  October  General  Harmar  issued  a  general  order  prohibiting  the  straggling  of  soldiers 
from  the  camp  which  had  been  extreme:  also  for  an  equal  distribution  of  the  '  plunder.' 

t  I  saw  that  the  men  moved  off  with  great  reluctance,  and  am  satisfied  that  when  three  miles  from 
camp  he  had  not  more  than  two-thirds  of  liis  command:  they  dropped  out  of  the  ranks  and  returned  to 
camp.     .     .     —Denny's  Military  Journal,  paiie^iQ. 

t  Of  the  militia  forty  are  missing,  but  it  is  well  known  that  very  few  of  these  were  forward  in  the 
tight.     The  conjecture  is  that  most  of  them  ran  back  from  the  rear  and  have  pushed  for  the  Ohio  River. 

Last  night  Captains  M'CInre  and  M'fjuircy  of  the  militia  took  a  notion  to  trap  some  of  the  Abori- 
gines who  were  suspected  of  lurking  about  after  night  to  carry  off  straggling  horses.  A  short  distance 
outside  the  sentries  they  close  hoppled  a  horse  with  a  bell  on,  and  took  their  station  in  a  hazel  thicket  but 
a  few  yards  off.  It  was  not  long  until  an  Aborigine  stalked  up  and  seized  the  horse.  The  captains  rushed 
upon  him.  cut  oft  his  head  and  brought  it  into  camp,  and  claimed  at  least  the  price  of  a  wolf's  scalp.  .  . 
—  Denny's  Militiary  Journal,  page  3.50. 

II  Captain  .Armstrong,  under  oath  at  the  court  of  investigation,  estimated  the  number  at  one  hundred 
warriors.     Colonel  Hardin  in  a  deposition  which  he  made  in  I79I  estimated  the  number  at  about  one 


ken-o-quoh,  which  signifies  the  Little  Turtle.  The  ground  on  which  the  action  took 
place,  lies  about  eleven  miles  from  Fort  Wayne,  and  near  the  point  at  which  the  Goshen 
State  road  crosses  Eel  River. 

On  the  morning  of  the  I'.tth  the  main  body  of  the  army  under  Harmar,  having 
destroyed  the  Miami  village,  moved  about  two  miles  [down  the  north  side  of  the 
Maumee]  to  a  Shawnee  village  which  was  called  Chillicothe,  where  was  published  the 
following  orders: 

Camp  at  Chillicothe,  one  of  the  Shawnee  towns,  on  the  Omee  1  Maumee]  River,  October  20th,  1790. 
The  party  under  command  of  Captain  Strong  is  ordered  to  burn  and  destroy  every  house  and  wig- 
wam in  this  villau'e,  together  with  all  the  corn,  Ac.  which  he  can  collect.  A  party  ot  one  hundred  men 
[militia)  properly  officered,  under  the  comniand  of  Colonel  Hardin  is  to  burn  and  destroy  eftectually,  this 
afternoon,  the  Pickaway  town  [of  the  Delawares  by  the  River  St.  Mary]  with  all  the  corn,  cVc.  which 
he  can  find  in  it  and  its  vicinity. 

The  cause  of  the  detachment  being  worsted  yesterday  was  entirely  owing  to  the  shameful  cowardly 
conduct  of  the  militia  who  ran  away  and  threw  down  their  arms,  without  tiring  scarcely  a  gun.  In  return- 
ing to  Fort  Washington  if  any  officer  or  man  shall  presume  to  Quit  the  ranks,  or  not  to  march  in  the  form 
that  they  are  ordered,  the  General  will  most  assuredly  order  the  artillery  to  fire  on  them.  He  hopes  the 
check  they  received  yesterday   will    make   them   in  future    obedient    to   orders. 

iosiAH  Harmar,   Brig.   General. 

At  ten  o'clock,  A.  M.,  on  the  21st  the  army  moved  from  the  ruins  of  the  Chilli- 
cothe village,  marched  about  seven  miles  on  the  route  to  Fort  Washington,  and  en- 
camped.* The  night  being  very  clear.  Colonel  Hardin  informed  General  Harmar  that 
he  thought  it  would  be  a  good  opportunity  to  steal  a  march  on  the  Aborigines,  as  he  had 
reason  to  believe  that  they  had  returned  to  the  towns  as  soon  as  the  army  left  them. 
Harmar  did  not  seem  willing  to  send  a  party  back ;  but  Hardin  urged  the  matter,  inform- 
ing the  General  that,  as  he  had  been  unfortunate  the  other  day,  he  wished  to  have  it  in 
his  power  to  pick  the  militia  and  try  it  again ;  and  at  the  same  time  endeavored  to 
account  for  the  men's  not  fighting ;  and  desired  an  opportunity  to  retrieve  the  credit  of 
the  militia  [deposition  of  Colonel  John  Hardin  14th  September,  1791].  In  order  to 
satisfy  the  request  of  Hardin,  and  to  give  the  Aborigines  a  check  and  thus  prevent  their 
harassing  the  army  on  its  return  to  Fort  Washington,  General  Harmar  determined  to 
send  back  a  detachment  of  four  hundred  men.  Accordingly,  late  in  the  night  of  the  31st 
a  corps  of  three  hundred  and  forty  militia,  and  sixty  regular  troops  under  the  command 
of  IVIajor  Wyllys,  were  detached,  that  they  might  gain  the  vicinity  of  the  IVfiami  village 
before  day-break  and  surprise  any  Aborigines  who  might  be  found  there.  The  detach- 
ment marched  in  three  columns.  The  regular  troops  were  in  the  center,  at  the  head  of 
which  Captain  Joseph  ,\shtont  was  posted,  with  Major  Wyllys  and  Colonel  Hardin  in 
his  front.  The  militia  formed  the  columns  to  the  right  and  left  [see  map  ante  page  '.17]. 
Owing  to  some  delay  occasioned  by  the  halting  of  the  militia,  the  detachment  did  not 
reach  the  bank  of  the  Maumee  till  some  time  after  sunrise.  The  spies  then  discovered 
some  Aborigines  and  reported  to  Major  Wyllys  who  halted  the  regular  troops,  and  moved 
the  militia  on  some  distance  in  front  where  he  gave  his  orders  and  plan  of  attack  to  the 
several  commanding  officers  of  corps.  Major  Wyllys  reserved  to  himself  the  command 
of  the  regular  troops.  Major  Hall  with  his  battalion  was  directed  to  take  a  circuitous 
route  around  the  bend  of  the  Omee  [Maumee]  River,  cross  the  Pickaway  fork  [the 
River  St.  Mary]   and  there,  in  the  rear  of  the  Aborigines,  wait  until  the  attack  should  be 

hundred  and  fifty  men.  Some  writers,  on  questionable  authority,  have  given  the  number  at  seven  hun- 
dred. Captain  Armstrong  wrote  that  'many  of  the  Aborigines  must  have  been  killed,  as  I  saw  my  men 
bayonet  many  of  them.     They  fought  and  died  hard.' 

*  The  army  having  burned  five  villages,  besides  the  capitol  town,  and  consumed  and  destroyed 
twenty  thousand  bushels  of  corn  in  ears,  took  up  their  line  of  march  back  to  Fort  Washington  and  en- 
camped eight  miles  from  the  ruins  —  Denny. 

t  Captain  Asheton's  testimony  before  the  Court  of  Imtuiry.     See  Am.  State  Papers  vol  xii,  page  28. 


brought  on  by  Major  M'Mullen's  battalion.  Major  Fontaine's  cavalry,  and  the  regular 
troops  under  Major  Wyllys,  who  were  all  ordered  to  cross  the  Omee  [Maumee]  at  and 
near  the  common  fording  place.  After  the  attack  commenced  the  troops  were  by  no 
means  to  separate,  but  were  to  embody,  or  the  battalions  to  support  each  other  as 
circumstances  required.  From  this  disposition  it  appeared  evident  that  it  was  the  inten- 
tion of  Hardin  and  Wyllys  to  surround  the  Aborigine  encampment ;  but  Major  Hall,  who 
had  gained  his  position  undiscovered,  disobeyed  his  orders  by  firing  at  a  single  Aborigine 
before  the  commencement  of  the  action.  Several  small  parties  of  Aborigines  were  soon 
seen  running  in  different  directions,  and  the  militia  under  M'MuUen  and  the  cavalry 
under  Fontaine  pursued  them  in  disobedience  to  orders,  and  left  Major  Wyllys  unsup- 
ported. The  consequence  was  that  the  regulars,  after  crossing  the  Maumee.  were 
attacked  by  a  superior  force  of  .Aborigines  and  compelled  to  retreat  with  the  loss  of 
Major  Wyllys  and  the  greater  part  of  their  corps.  Major  Fontaine,  at  the  head  of  the 
mounted  militia,  fell,  with  a  number  of  his  followers,  in  making  a  charge  against  a  small 
party  of  Aborigines ;  and  on  his  fall  the  remainder  of  his  troops  dispersed,  leaving  the 
federal  troops  unsupported  to  become  an  easy  sacrifice  to  much  the  largest  party  of 
savages  that  had  been  seen  that  day.  While  the  main  body  of  the  Aborigines,  led  by 
the  Little  Turtle,  were  engaged  with  the  regulars  near  the  banks  of  the  Maumee,  some 
skirmishing  took  place  near  the  confluence  of  the  rivers  St.  Mary  and  St.  Joseph  between 
detached  parties  of  Aborigines  and  the  militia  under  Hall  and  M'Mullen.  .^fter  the 
defeat  of  the  regulars,  however,  the  militia  retreated  on  the  route  to  the  main  army  ;  and 
the  Aborigines  having  suffered  a  severe  loss,  did  not  pursue  them.* 

About  eleven  o'clock  A.  M.  a  single  horseman  reached  the  camp  of  Harmar  with 
[very  imperfect]  news  of  the  defeat  ol  the  detachment.  The  General  immediately 
ordered  Major  Ray  to  march  with  his  battalion  to  the  assistance  of  the  retreating 
parties;  but  so  great  was  the  panic  which  prevailed  among  the  militia  that  only  thirty 
men  could  be  induced  to  leave  the  main  army.  With  this  small  number  Major  Ray 
proceeded  a  short  distance  towards  the  scene  of  action,  when  he  met  Colonel  Hardin  on 
his  retreat.  On  reaching  the  encampment  of  Harmar,  Colonel  Hardin  requested  the 
General  to  march  back  to  the  Miami  village  with  the  whole  army ;  but  Harmar  said  to 
him,  'you  see  the  situation  of  the  army;  we  are  now  scarcely  able  to  move  our  baggage; 
it  would  take  up  three  days  to  go,  and  return  to  this  place  ;  we  have  no  more  forage  for 
our  horses;  the  Aborigines  have  got  a  very  good  scourging;  and  I  will  keep  the  army  in 
perfect  readiness  to  receive  them  if  they  think  proper  to  follow.'  t  The  General  at  this 
time  had  lost  all  confidence  in  the  militia.     The  bounds  of  the  camp  were  made  less  and. 

*  It  was  my  opinion  that  the  misfortunes  of  that  day  were  owintr  to  the  separation  of  the  troops,  and 
disobeyance  of  orders.  After  the  federal  troops  were  defeated,  and  the  tiring  in  all  ^juarters  nearly 
ceased.  Majors  Hall  and  M'Mnllen  with  their  battalions  met  in  the  [site  of  the  I  town  and,  after  dis- 
charging, cleaning  and  fresh  loading  their  arms,  which  took  up  about  half  an  hour,  proceeded  to  join  the 
army  unmolested.  I  am  convinced  that  the  detachment,  if  it  had  been  embodied,  was  sufficient  to  have 
answered  the  fullest  expectations  of  the  General.  .  .  —  Testimony  of  Captain  Joseph  Ashton,  Am. 
State  Papers  vol.  xii.  page  2H. 

The  wings  commanded  by  Majors  Hall  and  M'Millen  came  upon  a  few  Aborigines  immediately 
after  crossing  the  Omee  I  Maumee]  put  them  to  flight  and,  contrary  to  orders,  pursued  up  the  St.  Joseph 
for  several  miles.  The  center  division,  composed  chiefly  of  the  regular  troops,  were  left  unsupported. 
It  would  seem  as  if  the  enemy  designed  to  draw  the  principal  part  of  the  force  after  a  few  of  their  people, 
while  their  main  body  attacked  Major  Wyllys.  The  center  division  sustained  a  very  unequal  ftght  for 
some  time.  They  were  obliged  at  length  to  give  way.  The  few  that  escaped  fled  in  the  direction  that 
the  militia  had  gone,  and  met  them  returning  from  the  pursuit  of  the  scattering  Aborigines.  The  enemy 
followed  and  were  met  by  the  militia  several  miles  up  the  St.  Joseph;  this  narrow  river  was  between  the 
parties;  a  smart  tire  commenced  and  was  kept  up.  The  Aborigines  attempted  to  force  their  way  across 
but  were  repulsed,  and  at  length  withdrew.  Our  parties  collected  their  wounded,  and  returned  slowly 
to  camp—  I^enny's  Military  Journal  pages  3.'jl,  H52. 

t  Deposition  of  Colonel  John  Hardin  September  14,  1791      American  State  Papers. 


at  eight  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  23rd  October,  the  army  took  up  the  Hne  of  march 
for  Fort  Washington  and  reached  that  place  on  the  4th  of  November,  having  lost  in  the 
expedition  one  hundred  and  eighty-three  killed,  and  thirty-one  wounded.*  Among  the 
killed  were  Major  Wyllys  and  Lieutenant  Ebenezer  Frothinghara  of  the  regular  troops; 
and  Major  Fontaine,  Captains  Thorp,  M'Murtrey  and  Scott,  Lieutenants  Clark  and 
Rogers,  and  Ensigns  Bridges,  Sweet,  Higgins  and  Thielkeld,  of  the  militia.  The  Abo- 
rigines, whose  loss  was  about  equal  to  that  of  ours,  did  not  annoy  the  army  after  the 
action  of  the  22nd  of  October. 

The  causes  of  the  serious  disasters  attending  General  Harmar'  ex- 
pedition to  the  head  of  the  Maumee,  in  addition  to  those  stated  above 
were  the  alleged  incompetency  of  some  officers,  insufficient  discipline  of 
the  militia,  and  the  bickerings  among  some  of  their  officers,  causing 
distrust,  disorder  and  panic  at  the  first  attack  of  the  enemy.  General 
Harmar,  annoyed  by  adverse  criticism  of  his  conduct  of  this  expedition, 
asked  President  Washington  "28th  March,  1791,  for  a  board  of  officers 
to  act  as  a  Court  of  Inquiry.  This  request  was  granted  and,  after  con- 
sidering the  evidence,  he  was  acquitted.  Nothing  was  said  about  his 
failure  to  build  the  forts  that  had  been  thought  desirable  at  first.  Some 
of  the  officials,  however,  had  objections  to  the  suggested  forts  in  the 
wilderness,  such  as  the  cost  of  their  maintenance  from  garrisons  and 
supplies  snd  their  narrow  influence.  But  General  Harmar's  command 
was  prepared  for  such  work,  and  not  prepared  for  aggressive  war  as 
the  sequel  proved.  Had  he  built  a  strong  fort  at  the  head  of  the  Mau- 
mee immediately  upon  his  arrival  there,  and  garnered,  instead  of  burn- 
ing, the  extensive  products  of  the  fields  and,  on  his  return,  left  a  chain 
of  such  forts,  they  would  have  been  rallying  points  for  soldiers  to  keep 
the  savages  in  check  :  for  the  commissioners  of  peace  to  these  savages, 
and  for  those  of  the  savages  who  would  gradually,  one  by  one  and  tribe 
bv  tribe,  have  been  won  to  peace.  The  moral  as  well  as  physical 
effects  of  such  forts  were  demonstrated  by  General  Wayne,  as  is  shown 
in  a  later  chapter.  General  Harmer  resigned  his  commission  the  follow- 
ing January,  was  made  Adjutant  General  of  Pennsylvania  in  179^,  and 
rendered  good  service  in  furnishing  troops  for  General  Wayne's  cam- 
paign along  the  Maumee  in  1794. t 

The  savages  reported  their  loss  as  only  fifteen  to  twenty.  +  They  were 
greath'  elated  at  their  success  in  defeating  General  Harmar's  arm\'. 
Like  the  Ancient  Romans  who  returned  home  to  celebrate  their  great 
victories    in    triumphal   processions,    these   savages  went   to   Detroit  the 

*  The  whole  number  of  the  killed  and  missine  of  the  army  amounts  to  one  hundred  and  eiyhty- 
three,  but  it  is  verily  believed  that  a  number  of  the  militia  who  are  missing  have  deserted,  and  are  on 
their  way  to  Kentucky — Denny's  Military' Journal  page  3.>1. 

t  General  Harmar  was  addicted  to  the  use  of  intoxicating  beverages  like  many  others  of  liis 
time.  See  letter  of  General  Knox  of  September  3,  1790,  to  him  remonstrating  against  this  practice  in 
Knox  Papers  in  Library  of  the  New  England  Historic  and  Genealogical  Society,  Boston,  vol,  xxiii, 
page  169. 

+  This  report  was  probably  of  only  one  tribe  or  squad.     Savages  did  not  aggregate  their  losses. 


headquarters  of  their  masters  and  allies  the  British,  where  they  daily 
paraded  the  streets  uttering  their  demoniac  scalp-yells  while  bearing 
long  poles  strung  with  the  scalps  of  the  many  American  soldiers  they 
had  killed.*  Additional  savage  war-parties  were  started  for  the  frontier 
settlements.  The  British,  also,  were  elated  at  the  success  of  the  savages, 
exhibiting  their  pleasure  by  words  condemnatory  of  the  American  polic}-, 
and  by  their  continued  acts  in  supplying  the  savages  for  further  atrocities. 

It  must  be  admitted  that  the  conduct  of  the  Americans  coming  in 
contact  with  the  savages  from  the  beginning  in  governmental,  soldiery, 
and  pioneer  settler  relations,  had  not  always  exhibited  that  thought- 
fulness,  dignity  and  unity  of  action  that  commands  the  full  respect, 
particularly  of  those  at  a  distance  ;  and  much  of  their  later  conduct,  for 
two  years  at  least,  was  open  to  severe  criticism.  But  the  extenuating 
circumstances,  individual  and  general,  were  many  and  great,  and  such 
as  not  to  be  fully  appreciated  by  persons  foreign  to  them.t 

The  anxiety,  always  present  with  the  frontier  settlers,  now  increas- 
ed to  a  panic.  The  officers,  local  and  general,  whose  duty  it  was  to 
guard  and  protect  the  legitimate  settlers,  had  often  been  remiss  in  their 
duties.  While  their  physical  resources  were  narrow,  they  had  been 
wanting  in  that  broad  comprehension  of  requirements  that  would  have 
begotten  from  the  first  more  of  a  union  of  effort  and  strength  of  re- 
sistance to  the  treacherous  savages  while  accumulating  means  for  that 
complete  subjection  of  them  that  was  necessar\-.  Now  they  became 
even  more  disconcerted  than  before  and  their  spasmodic  efforts  to  pro- 
tect the  settlements  with  soldiers  —  to  send  embassies  to  placate  the 
savages  at  this  inopportune  time,  while  gathering  an  arm\-,  meantime, 
sufficient  to  overcome  them  and  build  forts  throughout  the  forests, 
which  forests  the  savages  had  been  taught  by  the  French  and  British 
never  to  give  up,  and  in  which  determination  they  were  yet  being  sus- 
tained bv  the  British  —  all  were  again  pointed  to  by  the  British  and 
savages  as  evidences  of  American  insincerity  and  duplicity.  Such  was 
the  fruit  of  the  long-continued  pacific  policy  of  the  American  officials, 
if  anv  policy  could  be  said  to  have  existed.  Their  efforts  had  only 
occasionally  been  awakened,  with  mere  temporizing  effect  on  the 
enemies,  to  react  unfavorably  upon  the  settlements. 

The  Legislature  of  Virginia  20th  December,  1790,  authorized 
Governor  Beverly  Randolph  to  provide  for  the  enlistment  of  several 
companies  of  rangers  before  the  first  of  March  for  the  protection  of  the 
frontier;   and   Charles  Scott  was  appointed   Brigadier   General  of   Ken- 

*  Compare  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Collections,  and  Farmer's  His.  of  Detroit. 

t  For  many  details  regarding  the  ditierent  questions  and  annoyances  of  these  troublous  times,  the 
inquirer  is  referred  to  the  American  State  Papers,  volumes  relating  to  .aborigine,  and  Military  Affairs: 
also  to  the  many  MSS.  that  have  already  been  referred  to. 


tuckv  militia.  Early  in  January,  1791,  Congress  named  General  Scott, 
Henrv  Inness,  John  Brown,  Benjamin  Logan,  and  Isaac  Shelby  a  local 
Board  of  War  for  the  District  of  Kentucky,  with  discretionary  powers. 
The  third  of  March  Congress  also  provided  another  regiment  of 
Federal  Troops,  and  for  raising  two  thousand  militia  for  six  months, 
for  the  further  protection  of  the  frontiers;  and  President  Washington 
immediatelv  appointed  Governor  Arthur  St.  Clair  Commander  in  Chief 
of  this  Army  of  the  Northwest.  Colonel  Thomas  Proctor  was  sent 
12th  March,  1791,  to  the  Senecas  in  New  York  to  gather  an  embassy 
from  them  to  the  western  tribes,  but  the  British  at  Niagara  would  not 
permit  a  boat  to  take  them  across  Lake  Erie  in  the  American  interest; 
and  through  the  British  and  Colonel  Brant  false  reports  were  circulated 
—  that  the  United  States  were  endeavoring  to  involve  the  Six  Nations 
in  war  with  the  western  savages.  Further  illustration  of  the  continued 
British  policy  to  dominate  all  the  savages  is  given  in  the  communica- 
tions of  their  officers  to  the  savages,  and  the  savages  deferring  to  their 
request  that  all  questions  of  moment  should  be  referred  to  the  British. 
Radical  operations  against  the  savage  retreats  appearing  necessarx', 
and  the  result  of  Colonel  Proctor's  mission  for  intercession  of  the  Six 
Nations  for  peace  having  been  awaited  as  long  as  practicable.  General 
Scott  crossed  the  Ohio  River  23rd  May,  1791,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ken- 
tucky with  eight  hundred  cavalry,  and  started  for  the  historic  Ouiotenon 
on  the  Wabash  River  near  the  present  City  of  Lafayette.  Rain  fell  in 
torrents  with  much  high  wind,  but  he  arrived  at  Ouiotenon  the  first  of 
June  after  an  estimated  march  of  one  hundred  and  sixtv  miles  across 
the  forested  country  with  only  trails  for  road.  The  last  of  the  savages 
were  just  leaving  the  proximal  town  when  General,  now  acting  as  Lieu- 
tenant Colonel-Commander,  James  Wilkinson  pressed  forward  with  the 
First  Battalion  and  destroyed  all  the  savages  with  which  five  canoes 
were  crowded.'  There  was  a  Kickapoo  town  on  the  north  l)ank  of  the 
river  from  which  a  brisk  firing  was  directed  at  the  troops.  The  river 
was  high  and  soldiers  were  sent  above  and  below  to  effect  a  crossing, 
which  was  done  by  some  swimming,  and  the  savages  were  dislodged. 
Meantime  Colonel  Hardin's  command  had  discovered  a  stronger  village 
to  the  left  which  was  surprised  and  six  savages  were  killed  and  fifty-two 
taken  prisoners.  The  next  evening  General  Wilkinson  started  with  three 
hundred  and  sixty  men  on  foot,  and  early  the  next  morning  assailed  and 
destroyed  the  important  town  of  Kethtipecanunk  at  the  mouth  of  Eel 
River  eighteen  miles  above  Ouiotenon,  returning  from  this  thirty-six 
miles  walk  and  work  in  twelve  hours.  All  the  villages  and  supplies 
were  destroyed.  General  Scott  reported  that  "  Many  of  the  inhabitants 
of  this  village  [Ouiotenon]  were  French  and  lived  in  a  state  of  civiliza- 
tion.     B}'  the  books,  letters,  and   other   documents  found  here  it  is  evi- 


dent  that  the  place  was  in  close  connection  with  and  dependent  on 
Detroit.  A  large  quantity  of  corn,  a  variety  of  household  goods,  peltry, 
and  other  articles  were  burned  with  this  village  which  consisted  of  about 
sevent\-  houses,  many  of  them  well  finished."*  The  4th  June  General 
Scott  discharged  sixteen  of  his  prisoners  who  were  less  able  to  with- 
stand the  march,  giving  to  their  care  a  well-worded  letter,  addressed 
to  all  the  tribes  of  savages  along  the  Wabash,  requesting  peace  and  in- 
forming where  his  retained  prisoners  could  be  found.  The  severe  rains 
and  the  swollen  condition  of  the  streams,  with  his  forced  marches  through 
the  trackless  forest  had  disabled  his  horses  and,  his  supplies  being  de- 
pleted, he  reluctantl\-  directed  the  march  southward  instead  of  to  the 
Maumee,  and  arrived  at  the  Rapids  of  the  Ohio  River  14th  June.  He 
reported  no  death  in  his  command  and  only  five  wounded,  while  of  the 
savages  thirty-two  were  killed  and  fifty-eight  taken  prisoners,  of  which 
the  fortv-one  not  liberated  were  given  to  the  care  of  Captain  Asheton 
of  the  First  United  States  Regiment  at  Fort  Steuben,  on  the  site  of  the 
present  Jeffersonville,  Indiana.      His  troops  did  not  take  any  scalps. 

General  St.  Clair  recommended  another  expedition  to  the  Eel  River 
to  weaken  those  tribes  which  would  join  the  Miamis  against  his  army  then 
forming  for  the  purpose  of  laying  waste  the  strongholds,  and  establish- 
ing a  series  of  forts  in  the  Maumee  country.  Acordingly  Colonel  Wil- 
kinson with  five  hundred  and  twenty-five  cavalry  started  from  the  vi- 
cinity of  Fort  Washington  (site  of  the  present  Cincinnati)  northward 
'feinting  boldly  at  the  Miami  villages'  and  then  turning  northwestward 
to  the  Wabash  near  the  mouth  of  Eel  River.  The  evening  of  the 
sixth  da\-  out  he  cai)tured  the  savages'  most  important  town  known  by 
the  French  name  L'Anguille  —  the  Eel.  This  expedition  then  ranged 
near  the  Wabash,  passed  through  Ouiotenon,  thence  along  General 
Scott's  route,  and  arrived  at  the  Rapids  of  the  Ohio  21st  August,  having 
traveled  four  hundred  and  fifty  miles,  destroyed  several  villages  and 
over  four  hundred  acres  of  corn  'chiefly  in  the  milk'  stage  of  growth; 
captured  thirty-four  or  more  savage  prisoners  and  killed  ten  or  more 
others.  One  American  prisoner  was  released.  Two  soldiers  were  killed 
and  one  wounded.  Colonel  Wilkinson  also  left  behind  some  infirm 
Aborigines  unharmed,  to  whom  he  gave  a  letter  addressed  to  the  dif- 
ferent tribes  urging  them  to  accept  the  favorable  terms  of  peace  that 
were  offered  them.  These  letters  were  taken  to  the  British  who  gave 
their  own  desired  renderings  of  them  to  the  Aborigines. 

General  Harmar  predicted  defeat  for  General  St.  Clair's  army 
which  was  being  gathered  with  great  difficulties  to  operate  along  the 
Maumee  River. t     This  armv  was   not  ready  to  advance  until  17th  Sep- 

''■'  American  State  Papers.  Aborigine  Affairs  volume  i,  page  129. 

1  Denny's  Military  Journal  page  357,  American  State  Papers.  Aborigine  Affairs  volume  i.  page  118. 


tember,  1791,  when  about  twenty-three  hundred  soldiers,  mostl\'  regu- 
lars, moved  from  the  vicinity  of  Fort  Washington  and  built  Fort  Hamilton 
on  the  west  bank  of  the  Miami  River  at  the  site  of  the  present  Citv  of 
Hamilton,  Ohio.  Again  advancing  under  command  of  General  St.  Clair, 
they  began  to  build  Fort  Jefferson,  six  miles  south  of  the  present-Green- 
'ville,  the  l"2th  of  October.  Twelve  da>s  later  themarch  again  began,  but 
the  progress  was  very  slow.  The  evening  of  the  3rd  of  November  the 
army  encamped  by  the  Wabash  River  about  one  mile  and  a  half  east  of 
the  present  Ohio-Indiana  State  line.  During  the  night  there  were  man\' 
savages  near  the  pickets,  and  much  firing  of  guns  by  the  pickets,  .\bout 
ten  o'clock  at  night  General  Butler,  who  commanded  the  right  wing, 
was  desired  to  send  out  an  intelligent  officer  with  detachment  of  soldiers 
to  make  discoveries.  He  chose  Captain  Slough,  two  subalterns  and 
thirty  men  for  this  purpose,  but  nothing  alarming  was  discovered. 

Early  the  next  morning  the  army,  then  numbering  about  fourteen 
hundred  regular  and  militia  soldiers,  and  eighty-six  officers,  was  furi- 
ously assailed  by  about  the  same  number  of  savages,  and  it  went  dcjwn 
to  the  most  disastrous  defeat  ever  suffered  by  such  large  numbers  from 
such  foe.  General  St.  Clair's  Adjutant  Ebenezer  Denny  thus  de- 
scribes the  scene  :'^ 

The  troops  paraded  this  morning  [4th  November,  171)1]  at  the  usual  time,  and  had 
been  dismissed  from  the  lines  but  a  few  minutes,  the  sun  not  yet  up.  when  the  woods  in 
front  rung  with  the  yells  and  fire  of  the  savages.  The  poor  militia,  who  were  but  three 
hundred  yards  in  front,  had  scarcely  time  to  return  a  shot  —  they  fled  into  our  camp. 
The  troops  were  under  arms  in  an  instant,  and  a  smart  fire  from  the  front  line  met  the 
enemy.  It  was  but  a  few  minutes,  however,  until  the  men  were  engaged  in  every 
quarter.  The  enemy  from  the  front  filed  oft  to  the  right  and  left,  and  completely  sur- 
rodnded  the  camp,  killed  and  cut  off  nearly  all  the  guards,  and  approached  close  to  the 
lines.  They  advanced  from  one  tree,  log,  or  stump  to  another,  under  cover  of  the  smoke 
of  our  fire.  The  [our]  artillery  and  musketry  made  a  tremendous  noise  [huddled 
together  as  they  were]  but  did  little  execution.  The  Aborigines  seemed  to  brave  every- 
thing, and  when  fairly  fixed  around  us  they  made  no  noise  other  than  their  fire  [guns] 
which  they  kept  up  very  constant  and  which  seldom  failed  to  tell,  although  scarcely 

Our  left  flank,  probably  from  the  nature  of  the  ground,  gave  way  first ;  the  enemy 
got  possession  of  that  part  of  the  encampment  but,  it  being  pretty  clear  ground,  they 
were  too  much  exposed  and  were  soon  repulsed.  I  was  at  this  time  with  the  General 
[St.  Clair]  engaged  toward  the  right ;  he  was  on  foot  [he  had  been  sick  some  days]  and 
led  the  party  himself  that  drove  the  enemy  and  regained  our  ground  on  the  left.  The 
battalions  in  the  rear  charged  several  times  and  forced  the  savages  from  their  shelter, 
but  they  always  turned  with  the  battalions  and  fired  upon  their  back;  indeed  they  .seemed 
not  to  fear  anything  we  could  do.  They  could  skip  out  of  reach  of  the  bayonet  and 
return,  as  they  pleased.     They  were  visible  only  when  raised  by  a  charge. 

The  ground  was  literally  covered  with    the  dead.     The  wounded   were  taken   to  the 
center,  where  it  was  thought  most  safe,   and  where  a  great  many  who  had    quit    their 

■  Denny's  Military  Journal,  paee  369,  et  seq.     See,  also,  American  Pioneer,  volume  ii.  pane  l.'jO. 


posts  unhurt  had  crowded  together.  The  General,  with  other  officers,  endeavored  to 
rally  these  men,  and  twice  they  were  taken  out  to  the  lines.  It  appeared  as  if  the  officers 
had  been  singled  out ;  a  very  great  proportion  fell,  or  were  wounded  and  obliged  to 
retire  from  the  lines  early  in  the  action.  [Major]  General  [Richard]  Butler  was  among 
the  latter,  as  well  as  several  other  of  the  most  experienced  officers.  The  men,  being 
thus  left  with  few  officers,  became  fearful,  despaired  of  success,  gave  up  the  fight,  and 
to  save  themselves  for  the  moment,  abandoned  entirely  their  duty  and  ground,  and 
crowded  in  toward  the  center  of  the  field,  and  no  exertions  could  put  them  in  any  order 
even  for  defense;  [they  became]  perfectly  ungovernable.  The  enemy  at  length  got 
possession  of  the  artillery,  though  not  until  the  officers  were  all  killed  but  one  and  he 
badly  wounded,  and  the  men  [gunners]  almost  all  cut  off,  and  not  until  the  pieces  were 

As  our  lines  were  deserted  the  Aborigines  contracted  theirs  until  their  shot  centered 
from  all  points,  and  now  meeting  with  little  opposition,  took  more  deliberate  aim  and  did 
great  execution.  Exposed  to  a  cross  fire,  men  and  officers  were  seen  falling  in  every 
direction  ;  the  distress,  too,  of  the  wounded  made  the  scene  such  as  can  scarcely  be  con- 
ceived—  a  few  minutes  longer,  and  a  retreat  would  have  been  impossible  —  the  only  hope 
left  was,  that  perhaps  the  savages  would  be  so  taken  up  with  the  camp  as  not  to  follow. 
Delay  was  death ;  no  preparation  could  be  made ;  numbers  of  brave  men  must  be  left  a 
sacrifice,  there  was  no  alternative.  It  was  past  nine  o'clock  when  repeated  orders  were 
given  to  charge  toward  the  road.  The  action  had  continued  between  two  and  three 
hours.  Both  officers  and  men  seemed  confounded,  incapable  of  doing  anything ;  they 
could  not  move  until  it  was  told  that  a  retreat  was  intended.  A  few  officers  put  them- 
selves in  front,  the  men  followed,  the  enemy  gave  way,  and  perhaps  not  being  aware  of 
the  design,  we  were  for  a  few  minutes  left  undisturbed.  The  stoutest  and  most  active 
now  took  the  lead,  and  those  who  were  foremost  in  breaking  the  enemy's  line  were  soon 
left  behind. 

At  the  moment  of  the  retreat  one  of  the  few  horses  saved  had  been  procured  for  the 
General ;  he  was  on  foot  until  then  ;  I  kept  by  him,  and  he  delayed  to  see  the  rear.  The 
enemy  soon  discovered  the  movement  and  pursued,  though  not  more  than  four  or  five 
miles,  and  but  few  so  far ;  they  turned  to  share  the  spoil.  Soon  after  the  firing  ceased  I 
was  directed  to  endeavor  to  gain  the  front  and,  if  possible,  to  cause  a  short  halt  that  the 
rear  might  get  up.  I  had  been  on  horseback  from  the  first  alarm,  and  well  mounted  ; 
[and  now]  pushed  forward,  but  met  with  so  many  difficulties  and  interruptions  from  the 
people  that  I  was  two  hours  at  least  laboring  to  reach  the  front.  'With  the  assistance  of 
two  or  three  officers  I  caused  a  short  halt ;  but  the  men  grew  impatient  and  would  move 
on.  I  got  Lieutenants  Sedam  and  Morgan,  with  half  a  dozen  stout  men,  to  fill  up  the 
road  and  to  move  slowly  ;  I  halted  myself  until  the  General  came  up.  By  this  time  the 
remains  of  the  army  had  got  somewhat  compact,  but  in  the  most  miserable  and  defense- 
less state.  The  wounded  who  came  off  left  their  arms  in  the  field,  and  one  half  of  the 
others  threw  theirs  away  on  the  retreat.  The  road  for  miles  was  covered  with  firelocks 
[flintlock  guns]  cartridge  boxes  and  regimentals.  How  fortunate  that  the  pursuit  was 
discontinued ;  a  single  Aborigine  might  have  followed  with  safety  upon  either  flank. 
Such  a  panic  had  seized  the  men  that  I  believe  it  would  not  have  been  possible  to  have 
brought  any  of  them  to  engage  again. 

In  the  afternoon  Lieutenant  Kersey  with  a  detachment  of  the  first  regiment  met  us. 
This  regiment,  the  only  complete  and  best  disciplined  portion  of  the  army,  had  been 
ordered  back  upon  the  road  on  the  'Msl  October.  They  were  thirty  miles  from  the  battle 
ground  when  they  heard  distinctly  the  firing  of  the  cannon,  were  hastening  forward  and 
had  marched  about  nine  miles  when  met  by  some  of  the  militia  who  informed  Major 
Hamtramck,  the  commanding  officer,  that   the  army  was  totally  destroyed.     The  Major 


judged  it  best  to  send  on  a  subaltern  to  obtain  some  knowledge  of  things,  and  to  return 
himself  with  the  regiment  to  Fort  Jefferson  eight  miles  back,  and  to  secure  at  all  events 
that  post.  He  had  made  some  arrangements,  and  as  we  arrived  in  the  evening,  found 
him  preparing  again  to  meet  us.  Stragglers  continued  to  come  in  for  hours  after  we 
reached  the  fort. 

The  remnant  of  the  army,  with  the  first  regiment,  were  now  at  Fort  Jefferson, 
twenty-nine  miles  from  the  field  of  action,  without  provisions,  and  the  former  without 
having  eaten  anything  for  twenty-four  hours.  A  convoy  was  known  to  be  upon  the  road, 
and  within  a  day's  march.  The  General  determined  to  move  with  the  First  Regiment 
and  all  the  levies  [militia]  able  to  march.  Those  of  the  wounded  and  others  unable  to 
go  on  were  lodged  as  comfortably  as  possible  within  the  fort.  Accordingly  we  set  out  a 
little  after  ten  and  continued  our  route  until  within  an  hour  of  daylight,  then  halted  and 
waited  for  day  and  until  the  rear  came  up.  Moved  on  again  about  nine  o'clock  ;  the 
morning  of  the  Sth  we  met  the  convoy  ;  stopped  a  sufficiency  to  subsist  us  to  Fort  Hamil- 
ton;  sent  the  remainder  on  to  Jefferson  under  an  additional  escort  of  a  captain  and  sixty 
men;  proceeded,  and  at  the  first  water  halted,  partly  cooked  and  eat  for  the  first  time 
since  the  night  preceding  the  action.  At  one  o'clock  moved  on,  and  continued  our  route 
until  nine  at  night  when  we  halted  and  made  fires  within  fifteen  miles  of  Fort  Hamil- 
ton. Marched  again  just  before  day.  the  General  soon  after  rode  on  to  the  fort. 
Troops  reached   [there]   in  the  afternoon. 

November  7,  1701.  Fort  Hamilton  command  was  ordered  off  with  a  small  supply 
for  the  wounded.  &c.  About  twelve  same  day  continued  our  march,  and  halted  before 
night  within  fifteen  miles  of  Fort  'Washington,  which  place  we  reached  the  afternoon  of 
the  8th. 

The  prediction  of  [defeat  by]  General  Harmar  before  the  army  set  out  on  the 
campaign  was  founded  upon  his  experience  and  particular  knowledge  of  things.  He 
saw  with  what  material  the  bulk  of  the  army  was  composed  ;  men  collected  from  the 
streets  and  prisons  of  the  cities,  hurried  out  into  the  enemy's  country,  and  with  the 
officers  commanding  them  totally  unacquainted  with  the  business  in  which  they  were 
engaged,  it  was  utterly  impossible  they  could  be  otherwise  [than  defeated] .  Besides, 
not  any  one  department  was  sufficiently  prepared  ;  both  quarter-master  and  the  con- 
tractors extremely  deficient.  It  was  a  matter  of  astonishment  to  him  [General  Harmar] 
that  the  commanding  general  [St.  Clair]  who  was  acknowledged  to  be  perfectly  compe- 
tent, should  think  of  hazarding  with  such  people  and  under  such  circumstances,  his 
reputation  and  life,  and  the  lives  of  .so  many  others,  knowing  too,  as  both  did,  the 
enemy  with  whom  he  was  going  to  contend  ;  an  enemy  brought  up  from  infancy  to  war, 
and  perhaps  superior  to  an  equal  number  of  the  best  men  that  could  be  taken  against 
them.  It  is  a  truth,  I  had  hopes  that  the  noise  and  show  which  the  army  made  on  their 
march  might  possibly  deter  the  enemy  from  attempting  a  serious  and  general  attack. 
It  was  unfortunate  that  both  the  general  officers  were,  and  had  been,  disabled  by  sick- 
ness; in  such  situation  it  is  possible  that  some  essential  matters  might  be  overlooked. 
The  Adjutant-General  Colonel  'Winthrop  Sargent,  an  old  Revolutionary  officer,  was, 
however,  constantly  on  the  alert ;  he  took  upon  himself  the  burden  of  everything,  and  a 
very  serious  and  troublesome  task  he  had.  But  one  most  important  object  was  wanting, 
can't  say  neglected,  but  more  might  have  been  done  toward  obtaining  it :  this  was  a 
knowledge  of  the  collected  force  and  situation  of  the  enemy:  of  this  we  were  perfectly 
ignorant.     Some  few  scouts  out  but  to  no  great  distance.* 

*  See  also.  Lieutenant  Colonel  William  Darke's  letter  to  President  "Washington  describing  this 
defeat;  in  the  Henry  Knox  (  Secretary  of  War)  Papers  vol.'xxx.  page  13,  Library  of  the  New  England 
Historic  Genealogical  Society,  Boston.  And  Benjamin  Van  Cleve's  Memoranda  in  The  American 
Pioneer  volume  ii.  1843.  page  150  et  seq. 


In  this  overwhelming,'  defeat  General  St.  Clair's  army  lost  five  hun- 
dred and  ninety-three  privates  killed  and  missiny;.  Thirtv-nine  officers 
Were  killed,  including  Major  General  Richard  Butler,  one  Lieutenant 
Colonel,  three  Majors,  twelve  Captains,  ten  Lieutenants,  eight  Ensigns, 
two  Quartermasters,  one  Adjutant,  and  Surgeon  Grasson.  Thirty-one 
officers  and  two  hundred  and  fifty-two  privates  were  wounded.  The 
artillery  and  all  supplies  including  clothing,  two  hundred  tents,  three 
hundred  horses,  one  hundred  and  thirty  beef  cattle  and  food  in  the 
wagons,  with  muskets  and  other  equipment  thrown  nwny  by  many 
stricken  soldiers,  all  valued  at  S32,810.75,  were  left  to  lie  gathered  by 
the  highly  elated  savages  who  took  to  their  lodges  by  the  Maumce  and 
Auglaise  Rivers  all  that  could  be  readily  transported.* 

On  account  of  necessary  delavs,  the  cold  weather  and  bad  roads, 
it  required  six  weeks  for  St.  Clair's  Aide,  Lieutenant  Denny,  to  con- 
vey on  horseback  the  news  of  this  crushing  defeat  to  the  office  of  Sec- 
retary Knox  in  Philadeli)hia.t  General  St.  Clair  requested  the  ap- 
pointment of  a  Court  of  Inquiry.  This  was  done  by  the  War  Depart- 
ment, and  the  Court  exonerated  him.  He  resigned  his  commission 
March  5,  179"2.  The  jirinciiial  causes  of  the  failure  of  the  campaign 
were,  1st.  The  deficient  number  of  good  troops,  according  to  the  ex- 
pectation in  the  early  part  of  the  year.  2nd.  Their  want  of  sufficient 
discipline,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  service.  3rd.  The  lateness 
of  the  season. +  The  wet  and  cold  condition  of  the  weather  which 
covered  the  country  with  thin  ice  and  snow,  certainly  added  much  to 
the  inefficiency  of  the  volunteers  who  were  unused  to  such  campaign- 
ing, and  added  greatly  to  their  sufferings  in  defeat.  But  such  con- 
dition cannot  be  urged  to  account  for  the  incompetency  of  the  com- 
manders. Nor  should  the  illness  of  General  St.  Clair  be  an  excuse  for 
the  laxity  in  the  fortifying  and  reconnoitering  by  his  subordinates. 
There  were  other  unwise  features  of  this  campaign  beside  undiscijilined 
men  and  incom|ietent  officers.  The  wives  and  women  of  many  soldiers 
were  with  the  army.  They  were  favored  as  much  as  practicable, 
but   man}'   of  them  were  killed  by  the  savages.  || 

*  A  Delaware  Aborigine  named  Whincwy  Pooshies,  of  prominence  in  his  tribe,  took  from  this 
battlefield  to  his  cabin  by  the  Aui:laise  River  near  its  mouth,  two  cood  horses,  four  tents  —  one  a  good 
markee  (manjuee)  in  which  his  family  lived  for  several  years— a  great  ijuantity  of  ctothine  from  the 
dead  soldiers  and  their  wives;  also  axes,  guns,  and  everything  necessary  to  make  an  Aborigine  rich. 
'  There  was  much  joy  among  them  '  —  From  the  Narrative  of  John  Brickell  who  was  then  a  captive  living 
with  this  family,  in  The  American  Pioneer  volume  i,  page  50. 

t  For  accounts  of  the  reception  by  the  President  of  the  account  of  St.  Clair's  Defeat,  see  George 
W.  P.  Custis'  Personal  Recollections  of  Washington ;  Henry  C.  Lodge's  Life  of  Washington,  etc. 

+  Statement  of  Henry  Knox  Secretary  of  War,  Am.  State  Papers  Aborigine   Affairs  vol.  i,  page  98. 

II  Caleb  Atwater  writes  in  his  History  of  the  State  of  Ohio,  1838.  page  142,  that  there  were  in  this 
army  at  the  commencement  of  the  ac^tion  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  women  of  whom  fifty-six  were 
killed  in  the  battle.     But  few  escaped  death  and  captivity. 



General  Wilkinson  visited  this  battle-field  about  the  last  of  Janu- 
ary, 179'2,  with  one  hundred  and  fi{t\'  volunteer  cavalrymen  some  of 
whom  were  frost  bitten  on  the  way  from  Fort  Jefferson.  When  within 
four  miles  of  the  battle  field  they  found  scattered  aloni;-  the  wa\-  tlie 
remains  of  Americans  who  had  been  pursued  and  killed  or  wlio  had 
died  of  their  wounds  while  endeavoring  to  escape.  The  field  was 
thickly  strewn  with  remnants  showing  horrible  mutilations  b\-  the 
savages.  Sand  and  claj'  were  found  packed  into  the  eyes  and  throats, 
done  probably  while  the  wounded  were  yet  alive;  limbs  were  separated 
from  bodies;  and  stakes  the  size  of  arms  were  found  driven  through 
the  bodies  of  women.  The  flesh  had  been  stripped  from  many  bones, 
but  the  relative  part  done  bv  the  savage  cannibals  and  the  wolves 
could  not  be  determined.  The  latter  were  yet  at  work.  As  many  of 
these  remains  as  practicable  on  account  of  the  cold  and  snow,  were 
gathered  and  buried  in  a  shallow  trench*  dug  into  the  frozen  ground 
with  difficulty  by  the  benumbed  soldiers.  Three  whole  cannon  car- 
riages were  found  and  removed  to  Fort  Jefferson;  the  other  five  were 
in  damaged  condition.      All  the  cannon  were  missing. 

*  General  Wayne's  army  gathered  and  buried  all  bones  that  could  be  found  at  this  battle  held 
Christmas  week,  1793,  previous  to  the  buildiuR  of  Fort  Recovery.  Six  hundred  skulls  were  counted. 
American  Pioneer,  1842.  volume  i,  page  294. 

Pistol  found  in  the  Maumee  River,  at  the  mouth  of  the  .^uglaise  off  Fort  Dehance  Park,  in  low 
water  of  the  summer  of  189.5.  Without  mark  to  indicate  date  or  place  of  its  manufacture.  Length  nine 
inches.     Rifled  bore.     Cocked  and  ready  for  tirinc.     In  the  Author's  collection. 



Continued    Efforts    to    Placate    the    Aborigines    Prove    Futile  — 

General  Wayne's  Successful  Campaign  Against  Them. 

1792  TO   1794. 

The  savagt'S  did  not  want  peace  with  the  Americans  previous  to 
their  defeat  of  General  Harmar's  army;  much  less  would  they  complv 
with  the  proclamation  of  Governor  St.  Clair  or  respond  to  various 
other  overtures  made  to  them  for  peace  after  that  disaster.  They  rallied 
all  the  available  warriors  of  the  different  tribes  nearby  —  the  Miamis 
under  Chief  Little  Turtle,  the  Delawares  under  Buckongehelas,  the 
Shawnees  under  Blue  Jacket,  the  Ottawas,  Wyandots,  Pottawotamis, 
Kickapoos,  and  bands  of  lesser  significance  against  the  on-coming  of 
General  St.  Clair,  and  their  easy  overwhelming  of  this  the  second  large 
armv,  commanded  by  the  Governor  —  the,  to  them,  great  American 
chieftain  —  was  to  them  the  cause  of  excessive  joy.  This,  with  the 
largely  increased  number  of  scalps  and  other  rich  spoils  gathered  from 
their  victims  were  looked  upon  as  license  for  a  continuance  of  their 
raids  on  the  settlements,  and  as  omens  of  their  ultimate  success  in 
driving  the  Americans  from  the  country  on  the  plan  of  Pontiac  in  1763. 

The  American  frontier  settlements,  with  increased  apprehension, 
sent  more  urgent  petitions  to  the  authorities  for  protection.  Some  of 
these  petitions  represented  that  not  less  than  fifteen  hundred  Kentuck- 
ians  —  men,  women  and  children — had  been  slain  or  carried  into  cap- 
tivity by  the  savages  within  seven  years,  and  that  the  frontier  settle- 
ments of  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  had  suffered  nearly  as  much;  and 
that  the  prospect  was  now  more  gloomy  than  ever  as  the  enemy  was 
more  aggressive  and  savage. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  British  were  becoming  more  ajiprehensive 
regarding  their  fur  trade  and  the  loss  of  their  allies  from  the  organiza- 
tion of  American  armies.  The  defeat  of  two  armies  was  sure  to  be 
followed  bv  another  army,  stronger  and  more  destructive.  The  Montreal 
merchants  whose  lucrative  traffic  with  these  savages  had  lessened  dur- 
ing the  more  active  hostilities,  petitioned  9th  December,  1791,  Colonel 
John  Graves  Simcoe  Lieutenant  Governor  of  Upper  Canada  for  protec- 
tion; and  suggested  closer  union  with  the  savages  and  a  continued 
holding  of   the   forts  yet  occupied    by  the   British  in  American  territory. 

Secretary  Knox  'in  obedience  to  the  command 'of  President  Wash- 
ington, made  the  26tli  December  an  interesting  statement  relative  to 
the  frontiers  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River,  which  included  this  para- 
graph, viz:  Hence  it  would  appear  that  the  principles  of  justice  as 
well   as   policy    and,    it    may   be    added,  the   principles   of    economy,  all 


combine  to  dictate  that  an  adequate  military  force  should  be  raised  as 
soon  as  possible,  placed  upon  the  frontiers,  and  disciplined  according 
to  the  nature  of  the  service,  in  order  to  meet  with  the  prospect  of  suc- 
cess against  the  greatest  probable  combination  of  the  Aborigine  enemy.* 
Messages  and  overtures  for  peace  were  again  sent  to  the  various  tribes, 
including  the  Iroquois  Six  Nations;  and  preparations  for  the  proposed 
armv  were  also  entered  upon. 

To  advance  the  civil  jurisdiction  as  much  as  possible,  Hamilton 
County    was    extended     11th    February,"  1792,    by    Governor    St.    Clair 

eastward  to  the  Scioto  River  and 
northward  to  the  territorial  limits, 
thus  including  the  eastern  part 
of  this  Basin  although  it  was  vet 
held  by  the  savages. 

President  Washington,  having 
been  greatly  disappointed  in  the 
risult  of .  the  expedition  of  Gen- 
eral St.  Clair  who  was  a  former 
memfier  of  his  staff,  made  choice 
of  the  commander  for  the  pro- 
posed campaign  with  great  cir- 
cumspection. Generals  Anthony 
Wayne,  Henry  Lee,  Daniel  Mor- 
gan, .Andrew  Pickens,  Rufus  Put- 
nam, Charles  Scott,  James  Wil- 
kmson  and  Alexander  M'Gilli- 
vray,  were  those  of  most  prom- 
inence    from    whom    to    choose  ; 

Civil  Divisions  existing  in  Ihe  eastern  part  of  the  and  AuthoUy  WaVUe  WaS  Selected 
Territory  Northwest  of  the  Ohio  River  in  the  year  ^^j^lv  in  1792.  The  result  showed 

the  wisdom  of  the  choice  not- 
withstanding the  statement  of  General  Lee  that  this  appointment 
caused  extreme  disgust  among  all  orders  in  the  Old  Dominion. 

Soon  after  this  ajipointment  General  Wayne  issued  a  proclamation 
to  acquaint  the  anxious  frontiersmen  with  the  efforts  in  progress  to 
secure  peace  by  treaty,  and  to  request  all  persons  to  avoid  all  action 
that  would  further  anger  the  Aborigines.  The  governors  of  Virginia 
and  Pennsylvania  issued  similar  proclamations. 

Major  John  F.  Hamtramck  effected  treaties  at  Vincennes  in  March, 
1792,  with  small  bands  of  the  Wabash  and  Eel  River  tribes,  and  he 
also  sent  peace  messages  to  those  of  the   Maumee.       About  fifty  chiefs 

*  American  State  Papers.  Aborigine  Affairs,  volume  i,  page  198. 


of  the  Six  Nations  also  visited    Philadelphia  by  invitation  and  accepted 
the  overtures  for  peace. 

The  7th  April  General  Wilkinson  sent  two  messengers,  Freeman 
and  Girard,  with  peace  message  to  the  Miamis  of  the  Maumee  ;  and  the 
20th  May  Colonel  John  Hardin  and  Major  Alexander  Truman  started 
northward  on  a  like  mission  —  but  not  one  of  the  four  returned  to  tell 
of  the  savage  treatment,  and  death,  they  suffered. 

General  Putnam  succeeded  the  27th  September  in  closing  terms  of 
peace  with  thirty-one  Aborigines  of  the  Wabash  and  Illinois  tribes  at 
Vincennes.  Each  of  the  parties  to  these  peace  negotiations  carried 
copies  of  the  Treaties  of  1784-85-i^fi-H9,  and  many  expressions  and 
assurances  by  the  Americans  to  turn  the  savages  from  their  work  of 
carnage  ;  but  all  availed  nothing  with  those  more  directly  under  the 
influence  of  the  British.  The  raidings  by  the  savages  continued 

Of  the  secret  efforts  to  learn  more  regarding  the  relations  between 
the  British  and  the  savages,  to  be  the  better  able  therefrom  to  appease 
the  latter,  but  one  succeeded  on  account  of  the  vigilance  of  both  the 
British  and  savages.  William  May  was  started  from  Fort  Hamilton 
the  13th  May,  1792,  to  follow  on  the  trail  of  Major  Truman.  He  was 
captured  by  the  savages,  as  expected,  and  after  escaping  many  dangers 
was  taken  along  the  Maumee,  and  sold  to  Matthew  Elliott  then  British 
Assistant  Agent  to  the  Aborigines  from  whose  service  he  finally  escaped 
and  gave  sworn  testimony  before  General  Wayne  at  Pittsburg  11th 
October,  1792.°^  This  evidence  detailed  some  items  of  interest,  among 
which  are  the  following:  There  were  gathered  in  the  summer  of  1792 
by  the  Maumee  River  at  the  mouth  of  the  Auglaise  then  the  headquar- 
ters of  nearby  tribes,  three  thousand  and  six  hundred  warriors  of  many 
tribes,  and  more  were  often  arriving  at  the  time  of  William  May's 
sojourn  there,  all  of  whom  received  daily  rations  from  the  British  at 

This  was  the  largest  council  of  Aborigines  held  in  America,  and  it 
appeared  to  the  British  as  the  culmination  of  their  hopes  and  efforts 
for  their  confederation.  The  Seneca  Chief  Cornplanter  and  forty-eight 
other  chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations  of  New  York  were  there  for  the  Ameri- 
cans in  the  interest  of  peace;  and  Chief  Cornplanter  reported  to 
General  Waynet  that  .  .  .  'we  cannot  tell  the  names  of  the 
nations  present.      There  were  present  three  men  from  the  Goral  nations; 

■■'  American  State  Papers.  Aboricine  Affairs,  volume  i.  page  343. 

t  Idem  pace  337. 

+  Gora,  or  Gorah,  was  one  of  the  names  formerly  given  by  the  Six  Nations  (Iroquois)  of  New 
York  to  Sir  William  Johnson  and  to  Colonel  Guy  Johnson;  and  these  Gora  Aborigines  were  probably  of 
the  Iroquois  of  Canada  who  were  at  this  time  under  the  control  of  Sir  John  Johnson  British  Super- 
intendent of  Aborigines. 


it  took  them  a  whole  season  to  come  ;  and  twenty-seven  nations  [tribes] 
from  beyond  Canada.  The  whole  of  them  know  that  we,  the  Six 
Nations,  have  General  Washington  by  the  hand.'  .  .  This  reference 
was  to  their  recent  visit  to  Philadelphia  by  invitation,  and  the  peace 
treaty  there  effected.  Other  tribes  were  expected  at  this  Grand  Council 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Auglaise  River,  and  they  came  later.  A  like 
council  was  called  for  the  next  year,  1793,  and  runners  were  sent  with 
invitations  to  the  most  distant  tribes  in  all  directions,  including  the 
Creeks  and  Cherokees  of  the  south,  urging  their  attendance. 

William  May,  having  been  a  sailor,  was  kept  by  his  purchaser 
three  months  in  the  transjjortation  service  on  board  a  schooner  that 
carried  about  one  hundred  and  sixty  barrels  as  a  load  between  Detroit 
and  the  foot  of  the  lowest  Maumee  Rapids,  where  was  situated  the 
great  supph^  house  of  the  British  Aborigine  agent  Alexander  M'Kee, 
from  whom  the  savages  received  their  supplies  of  firearms  and  ammu- 
nition with  which  to  raid  and  murder  Americans  wherever  possible. 

A  number  of  small  forts  were  built  along  the  frontier  as  bases  of 
supplies  and  protection  and  places  of  refuge  for  the  remaining  Ameri- 
can settlers.  In  addition  to  the  attacks  on  individuals  and  families 
along  the  borders,  a  company  of  mounted  Kentucky  riflemen  under 
Major  John  Adair  was  suddenly  attacked  November  6,  1792,  near  Post 
St.  Clair  about  twenty-five  miles  north  of  Fort  Hamilton,  by  a  party  of 
savages  who  exhibited  'a  degree  of  courage  that  bespoke  them  warriors 
indeed'  reads  the  report  of  the  Major:  and  six  . Americans  were  killed, 
five  wounded,  and  four  were  missing.  The  savages  also  killed  a  num- 
ber of  packhorses  and  captured  others.  Their  loss  of  men  was  thought 
to  be  about  the  same  as  that  of  the  Kentuckians.  At  this  time  the 
army  being  formed  by  General  Wayne  was  rendezvoused  twentv-two 
miles  below  Pittsburg  for  discipline,  and  to  protect  the  Virginia 

For  the  purpose  of  continuing  the  efforts  to  secure  peace  with  the 
savages  by  further  treaty.  President  Washington  the  2nd  March,  1793, 
appointed  General  Benjamin  Lincoln  of  Massachusetts,  Beverlv  Ran- 
dolph of  Virginia  and  Timothy  Pickering  of  Pennsylvania,  Commis- 
sioners to  attend  the  great  council  to  be  held  at  the  foot  of  the  lowest 
Rapids  of  the  Maumee,  or  at  Sandusky  the  1st  of  June.  The  17th 
May  Messrs.  Randolph  and  Pickering  arrived  at  Fort  Niagara  and 
there  received  a  note  from  Lieutenant  Governor  and  Colonel  John 
Graves  Simcoe  to  be  guests  at  his  home.  Navy  Hall  nearly  a  mile  from 
the  fort;  and  there  being  no  other  suitable  place  for  them  to  stop  the 
invitation  was  accepted.  General  Lincoln  arrived  25th  May.  Mean- 
time a  letter  was  received  from  Colonel  M'Kee,  British  Aborigine 
Agent,  stating  that  the  tribal    councils  would   probably  not    end    bv    the 

180  THE  MAUMEE  RIVER  BASIN.     - 

Maumee  before  the  latter  part  of  June,  and  the  Commissioners  would 
best  remain  at  Niagara  until  he  notified  them  that  the  Aborigines  were 
ready  to  receive  them. 

Colonel  John  Butler,  a  leader  in  the  Wyoming  Massacre  in  July, 
1778,  now  British  Superintendent  of  Aborigine  Affairs,  and  Captain 
Joseph  Brant  of  like  notoriety,  with  a  picked  comjiany  of  fifty  savages, 
arrived  at  Niagara  July  5th  from  the  large  collection  of  Aborigines  then 
at  the  British  distributing  house  at  the  foot  of  the  Maumee  Rapids 
(now  the  Village  of  Maumee)  and  requested  explanation  of  the  'unfair 
and  unwarrantable'  warlike  preparations  of  General  Wayne;  and  they 
desired  to  know  the  authority  for  the  trespassing  of  the  Americans 
north  of  the  Ohio  River,  all  of  which  thev  claimed  as  territory  belong- 
ing to  the  Aborigines.  The  Commissioners  in  reply  cited  the  several 
treaties  of  previous  years  and  the  subsequent  maraudings  of  the 
savages  in  explanation,  and  exjiressed  desire  for  peace:  and  agreement 
was  made  to  meet  in  full  council  at  Sanduskv. 

The  Commissioners  left  Niagara  the  Ulth  July  and,  awaiting  a  fav- 
orable wind,  the  British  sloop  sailed  from  Fort  Erie  opposite  the  present 
City  of  Buffalo  the  14th,  and  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  Detroit  River 
the  21st  where  they  were  received,  and  entertained  during  their  enforced 
stay  there  of  nearly  four  weeks,  by  Captain  Matthew  Elliott  British 
Assistant  Agent  to  the  Aborigines.  They  frequently  urged  an  early 
meeting  of  the  Council  at  Sandusky,  the  place  named   bv  the  British. 

The  29th  Julv,  a  deputation  of  over  twentx'  Aborigines  arrived  at 
Captain  Elliott's  from  the  grand  council  that  had  for  weeks  been  in 
progress  at  the  foot  of  the  Maumee  Rapids,  with  the  notorious  Simon 
Girty  as  interpreter.  After  a  brief  preliminary  thev  presented  to  the 
Commissioners  a  short  written  communication  from  the  council,  the 
principal  sentence  being  that  If  you  seriously  design  to  make  a  firm 
and  lasting  peace  you  will  immediately  remove  all  \  our  jieople  from 
our  side  of  that  river'  [the  Ohio].  The  Commissioners  delivered  to 
them  in  writing  a  long  and  carefully  prepared  reply  in  which  the 
treaties  of  1768,  1784-85-86  and  1789  were  referred  to  in  justification  of 
the  advance  of  American  immigrants  into  the  territory  north  of  the 
Ohio,  and  with  reasons  why  it  was  impossible  at  this  late  date  to  make 
this  river  the  boundary:  that  the  United  States  Government  was  will- 
ing to  make  liberal  concessions  to  the  Aborigines,  as  the  treaty  with 
Great  Britain  declared  the  middle  of  the  Great  Lakes  and  the  waters 
which  unite  them  to  be  the  boundary  of  the  United  States;  and  they 
closed  with  the  desire  to  soon  meet  the  general  council  in  treaty. 

The  8th  and  yth  of  August  the  Commissioners  received  reports 
that  all  the  tribes  represented  at  the  Maumee  Council  were  for  peace 
excepting  the   Shawnees,  Wyandots,    Miamis  and    Delawares,  and   that 


they  were  yielding':  that  manv  Aborigines  were  tired  of  the  long'  delavs 
and  were  departing  for  their  respective  villages.  The  Commissioners 
desired  to  go  directly  to  the  Maumee  Council,  but  this  action  the 
British  would  not  permit. 

The  14th  they  wrote  to  the  chiefs  of  the  council  again  urging  a 
meeting  for  a  treaty:  also  to  Colonel  M'Kee  that  his  aid  to  this  result 
would  be  gratefully  acknowledged.  The  16th  August  a  long  and  care- 
fully written  reply  was  received  at  Captain  Elliott's  by  the  Commis- 
sioners closing  with  the  assertion  that  if  the  Commissioners  would  not 
agree  to  the  Ohio  River  being  the  boundary  'a  meeting  would  be  alto- 
gether unnecessary.'  Appended  to  this  paper  was  written  the  follow- 
ing names  of  'Nations'  represented,  viz:  Wyandots,  Seven  Nations 
of  Canada,  Delawares,  Shawnees,  Miamis,  Ottawas,  Chippewas, 
Senecas  of  the  Glaise  [Auglaise  River],  Pottawotamis,  Connovs, 
Munsees,  Nantakokias,  Mohicans,  Messasagoes,  Creeks,  Cherokees. 

This  communication  was,  undoubtedly,  fully  conceived  and  written 
liy  the  British  authorities  :  it  was  certainly  approved  by  their  censors. 
This  general  council,  as  well  as  the  one  the  year  before  by  the  Maumee 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Auglaise,  was  the  result  of  British  efforts  for  manv 
years  to  federate  all  the  savages  that  their  dictated  decision  in  council, 
and  united  action  in  war,  might  become  irresistable  to  the  Americans. 
Joseph  Brant,  leader  in  the  Six  Nations  and  generally  a  stanch  friend 
of  the  British,  declared  that  such  united  action  'caused  the  defeat  of 
two  American  armies  [Harmar's  and  St.  Clair's]  .  .  .  But  to  our 
surprise,  when  upon  the  point  of  entering  upon  a  treatv  with  the 
[American]  Commissioners,  we  found  that  it  was  opposed  by  those 
acting  under  the  British  government."'  .  .  In  replv  the  American 
Commissioners  sent  to  the  chiefs  and  to  the  British  Colonel  M'Kee, 
regretfull\',  the  statement  that  their  efforts  for  negotiations  were  at  an 
end;  including  with  the  letters  copies  of  the  former  treaties. +  The 
23rd  August  the  Commissioners  on  their  return  arrived  opposite  Fort 
Erie  where  they  dispatched,  by  different  runners,  letters  to  General 
Wayne  and  to  General  Knox  Secretary  of  War  announcing  their  failure 
to  secure  terms  for  peace. 

General  Wayne  believed  further  delay  would  be  an  undue  expos- 
ure of  the  frontier  to  the  savage  incursions  and,  5th  October,  1793,  he 
reported  to  the  Secretary  of  War  from  near  Fort  Washington  that  his 
available  army  remained  small  from  Kentucky  disappointments,  from 
fevers  among  his  enlisted  men,  and  from  "the  influenza  [later  called  in 
America  by  the  French  name  La  Grippe]  which  has  pervaded  the  whole 

*  William  L.  Stone's  Life  of  Brant,  volume  ii.  page  358. 

t  American  State  Papers.  Aborigine  Affairs  volume  i.  pages  340.  360. 


line  in  a  most  alarming  and  rapid  decree.  .  .  This  is  not  a  pleasant 
picture,  but  something  must  be  done  immediately  to  save  the  frontiers 
from  impending  savage  fury.  I  will  therefore  advance  to-morrow  with 
the  force  I  have  in  order  to  gain  a  strong  position  about  six  miles  in 
front  [north]  of  Fort  Jefferson,  so  as  to  keep  the  enemy  in  check.". 
The  23rd  October  he  reported,  from  this  'strong  position'  which  he 
named  Fort  Greenville  in  honor  of  his  friend  of  the  Revolutionar\'  War, 
General  Nathaniel  Greene,  that 

We  have  recently  experienced  a  little  check  to  one  of  our  convoys  which  may  prob- 
ably be  exaggerated  into  something  serious  by  the  tongue  of  fame  before  this  reaches 
you;  the  following  is,  however,  the  fact,  viz:  Lieutenant  Lowry.  of  the  2nd  sub- 
legion  and  Ensign  Boyd  of  the  1st  with  a  command  consisting  of  ninety  non-commis- 
sioned officers  and  privates,  having  in  charge  twenty  wagons  belonging  to  the  quarter- 
master general's  department  loaded  with  grain  and  one  of  the  contractor's  loaded  with 
stores,  were  attacked  early  in  the  morning  of  the  17th  instant  about  seven  miles  advanced 
of  Fort  St.  Clair  [twenty-nine  miles  above  Fort  Hamilton]  by  a  party  of  Aborigines; 
those  two  gallant  young  gentlemen  (who  promised  at  a  future  day  to  be  ornaments  to 
their  profession)  together  with  thirteen  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  bravely 
fell  after  an  obstinate  resistance  against  superior  numbers,  being  abandoned  by  the 
greater  part  of  the  escort  upon  the  first  discharge.  The  savages  killed  or  carried  off 
about  seventy  horses,  leaving  the  wagons  and  stores  standing  in  the  road  which  have 
been  all  brought  to  this  camp  without  any  other  loss  or  damage  except  some  trifling 
articles.  .  .  It  is  reported  that  the  Aborigines  at  Au  Glaize  [present  Defiance]  have 
sent  their  women  and  children  into  some  secret  recess  or  recesses  from  their  towns  ;  and 
that  the  whole  of  the  warriors  are  collected  or  collecting  in  force.  .  .  A  great  number 
of  men  as  well  as  officers  have  been  left  sick  and  debilitated  at  the  respective  garrisons, 
from  a  malady  called  the  influenza ;  among  others  General  Wilkinson  has  been  danger- 
ously ill ;  he  is  now  at  Fort  Jefferson  and  on  the  recovery. 

The  character  of  General  Wayne,  including  his  determination  is 
further  illustrated  in  the  following  sentence,  excerpted  from  the  same 
letter,  viz:  "The  safety  of  the  Western  frontiers,  the  reputation  of  the 
legion,  the  dignity  and  interest  of  the  nation,  all  forbid  a  retrograde 
manceuvre,  or  giving  up  one  inch  of  ground  we  now  possess,  until  the 
enemy  are  compelled  to  sue  for  peace."''  His  encampment  at  Green- 
ville was  fortified  and  part  of  the  army  passed  the  winter  there. 

Major  Henry  Burbeck  was  ordered  23rd  December,  with  eight 
companies  of  infantry  and  artillery,  to  proceed  to  the  battle-field  of 
General  St.  Clair's  defeat  and  there  erect  a  fortification.  This  stockade 
enclosure  with  blockhouses  was  given  the  name  Fort  Recovery. 

The  Aborigines,  observing  this  steady  advance  toward  their  princi- 
pal retreats,  with  fortifications,  made  a  movement  for  peace;  and 
probably  a  treaty  of  peace  could,  also,  at  this  time  have  been  effected 
but  for  the  continued  adverse  influence  of  the  British.  Their  desires 
and  continued  efforts  to    'unite   the   American    Aborigines'    which   Gov- 

*  American  State  Papers,  Aborigine  Atiairs  vohiiiie  i,  paye  1161, 


ernor  Simcoe  expressed  at  Niagara  to  the  American  Peace  Commis- 
sioners as  'the  principle  of  the  British  government'  was  tor  their  own 
Better  control  of  them;  and  these  efforts  were  continued  also  with  the 
Creeks,  Cherokees,  and  other  tribes  along  the  American  frontiers  south 
of  the  Ohio  River,  thus  costing  the  United  States  many  lives  and  much 
expense  there,  also.  In  fact  much  of  the  open  as  well  as  of  the  secret 
conduct  of  the  British  was  not  only  reprehensible,  but  criminal.  It 
was  they  who  kept  alive  the  boundary  question  in  its  virulence,  seeking 
to  extend  their  own  boundary  thereby  while  professing  to  favor  the 
Aborigines.  The  British  desire  for  the  traffic  of  the  Aborigines  had 
something  to  do  with  this  conduct:  but  they  could  not  have  been 
actuated  to  their  course  by  any  complicity  of  the  American  authorities 
in  any  other  act  inimical  to  their  interest.* 

These  were  troublous  years  to  the  Americans  generally,  they  being 
beset  on  all  sides,  by  the  British  and  Aborigines,  and  by  the  machina- 
tions of  the  French  and  Spanish  to  involve  them  in  complications  with 
Great  Britain  and,  further,  to  again  incite  the  inhabitants  west  of  the 
Allegheny  Mountains  to  a  separation  from  the  East.  The  natural 
outlet  for  the  products  of  the  Ohio  Basin  down  the  Mississippi  River 
had  much  to  do  with  the  continuation  of  the  disaffection  of  the  settlers 
with  the  East;  but  the  statesmen  of  the  East  were  largely  responsible 
for  its  beginning,  by  their  arguments  against  the  extension  of  the 
United  States  domain  which  they  thought  already  too  large  to  be 
governed  from  one  center.  The  Spanish  and  French  emissaries  took 
advantage  of  these  complicities  at  different  times,  and  circulated  their 
schemes  among  the  settlers  of  the  West  from  Detroit  to  Kentucky  and 
the  Illinois  country.  General  Wayne  well  styled  this  complicity  of 
enemies  to  the  United  States  an  hydra. t 

The  Aborigine  chiefs  kept  in  close  communication  with  the  British 
officials  —  not  only  with  Elliott  and  M'Kee,  but  with  Detroit,  Lieu- 
tenant Governor  Simcoe  of  Niagara  and  with  the  Governor  General 
Lord  Dorchester.  In  an  address  of  welcome  to  the  chiefs  10th  Febru- 
ar\-,  1794,  Lord  Dorchester  spoke  in  part  as  follows:  .  .  '  Chil- 
dren, since  my  return  I  find  no  appearance  of  a  [boundary]  line  re- 
mains; and  from  the  manner  in  which  the  people  of  the  United  States 
push  on  and  act  [evidently  referring  to  the  advance  of  General  Wayne] 

■■  See  President  Washington's  proclamation  of  neutrality,  and  Secretary  Jefferson's  remonstrance 
reearding  the  overtures  of  the  Spanish  of  the  Mississippi  to  the  Kentuckians.  and  also  against  the 
incitings  of  the  French  Minister  Edmund  Charles  Genest  ( often  written  Genet )  to  beget  sympathy  for 
the  French  revolutionists  against  the  British  and  Spanish.  Also  the  American  order  to  occupy  Fort 
Massac,  situate  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Ohio  River  eight  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the  Tennessee,  to 
intercept  all  illegal  transit  —  American  State  Papers.  Foreign  Relations  vol.  i,  page  173  et  seq. 

tCompare  American  State  Papers,  .Aborigine  Affairs  and  Foreign  Relations.  Also  for  a  brief 
connected  account  of  these  complicities,  see  The  Winning  of  the  West  by  Theodore  Roosevelt. 


and  talk  ...  I  shall  not  be  surprised  if  we  are  at  war  with  them 
in  the  course  of  the  present  year;  and  if  so  a  line  must  then  be  drawn 
bv  the  warriors.  .  .  .  We  have  acted  in  the  most  peaceable  manner 
and  borne  the  language  and  conduct  of  the  people  of  the  United  States 
with  patience:   but  I  believe  our  patience  is  almost  exhausted."*   .     .     . 

This  address  was  characteristic  of  the  unlimited  selfishness  and 
arrogance  of  the  British:  and  the  assertion  of  impending  war  —  in 
which  thev  were  again  to  actively  champion  the  savages  in  their  most 
horrid  work  —  was  not  idle  words.  Lieutenant  Governor  Simcoe  was 
immediately  sent  to  Detroit,  he  being  there  the  iMth  February:  and  the 
17th  April  a  letter  from  Detroit  reads  that  "we  have  lately  had  a  visit 
from  Governor  Simcoe:  he  came  from  Niagara  through  the  woods 
he  has  gone  to  the  foot  of  the  [Maumee]  Rapids,  and  three 
companies  of  Colonel  [Richard]  England's  regiment  have  followed 
him  to  assist  in  building  a  fort  there.  "T 

This  fort  was  a  veritable  stronghold.  It  was  named  Fort  Miami, 
and  situated  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Maumee  River  near  the  lower  limits 
of  the  present  Village  of  Maumee,  which  was  then  as  now,  a  great 
advance  into  United  States  territory.  M'Kee's  Agency  house  was  one 
mile  and  a  half  above  this  fort  and  near  the  foot  of  the  lowest  rapids. + 
The  reinforcement  of  General  Waxne's  command  by  Kentucky  troops 
and  all  their  movements  were  regularly  rejjorted  at  Forts  Miami  and 
Lernoult  at  Detroit:  and  at  the  advance  of  his  army  Fort  Miami  was 
strengthened  and  further  garrisoned,  and  Major  William  Campbell 
succeeded  Captain  Caldwell  its  first  commandant.  President  Washing- 
ton, through  Edmund  Randoliih  Secretary  of  State,  complained  to  the 
British  Government  regarding  Lord  Dorchester's  address  to  the 
savages,  which  had  been  widely  circulated  among  them  and  the  Ameri- 
cans: and  he  also  protested  against  Fort  Miami.  The  reply  showed 
that  the  London  Government  instigated  the  aggressions,  and  it  offered 
no  relief. II 

General  Wayne  reported  7th  |ul\-,  1794,  from  his  headquarters  at 
Greenville  that 

At  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  UOth  ultimo  one  of  our  escorts  consisting  of 
ninety  riflemen  and  fifty  dragoons  commanded  by  Major  McMahon,  was  attacked  by  a 
numerous  body  of  Aborigines  under  the  walls  of  Fort  Recovery,  followed  by  a  general 
assault  upon  that  post  and  garrison  [of  about  two  hundred  men]  in  every  direction.  The 
enemy  were  soon  repulsed  with  great  slaughter,  but  immediately  rallied  and  reiterated 
the  attack   keeping  up  a  very  heavy  and   constant   fire  at  a  more  respectable  distance  for 

*  A  verified  copy  from  the  Archives  of  the  London  Foreign  Office.     See   Rives'    Life  and    Times  OJ 
James  Madison  volume  iii,  page  418.     Also  Roosevelt's  The  Winning  of  ttie  West,  volume  iv.  page  57. 

t  American  State  Papers.  Aborigine  Affairs  volume  i,  page  480, 

+  See  M'Kee's  letter  to  Chew  of  8th  May.  17&4.     In  Canadian  Archives  at  Ottawa. 

II  American  State  Papers.  Foreign  Relations  volume  i. 


the  remainder  of  the  day,  which  was  answered  with  spirit  and  effect  by  the  garrison  and 
a  part  of  Major  McMahon's  command  that  had  regained  the  post.  The  savages  were 
employed  during  the  night  (which  was  dark  and  foggy)  in  carrying  off  their  dead  bv 
torch  light,  which  occasionally  drew  a  fire  from  the  garrison.  They,  nevertheless,  suc- 
ceeded so  well  that  there  were  but  eight  or  ten  bodies  left  upon  the  field,  and  those  close 
under  the  range  of  the  guns  of  the  fort. 

The  enemy  again  renewed  the  attack  on  the  morning  of  the  ist  instant,  but  were 
ultimately  compelled  to  retreat  with  loss  and  disgrace  from  that  verv  field  where  thev 
had  upon  a  former  occasion  been  proudly  victorious. 

It  was  apparent  that  'there  were  a  considerable  number  ot  the 
British  and  the  militia  of  Detroit"^  mixed  with  the  savages  in  the 
assault'  and  they  expected  to  find  the  cannon  lost  bv  General  St. 
Clair:  but  these  had  been  found  by  the  /Vmericanst  who  used  them 
against  the  assailants.  The  American  loss  by  the  assault  on  Fort 
Recovery  was  twenty-two  killed,  thirty  wounded  and  three  missing. 
Of  the  horses  fifty-nine  were  killed,  twenty-two  wounded,  and  two 
hundred  and  twenty-one  were  missing:  but  the  General  reported  that 
their  loss  would  not  in  the  least  retard  the  advance  of  the  legion  after 
the  arrival  of  the  expected  mounted  volunteers  from  Kentuck\-. 

The  British  had,  also,  been  again  holding  communication  with  the 
Spanish  of  the  Mississippi  who  promised  to  help  them  against  the 
Americans:  and  MTvee  was  supplying  the  savages  with  the  best  of 
firearms  (rifles)  and  other  articles  of  war.  These  were  used  in  the 
attack  at  Fort  Recovery:  and  a  party  of  Delawares  and  Shawnees 
afterward  presented  six  American  scalps  before  M'Kee  and  addressed 
him  as  follows:  'We  had  two  actions  with  Wayne's  troops  in  which  a 
great  many  of  our  enemies  were  killed.  Part  of  their  flesh  we  have 
brought  here  with  us  to  convince  our  friend  of  the  truth  of  their  being 
now  in  great  force  on  their  march  against  us:  therefore.  Father,  we 
desire  you  to  be  strong  and  bid  your  children  make  haste  to  our  assist- 
ance as  was  promised  by  them."  + 

In  further  confirmation  of  the  reprehensible  action  of  the  British, 
and  their  fears  that  the  Americans  would  retaliate,  the  following  letters 
from  Colonel  Alexander  M'Kee  British  .\gent  to  these  Aborigines, 
written  to  Colonel  Richard  England  Commandant  at  Detroit,  are 
given,  they  being  endorsed  'On  His  Majesty's  Service'  viz:|| 

*  American  Stale  Papers,  .^borinine  Affairs  volume  i,  pates  4HH-K9. 

t  All  of  these  cannon,  but  one,  were  early  found  hidden  under  old  trees  and  debris.  Tlie 
missing  one  was  reported  by  a  Shawnee,  by  way  of  Little  Turtle,  to  Colonel  Hamtranick  9th  December. 
1795.  as  buried  at  the  confluence  of  the  water  courses  near  St.  Clair's  Battle  Field. 

i  M'Kee's  letters  7th.  8th,  25th  and  30th.  May.  1794.  in  Canadian  Archives.  See.  also,  letter  of 
Carondelet  9th  July,  1794,  in  the  Draper  Spanish  Documents  Madison,  Wisconsin.  Quoted  in  Roose- 
velt's The  Winning  of  the  West.  G.  P.  Putnam's  Sons,  1899,  volume  iv. 

II  National  Intelligencer,  Washington.  District  of  Columbia,  a6th  July,  1814. 


[Maumee]  Rapids.  July  5,  1794. 

Sir  :  I  send  this  by  a  party  of  Saganas  [Saginaw  Aborigines]  who  returned  yes- 
terday from  Fort  Recovery  where  the  whole  body  of  Aborigines,  except  the  Delawares 
who  had  gone  another  route,  imprudently  attacked  the  fort  on  Monday  the  30th  of  last 
month,  and  lost  Ki  or  17  men  besides  a  good  many  wounded. 

Everything  had  been  settled  prior  to  their  leaving  the  fallen  timber,  and  it  had 
been  agreed  upon  to  confine  themselves  to  taking  convoys  and  attacking  at  a  distance 
from  the  forts,  if  they  should  have  the  address  to  entice  the  enemy  [Americans]  out ; 
but  the  impetuosity  of  the  Mackinac  Aborigines  and  their  eagerness  to  begin  with  the 
nearest,  prevailed  with  the  others  to  alter  their  system,  the  consequences  of  which  from 
the  present  appearance  of  things  may  most  materially  injure  the  interests  of  these  people. 
Both  the  Mackina  and  Lake  Aborigines  seemed  resolved  on  going  home  again,  having 
completed  the  belts  they  carried  with  scalps  and  prisoners,  and  having  no  provisions 
there  at  the  Glaize  [the  present  Defiance]  to  subsist  upon,  so  that  His  Majesty's  posts 
will  derive  no  security  from  the  late  great  influx  of  Aborigines  into  this  part  of  the 
country,  should  they  persist  in  their  resolution  of  returning  so  soon. 

The  immediate  object  of  the  attack  was  three  hundred  pack  horses  going  from  this 
fort  [Recovery]  to  Fort  Greenville,  in  which  the  Aborigines  completely  succeeded,  taking 
and  killing  all  of  them.  But  the  commanding  officer.  Captain  Gibson,  sending  out  a 
troop  of  cavalry,  and  bringing  his  infantry  out  in  the  front  of  his  post,  the  Aborigines 
attacked  him  and  killed  about  fifty,  among  whom  is  Captain  Gibson  and  two  other 
officers.  On  the  near  approach  of  the  Aborigines  to  the  fort,  the  remains  of  his  gar- 
rison retired  into  it,  and  from  their  loopholes  killed  and  wounded  as  already  men- 
tioned. Captain  Elliott  writes  that  they  are  immediately  to  hold  a  council  at  the  Glaize 
[Auglaise  or  Grand  Glaise,  site  of  the  present  Defiance,  Ohio]  in  order  to  try  if  they  can 
prevail  upon  the  Lake  Aborigines  to  remain ;  but  without  provisions,  ammunition,  &c., 
being  sent  to  that  place,  I  conceive  it  will   be  extremely   difficult   to  keep  them  together. 

With  great  respect,  I  have  the  honor  to  be 

Your  obedient  and  humble  servant, 

A.   McKee. 

Another  letter  from  the  same  to  the  same  one  week  before  the 
Battle  of  Fallen  Timber,  reads  as  follows: 

[Maumee]  Rapids,  August  13.  1794. 

Sir  :  I  was  honored  last  night  with  your  letter  of  the  11th.  and  was  extremely  glad 
to  find  you  are  making  such  exertions  to  supply  the  Aborigines  with  provisions. 

Captain  Elliott  arrived  yesterday  ;   what   he   has  brought  will  greatly  relieve  us,  hav- 
ing been  obliged  yesterday  to  take  all  the  corn  and  flour  which   the  traders  had  here. 

A  scouting  party  from  the  Americans  carried  oft  a  man  and  a  woman  yesterday 
morning  between  this  place  and  Roche  de  Bout,  and  afterwards  attacked  a  small  party 
of  Delawares  in  their  camp:  but  they  were  repulsed  with  the  loss  of  a  man,  whom  they 
either  hid  or  threw  into  the  river.     They   killed  a  Delaware  woman.*       Scouts  are   sent 

*Captain  John  McDonald,  in  a  small  book  of  Biographical  Slietches  published  in  Cincinnati  in  1838, 
+:ives  the  following  account  of  the  doings  of  some  of  the  most  daring  men  of  those  savage  times  in  itiis 
Maumee  Basin  where  savagery  had  then  focused.  Captain  McDonald  was  a  member  of  Captain 
Ephraim  Kibby's  Company  of  Rangers  with  General  Wayne's  army  and  was  well  informed  regarding 
what  he  wiote.  Some  of  these  daring  acts  are  recounted  here  in  as  near  his  own  words  as 
space  will  admit,  as  the  best  possible  glimpses  of  Americans  who  met  savagery  in  its  lair  and  contributed 
largely  to  the  success  of  a  most  important  and  daring  military  campaign: 

Captain  William  Wells  commanded  an  effective  division  of  spies  with  General  Wayne's  army. 
Wells  was  captured  by  the  Miamis  when  about  twelve  years  of  age  and  grew  to  manhood  with  them  and 
could  speak  the  language  of  several  tribes.     He  left  <he  Aborigines  [  particulars  not  known  }  in  spring  of 


up   to  view  the  situation  of    the   army;   and    we    now    muster    1000    Aborigines.      All    the 
Lake  Aborigines    from  Sagina  downwards  should  not   lose   one   moment   in    joininti    their 
brethren,  as  every  accession  of  strength  is  an  addition  to  their  spirits. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  very  great  respect  sir. 

Your  most  obedient  and  very  humble  servant. 

A.   McKhe. 

1792,  or  about  eighteen  months  before  the  coming  of  General  Wayne,  and  returned  to  his  relatives  ( place 
not  given).  Attached  to  Wells's  command  in  General  Wayne's  army  were  Robert  M' Lei  Ian  [see  Irving  "s 
Astoria)  a  most  athletic  man;  Henry  Miller  who  had  also  been  a  captive  with  the  savages,  older  brother 

of  Christopher  Miller  who  vs-ill  be  mentioned  later;  also  Hickman  and  Thorp,  all  of  tried 

worth  in  warfare  again:^t  the  savages.  Wells  and  his  four  spies  soon  became  confidential  and  privileged 
gentlemen  in  camp,  who  were  only  called  upon  to  do  duty  on  very  particular  and  interesting  occasions. 
They  were  permitted  a  carte  blanche  among  the  horses  of  the  dragoons  and  when  on  duty  went  well 
mounted,  whilst  the  spies  commanded  by  Captain  Kibby  went  on  foot  and  were  kept  constantly  on  tlie 
alert,  scouring  the  country  in  every  direction. 

At  Greenville  General  Wayne  sent  out  Wells  and  his  spies  to  bring  in  a  prisoner.  They  proceeded 
to  the  Auglaise  River  where  they  soon  discovered  a  smoke.  They  dismounted,  tied  their  horses,  and 
proceeded  cautiously  to  reconnoiter.  They  found  three  Aborigines  camped  on  a  high,  open  space  of 
ground,  clear  of  brush  and  underwood  except  a  fallen  tree  extending  to  within  eighty  yards  of  the  fire 
where  the  Aborigines  were  cooking  their  meal.  It  was  decided  that  they  go  around  to  and  along  the 
tree  the  branches  of  which,  covered  with  leaves,  were  nearest  the  enemy.  Wells  and  Miller  were  to 
shoot  each  the  man  in  front  of  him,  leaving  the  central  one  to  be  caught  alive  by  M'Clellan.  Inmiedi- 
ately  after  the  discharge  of  tlie  guns  M'Clellan  sprang  after  his  man  who,  as  quickly,  started  to  run. 
Observing  that  his  pursuer  was  gaining  on  him  in  the  course  he  had  taken,  he  turned  to  the  bank  of  the 
Auglaise.  here  about  twenty  feet  high,  and  jumped  over  miring  in  the  soft  mud  at  the  bottom.  Without 
hesitation  M'Clellan  jumped  after,  also  miring.  Here  the  ready  knife  of  the  pursued  was  opposed  by 
the  uplifted  tomahawk  of  the  athletic  pursuer  at  whose  command  the  knife  was  surrendered.  Soon 
Captain  Wells  and  Miller  came  to  the  edge  of  the  bank  and.  seeing  their  friend  and  enemy  safe,  took 
time  to  descend  the  bank  at  a  less  precipitous  place.  They  dragged  the  captive  out  of  the  mud  and  tied 
him.  He  was  very  sulky,  refusing  to  speak  either  language.  One  went  for  the  horses  while  others 
washed  the  mud  and  paint  from  the  prisoner,  who  was  a  white  man.  Still  he  refused  to  give  any 
account  of  himself.  The  two  dead  Aborigines  were  scalped,  and  the  scouts  started  for  headquarters 
with  their  prisoner.  On  tlie  way  Henry  Miller  began  to  gather  the  idea  that  the  prisoner  was  his 
brother  Christopher  whom  he  was  obliged  to  leave  captive  with  the  Aborigines  several  years  before. 
With  this  impression  he  rode  alongside  him  and  called  him  by  the  name  given  by  his  Aborigine  captors. 
He  startled,  stared  around,  and  eagerly  inquired  how  he  came  to  know  his  name.  The  mysteries  were 
soon  explained — their  prisoner  was  indeed  Christopher  Miller.  He  was  at  first  very  reticent  when 
questioned  by  General  Wayne.  After  being  confined  for  some  time  as  a  prisoner,  with  the  army,  he 
gave  all  the  information  he  could  regarding  the  Aborigines,  agreed  to  forsake  his  savage  habits,  joined 
Captain  Wells'  scouts  and,  in  company  with  his  brother,  remained  faithful  to  the  Americans.  Early  in 
July  he  accompanied  the  scouts  to  the  Auglaise  River  where  they  captured  a  Pottawotami  chief  after 
he  had  discharged  his  gun  at  them  and  started  to  escape  by  running. 

On  another  adventure,  they  captured  a  canoe  load  of  Aborigines  on  the  River  St.  Mary,  who  were 
recognized  by  Wells  as  the  family  with  whom  he  had  lived  during  his  captivity.  They  were  kindly 
treated,  and  were  liberated  with  the  injunction  to  keep  away  from  the  route  of  the  army. 

After  General  Wayne's  arrival  at  the  point  where  he  built  Fort  Defiance,  he  started  Wells  and 
his  spies  down  the  Maumee  River  to  ascertain  the  position  and  condition  of  the  enemy.  They  started 
in  the  dress  and  paint  of  the  Aborigines  and,  when  near  the  British  Fort  Miami,  entered  an  .■\borieine 
village  and  talked  with  its  people  without  being  suspicioned.  Beyond  this  village  they  captured  a  man 
and  woman  (mentioned  above  in  one  of  M'Kee's  letters)  without  their  resisting,  and  started  on  their 
return  to  the  army.  A  little  after  dark  they  came  near  a  large  encampment  of  Aborigines  who  were 
merrily  passing  the  evening.  They  detoured  this  camp  and.  about  half  a  mile  above  it  along  the  river 
they  halted,  tied  and  gagged  their  captives,  and  riding  boldly  among  the  savages  plied  tliem  with 
questions  regarding  General  Wayne's  army  and  where  they  were  to  gather  to  resist  its  advance.  The 
savages  gathered  around  them  and  were  very  communicative  until  one,  somewhat  removed,  expressed 
the  belief  that  the  strangers  were  not  their  friends.  Wells  understood  the  remark  and,  giving  the 
signal,  each  rifle  in  his  company  was  fired  at  short  range,  each  killing  a  savage.  They  turned,  put  spurs 
to  their  horses  on  which  they  had  remained  seated,  picked  up  their  prisoners,  and  hoped  to  escape 
injury  by  lying  close  to  their  horses.  They  were  pursued,  fired  upon,  and  two  were  wounded —  Wells 
through  the  bone  of  the  arm  carrying  his  rifle  which  dropped  to  the  ground,  and  a  bullet  passed  under 
M'Clellan's  shoulder  blade,  coming  out  at  the  top  of  the  shoulder.  They  were  about  thirty  miles  from 
the  mouth  of   the  Auglaise  where  the  army  was   building   Fort   Defiance,  and  one  of   the   parly  rode  for- 



The  testimony  of  savages  of  different  trilies  \'ct  lurttier  confirm  ttie 
influence  of  ttie  Britisfi  in  promoting  tfie  war,  even  after  most  of  tfie 
tribes  desired  peace  witli  tlie  Americans.  ' 

Major  Generaf  Cfiarfes  Scott  witli  aliout  sixteen   fiundred  volunteer 

cavalymen  from  Ken- 
tucky wlio  liad  tieen 
sent  tiome  for  ttie 
winter,  rejoined  the 
armv,  then  number- 
ing possibly  two 
thousand  soldiers,  at 
Greenville,  Ohio, 
llfith  July,  1794:  and 
the  next  da\'  General 
Wayne  ordered  the 
general  a  d  va  n  c  e 
movement  for  the 

This  was  to  be  a 
most  momentous 
campaign.  If  this, 
the  third  army  be 
defeated,  the  country 
west  and  southwest 
of  the  Allegheny 
Mountains  would, 
evidently,  thence- 
forth be  completely 
dominated  by  the 
British,  and  completely  lost  to  the  Americans.  On  account  of  its 
supreme  importance,  the  ability  and  signal  success  with  which  it  was 
conducted  by  General  Wayne,  and  the  original    records   being    the  only 


Born  in  Easttown,  Chester  County,  Pennsylvania,  Isl  Jaiuiary,  1745, 
Died  at  Erie,  Pa.,  l.'ith  December,  17%. 

ward  at  full  speed  for  help.     Upon  his  arrival  at  camp  'General  Wayne  at  once  dispatched  a  surgeon 
and  a  company  of  his  swiftest  dragoons,  who  brought  the  wounded,  and  the  prisoners  safely  to  camp.' 

In  regard  to  plainling,  bravery,  and  daring,  American  scouts  far  excelled  the  savages.  William 
Wells  remained  a  valuable  scout  and  interpreter.  He  married  a  sister  of  the  noted  Miami  chief  Little 
Turtle,  and  exerted  a  great  influence  over  that  chief  and  his  tribe  favorable  to  the  Americans.  A  large 
tract  of  land  at  Fort  Wayne  was  given  to  him  (see  Map,  page  97)  and  there  he  afterward  lived,  and  there 
Little  Turtle  died  14  July,  1812.  Spy  Run  in  this  reservation  was  named  from  Wells.  He  was  killed  by 
western  savages  at  the  evacuation  of  Fort  Dearborn,  Chicago,  15th  August,  1812. 

*  At  this  time  every  exertion  was  being  made  Iby  the  British]  to  aid  the  Aborigines:  and  on  August 
18,  17&4,  Governor  Simcoe  wrote  to  Lord  Dorchester  that  he  would  '  go  to  Detroit  with  all  the  force  he 
could  muster.'  He  was  too  late,  however,  for  on  August  20th  General  Wayne  defeated  the  combined 
forces  near  their  own  fort  —  History  of  Detroit,  by  Silas  Farmer,  volume  i.  See  also  testimony  of  Pot- 
tawotamis,  Shawnees  and  others  before  General  Wayne  in  June,  1794.  American  State  Papers,  Aborigine 
Aifairs  volume  i,  pages  489,  490. 


authentic  account  of   it  and   they   being   long  out   of    print,  the  writer 
decides  to  reproduce  them  in  full,  beginning  with  the 

Diary  of  General  Wayne's  Campaign,   by   Lieutenant  Boyer* 

Fort  Greenville,  where  we  were  employed  in  erecting  huts,  and  remained  until  the 
28th  July,  1794. 

Camp  at  Stillwater. t  28th  July.  171)4.  Agreeable  to  the  general  order  of  yesterday, 
the  legion  took  up  their  line  of  march  at  eight  o'clock,  and  encamped  at  half  past  three 
on  the  bank  of  Stillwater,  twelve  miles  from  Greenville.  The  w'eather  extremely  warm 
—  water   very   bad.     Nothing  occurred  worth  noticing. 

Camp  one  mile  in  advance  of  Fort  Recovery  'iilth  July,  17'.)4.  At  five  o'clock  left 
the  camp  —  arrived  on  this  ground  at  one  o'clock,  being  fifteen  miles.  Nothing  took 
place  worth  reciting.  ' 

I  am  now  informed  that  tracks  were  percei\'ed  on  our  right  flank,  supposed  to  be 
runners  from  the  Oglaize.J 

Camp  Bea\er  Swamp,  eleven  miles  in  advance  of  Fort  Recovery,  IHHh  July,  1794. 
This  morning  the  legion  took  up  the  line  of  march,  and  arrived  here  at  three  o'clock. 
The  road  was   to  cut,  as  will   be   the  case  on   every   new   route   we   take  in  this  country. 

The  weather  still  warm  no  water  except  in  ponds,  which  nothing  but  excessi\-e 
thirst  would  induce  us  to  drink.      The  mosfpiitoes  are  verv  troublesome,  and    larger   than 

Site  of  the  Fort  Adams  bviilt  b.v  General  Wayne.     In  the  N,  E.  '•*  of    Section  24.  Dublin  Township. 
Mercer  County.  Ohio.     Lookint:  northward  across  the  River  St.  Mary,  m  the  rain     29lh  .\pril.  iyti:i. 

*  The  American  Pioneer  volume  i,  pages  315,  35!  et  sequentia. 

I  Stillwater  Creek,  a  tributary  of  the  Miami  River. 

4  Spies  from  the  Auglaise  River  down  which  the  army  was  to  pass. 



I  ever  saw.  The  most  of  this  country  is  covered  with  beech,  the  land  of  a  wet  soil  inter- 
mixed with  rich  tracts,  but  no  running  water  to  be  found.  A  bridge  to  be  built  over  this 
swamp  to  morrow,  which  prevents  the  march  of  the  legion  till  the  day  after.  We  are 
informed  there  is  no  water  for  twelve  miles. 

July  'list,  1(!U.  Commenced  building  the  bridge,  being  seventy  yards  in  length, 
which  will  require  infinite  labor ;   it  will  be  five  feet  deep,  with  loose  mud  and  water. 

One  hundred  pioneers  set  out  this  morning,  strongly  escorted,  to  cut  a  road  to  the 
St,  Mary  River,  twelve  miles.  I  expect  the  bridge  will  be  completed  so  as  to  march 
early  in  the  morning. 

Camp  St.  Mary  River,  1st  August,  17iJ4.  Proceeded  on  our  way  before  sunrise, 
and  arrived  at  this  jjlace  at  three  o'clock,  being  twelve  miles  as  aforesaid.  Our  encamp- 
ment is  on  the  largest  and  most  beautiful  prairie  I  ever  beheld,  the  land  rich  and  well 
timliered ;  the  water  plenty  but  very  bad  —  the  river  is  from  forty-five  to  fifty  yards 
wide,  in  which  I   bathed.      I  am  told  there  is  plenty  of  fish  in  it. 

.August  "ind,  1794.  The  legion  detained  here  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  a  garrison 
[fort]*  which  will  take  up  three  days.  This  day  one  of  the  deputy  quartermasters  was 
taken  up  by  the  Aborigines,  t  Our  spies  discovered  where  four  of  the  enemy  had  re- 
treated precipitately  with  a  horse,  and  supposed  to  be  the  party  the  above  person  had 
been  taken  by.      ft  is  hoped  he  will  not  give  accurate  information  of  our  strength. 

August  .'ird,  r7i)4.  An  accident  took  place  this  day  by  a  tree  falling  on  the  Com- 
mander-in-Chief [General  Wayne]  and  nearly  putting  an  end  to  his  existence ;  we 
expected  to  be  detained  here  some  time  in  consequence  of  it,  but  fortunately  he  is  not 
so  much  hurt  as  to  prevent  him  from  riding  at  a  slow  pace.  No  appearance  of  the 
enemy  to-day,  and  think  they  are  preparing  for  a  warm  attack.  The  weather  very  hot 
and  dry,  without  any  appearance  of  rain. 

Camp  Thirty-one  miles  in  advance 
of  Fort  Recovery,  4th  August,  1794. 
The  aforesaid  garrison  [fort]  being  com- 
pleted, Lieutenant  Underbill  with  one 
hundred  men  left  to  protect  it ;  depart- 
ed at  six  o'clock  and  arrived  here  at 
three  o'clock,  being  ten  miles.  The 
land  we  marched  through  is  rich  and 
well  timbered,  but  the  water  scarce  and 
bad  ;  obliged  to  dig  holes  in  boggy  pla- 
ces and  let  it  .settle. 

Camp  Forty-four  miles  in  advance 
of  Fort   Recovery,   0th    August,    1794.  J 
We  arrived  at  this  place  at  four  o'clock, 
nothing  particular  occurring.     The  land 
and    water    as    above    described — had 
some  rain  to-day. 
Camp  Fifty-six  miles  from    Fort   Recovery,    Hth   August,    1794.     Encamped  on  this 
ground  at  two  o'clock.      In  the  course  of  our  march  perceived  the  track  of  twenty  Abori- 
gines.    I  am  informed  we  are  within  six  miles  of  one  of  their  towns  on  the   Oglaize  river 

Ground  plan  of  Fort  Adams  established  by  General 
Wa.vne  3rd  AuRust,  1794.  Abandoned  by  its  carrison 
of  .^  United  States  Troops  in  the  early  summer  of 
1796-  From  the  American  Pioneer. 

'  Fort  Adams,  located  on  the  south  (left)  bank  of  the  St.  Mary  River,  three  and  three-fourths  miles 
np  stream  (eastward!  from  the  present  Rockford,  Mercer  County,  Ohio,  formerly  known  as  Shane's 
Crossinc  for  many  years, 

I  This  man  deserted.     See  General  Wayne's  letter  on  subsequent  pace 

Z  Near  the  present  villafie  of  Fort  Jennincs,  Putnam  County,  Ohio. 



supposed  to  be  the  upper  Delaware  town.*  If  so.  I  expect  to  eat  green  .corn  to-morrow. 
Our  march  this  day  has  been  through  an  e.\ceeding  fine  country,  but  the  water  still  bad ; 
the  day  cooler  than  heretofore. 

Camp  sixty-eight  miles  from  Fort  Recovery,!  7th  .-August,  1704.  This  day  passed 
the  upper  town  on  the  Oglaize  [Auglaise  River]  which  the  Aborigines  evacuated 
some  time  ago.  I  expect  to  see  one  of  their  new  towns,  where  I  am  told  there  are  all 
sorts  of  vegetables,  which  will  be  very  acceptable  to  the  troops.  We  have  had  no 
appearance  of  Aborigines  today. 

LONinTVDt     \^      FROM    WASHINGTON 






Defiance       iCovyNTr 

Noble  Tow\N5hipi 








1  ftOiflp  ^J 






D-.-Vg  is  t  — 

0*0  w 










Township    L 
'Itefidnce   City   Limits 

z     A  Five  prehistoric  Bvial  Mounds 

5      B  Thrci  Later  Aboriqimdl  Burial  Places 

S      cTTviz  Aboriijinal  Com  yields 

5      D  Five  Appk  Orchards  pidt?ted  bu  The  Early  French 

\      ETwo  5V7dwr7ee  VilldOes  in  ]79Z 

u)     F  Nirje  Earlier  and  Later  flboriijmalVilldOeOTJGirtjpinij  Sif^s 

a     OAborirtmdl  Council  Oak  ,CvT  Pown  About  I8fe5 

GGeneral  Wdyr7e'5f6r"t  Befidrpce   I79A  Au^ustSth 
Nol  NoZ.NoJ,  H  J  Gen  WincWesterstive  Cdmpmij)  5ite5 18IZ 

K  General  Winchesters  Abdtis    181 Z 

L  fort  WinchesTir.  leiZ 

Ga-Enca'r)pinenT&ei7WaYr7e'5  Arwy  Aucj  2?  te5eptl3.  1754 

M  "Buridl  Ground  of  Soldiers 

N  frcstorz     Islarjd 

P    Bloddett      Island  [blown  down  in   1887 

^  Hie  Larjcsf  and  most  T^inous  Appl«  Tree  onT^ecorJ   Was 


84*     24' 

of  most  interest  at  Defiance,  Ohio.  A  Field  Assistant  in  the  I'nited  States  Coast  and  Geodetic 
Survey  contirmed  the  Author's  computation  of  Latitude  and  Longitude  as  here  recorded.  He  also  set 
a  stone  about  forty  rods  northeast  of  the  main  building  of  Dehance  College  near  the  north  limit  of  the 
City,  and  there  computed  the  earth's  magnetism  July  21.  1903.  as  follows:  Intensity.  .1869  dynes; 
Dip.  72°  3'=';   Declination.  20'  west. 

Camp  Grand  Oglaize,  +  8th  August,  Kill.  Proceeded  on  our  march  to  this  place  at 
five  o'clock  this  morning,  and  arrived  here  at  the  confluence  of  the  Miami  [Maumee] 
and    Oglaize    [Auglaise]    rivers   at   half  past    ten,  being  seventy-seven  miles   from    Fort 

*  Site  of  the  present  village  of  Charloe,  Paulding  County,  Ohio. 

t  Near  mouth  of  Crooked  (Flat  Rock)  Creek.  Paulding  County.  Ohio. 

t  Junction  of  the  Auglaise  River  with  the  Maumee.  site  of  the  present  City  of  Defiance.  Ohit 


Recovery.  This  place  far  excels  in  beauty  any  in  the  western  country,  and  believed 
equalled  by  none  in  the  Atlantic  States.  Here  are  vegetables  of  every  kind  in  abun- 
dance, and  we  have  marched  four  or  five  miles  in  corn  fields  down  the  Oglaize 
[Auglaise]  and  there  are  not  less  than  one  thousand  acres  of  corn  [Zea.  mays]  round 
the  town.*     The  land  in  general  of  the  fir  nature.! 

This  country  appears  well  adapted  for  the  enjoyment  of  industrious  people,  who 
cannot  avoid  living  in  as  great  luxury  as  in  any  other  place  throughout  the  states.  Nature 
having  lent  a  most  bountiful  hand  in  the  arrangement  of  the  position,  that  a  man  can 
send  the  produce  to  market  in  his  own  boat.  The  land  level  and  river  navigable,  not 
more  than  sixty  miles  from  the  lake  [Erie]. 

The  British  have  built  a  large  garrison  [fort]  about  fifty  miles  from  this  place,  and 
our  spies  inform  us  that  the  enemy  are  encamped  about  two  miles  above  it  by  the  river. 

Grand  Oglaize.  !)th  August,  1794.  We  remain  here.  The  Commander-in-Chief 
has  ordered  a  garrison  [Fort  Defiance]  to  be  erected  at  the  confluence  of  the  Miami 
[Maumee]  and  Oglaize  [Auglaise]  rivers,  which  was  begun  this  morning,  and  will  take 
up  some  time;  by  this  means  the  troops  will  be  much  refreshed,  as  well  as  the  horses 
and  cattle,  the  latter  being  much  wearied  and  in  need  of  a  recess  of  labor.  No  appear- 
ance of  an  enemy. 

Grand  Oglaize  [Defiance]  10th  August,  171(4.  The  troops  in  good  spirits.  No 
interruption  from,  or  account  of,  the  enemy.  We  have  plenty  of  vegetables.  One  of 
our  militia  officers  was  wounded  by  his  own  sentinel  by  mistake. 

Grand  Oglaize,  11th  August,  1794.  Nothing  occurs  to  prevent  the  completion  of  our 
work.  J 

Whatever  diary  was  written  by  Lieutenant  Boyer  for  the  dates  of 
l'2th  to  15th  August  inclusive,  styled  'a  few  leaves'  by  John  S.  Wil- 
liams editor  of  The  American  Pioneer,  was  lost  previous  to  September, 
1^42.      The  preserved  dates  continue  as  follows: 

[August  1.1,  1794.]      Took   up  the  line  of   march    [from  Fort  Defiance]  and 

*  The  British  should  be  largely  credited  for  tliis  agricultural  thrift  on  account  of  their  encourape- 
nient  of  it;  but  the  Aborigine  women  did  the  work  of  planting  and  cultivating. 

t  This  expression  was  due  to  the  Red  Cedar  trees  [Junlperous  Virginiana.  L.)  seen  along  the 
rivers.     Fir  trees  proper  have  not  been  found  indigenous  alone  the  Maumee  and  Auglaise  Rivers. 

?The  11th  August,  1794,  William  Wells,  one  of  General  Wayne's  scouts,  took  a  Shawnee  prisoner 
near  the  foot  of  the  lowest  Maumee  Rapids  and,  upon  examination  by  General  Wayne  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Auglaise  River  he  testified  as  follows  : 

(Juestion— When  did  the  Aborigines  receive  information  of  the  advance  of  the  army  ?  Answer — 
The  first  information  was  from  a  white  man  who  came  in  of  his  own  accord  about  ten  days  since. 
Q. — Where  are  the  Aborigines  at  this  time  ?  A.^At  Colonel  McKee's.  Q.— Where  are  the  British  and 
what  are  their  numbers  ?  A  — In  a  fort  about  one  mile  below  Colonel  McKee's,  on  the  north  side  of  the 
river,  situate  on  a  hill  or  bank  close  by  the  margin  where  are  about  300  men.  They  are  now  at  work  at 
the  fort.  Q. — What  number  of  guns  have  they  in  the  fort  ?  A. — Four  or  five.  C'-~^What  number  of 
warriors  are  at  McKee's  and  what  nations  do  they  belong  to  ?  A.^-There  are  six  hundred,  who  aban- 
doned this  place  lat  the  niouth  of  the  Auglaise  Riverl  on  the  approach  of  the  army ;  Shawnese  about  200. 
but  no  more;  Delawares,  about  300;  Miamis.  about  100;  and  warriors  of  other  tribes,  about  100.  Q. — 
What  number  are  expected  to  assemble,  in  addition  to  those  now  at  the  foot  of  the  Rapids  ?  A.— In  all 
about  400  men;  Wyandots.  300,  and  Tawas  [Ottawas]  about  240.  A. — What  number  of  white  men  are  to 
join,  and  when  ?  A. — Mr.  or  Captain  Elliott  set  out  for  Detroit  six  days  since  and  was  to  be  back  yester- 
day with  all  the  militia,  and  an  additional  number  of  regular  troops,  which  with  those  already  there 
would  amount  to  1000  men.  This  is  the  general  conversation  among  the  Aborigines,  and  Captain  Elliott 
promised  to  bring  that  number.  Colonel  McKee's  son  went  with  Elliott,  as  also  the  man  who  deserted 
from  this  army  on  its  march.  <J. — When  and  where  do  the  Aborigines  mean  to  fight  this  army  ?  A.^At 
tlie  foot  of  the  rapids.  The  white  man  who  came  in.  told  the  Aborigines  and  Colonel  McKee  that  the 
-army  was  destined  for  that  place. 


at  one  arrived  on  this  ground  without  any  occurrence.  Our  camp  is  situated  in  sight  of 
Snaketown*  by  the  Miami  of  the  Lake  [Maumee  River].      Vegetables  in  abundance. 

Camp  Nineteen  miles  from  Oglaize,  Kith  August,  li!U.i'  Our  march  this  day  was 
through  a  bushy  ground,  and  the  road  generally  bad.  Miller  (the  flag)t  returned 
this  day  from  the  enemy  with  information  from  the  tribes,  that  if  the  Commander-in- 
chief  would  remain  at  Grand  Oglaize  ten  days  they  would  let  him  know  whether  they 
would  be  for  peace  or  war. 

Camp  Thirty-one  miles  from  Camp  Oglaize||  17th  August.  1794.  This  day  a  small 
party  of  the  enemy  s  spies  fell  in  with  ours ;  both  parties  being  for  discoveries,  they 
retreated,  at  which  time  the  enemy  fired  and  wounded  one  of  our  horses.  Our 
camp,  head  of  the  Rapids. 

Camp  Forty-one  miles  from  Grand  Ogteize  [at  Roche  de  Bout]  18th  August,  1794. 
The  legion  arrived  on  this  ground,  nothing  particular  taking  place.  Five  of  our 
spies  were  sent  out  at  three  o'clock  —  they  fell  in  with  an  advanced  body  of  the  enemy, 
and  obliged  to  retreat ;  but  May,  one  of  our  spies,  fell  under  the  enemy's  hold.  What 
his  fate  may  be  must  be  left  to  future  success.^ 

Camp  Deposit^  19th  August,  1794.  The  legion  still  continued  in  encampment,  and 
are  throwing  up  works  to  secure  and  deposit  the  heavy  baggage  of  the  troops,  so  that 
the  men  may  be  light  for  action,  provided  the  enemy  have  presumption  to  favor  us 
with  an  interview,  which  if  they  should  think  proper  to  do,  the  troops  are  in  such  high 
spirits  that  we  will  make  an  easy  victory  of  them. 

By  this  morning's  order,  the  legion  is  to  march  at  five  o'clock. 

Camp  in  sight  of  a  British  garrison  on  the  Miamis  of  the  Lake,**  August  20,  1794. 
One  hundred  and  fifty  miles  from  Greenville.  This  day  the  legion,  after  depositing 
every  kind  of  baggage,  took  up  the  line  of  march  at  7  o'clock  and  continued  their  route 
down  the  margin  of  the  river  without  making  any  discovery  until  eleven  o'clock, 
when  the  front  guard,  which  was  composed  of  mounted  volunteers,  were  fired  on  by 
the  enemy.  The  guard  retreated  in  the  utmost  confusion  through  the  front  guard  of 
the  regulars,  commanded  by  Captain  Cook  and  Lieutenant  Steele,  who,  in  spite  of 
their  utmost  exertion,  made  a  retreat.  These  fell  in  with  the  left  of  Captain  Howell 
Lewis'  company  of  light  infantry  and  threw  that  part  of  the  men  into  confusion, 
which   Captain    Lewis  observing,   he    ordered   the    left    of   his  company    to    retreat  about 

*  On  the  site  of  the  present  Florida,  Henry  County,  Ohio. 

t  About  the  site  of  the  present  Napoleon,  Henry  County,  Ohio. 

t  Christopher  Miller,  see  ante  page  187,  sent  with  a  (white)  flag  of  truce  to  offer  peace  to  the 
Aborigines.     Compare  General  Wayne's  report  on  subsequent  pace. 

11  At  the  head  of  the  Grand  Rapids  of  the  Maumee  River. 

^  The  story  of  William  May's  capture  and  of  his  fate,  is  thus  told  by  John  Brickell  who  saw  May  at 
the  time  when  he  (BrickelU  was  then  a  young  captive,  viz  :  Two  or  three  days  after  we  arrived  at  the 
[lower  Maumee!  Rapids,  Wayne's  spies  canie  right  into  camp  among  us.  I  afterwards  saw  the  survivors. 
Their  names  were  Wells.  Miller,  McClelland,  May,  Mahatty.  and  one  other  whose  name  I  forgot.  They 
came  into  camp  boldly  and  fired  on  the  Aborigines.  Miller  was  wounded  in  the  shoulder.  May  was 
chased  by  the  Aborigines  to  the  smooth  rock  in  the  bed  of  the  river,  where  his  horse  fell,  and  he  was 
taken  prisoner.  The  others  escaped.  They  took  May  to  camp  where  they  recognized  him  as  having 
been  a  captive  among  them,  and  having  escaped  [see  ante  page  1781.  They  said:  We  know  you;  you 
speak  Aborigine  language;  you  not  content  to  live  with  us;  to-morrow  we  take  you  to  that  tree  [pointing 
to  a  very  large  oak  at  the  edge  of  the  clearing  which  was  near  the  British  fortl  we  will  tie  you  fast,  and 
make  a  mark  on  your  breast,  and  we  will  see  which  one  of  us  can  shoot  nearest  it.  It  so  turned  out. 
The  next  day.  the  day  before  the  battle  [of  Fallen  Timber!  they  riddled  his  body  with  bullets,  shooting 
at  least  hfty  into  him— The  American  Pioneer  vol.  i,  page  ,r2. 

^  At  Roche  de  Bout.     See  engraving,  and  Chapter  on  the  Maumee  River. 

*  '  Fort  Miami  on  the  left  (  north )  bank  of  the  Maumee  River  near  the  lower  side  of  the  corporate 
limits  of  the  present  Village  of  Maumee,  Lucas  County,  Ohio,     See  Map  of  lower  Maumee  River, 



forty  yards,  where  he  formed  them  and  joined  the  right  which  had  stood  their 
ground.  They  continued  in  this  position  until  they  were  joined  by  part  of  Captain 
Springer's  battalion  of  riflemen,  which  was  nearly  fifteen  minutes  after  the  firing 
commenced,  who  drove  the  enemy  that  had  attempted  to  flank  us  on  the  right 
[probably  at  the  site  of  Turkeyfoot  Rock].  Nearly  at  the  same  time,  the  right 
column  came  up,  and  the  charge  was  sounded  -the  enemy  gave  way  and  fired  scattering 
shots  as  they  run  ofl. 

About  the  time  the  right  column  came  up,  a  heavy  firing  took  place  on  the 
left,  which  lasted  but  a  short  time,  the  enemy  giving  way  in  all  quarters,  which  left  us 
in  possession  of  their  dead  to  the  number  of  forty.  Our  loss  was  thirty  killed  and  one 
hundred  wounded.  .\mong  the  former  we  have  to  lament  the  loss  of  Captain  Miss 
Campbell  of  the  dragoons,  and  Lieutenant  Henry  B.  Fowles  of  the  4th  sub-legion; 
and  of  the  latter.  Captains  Prior  of  the  first,  Slough  of  the  fourth,  and  Van 
Rensselaer  of  the  dragoons,  also  Lieutenant  Campbell  Smith  of  the  fourth  sub- 
legion.  The  whole  of  the  enemy  cannot  at  present  be  ascertained,  but  it  is  more 
than  probable  it  must  have  been  considerable,  for  we  pursued  them  with  rapidity 
for  nearly  two  miles. 

:\i.\imi;k  kivkk  .\.\ij  mi.\.mi  a'sd  krie 

Lookiiii^  iiuitlieast  down  the  livei"  .April  i."i,  I'.hM.  Roche  de  Bout  (point  of  ronk)  is  seen  in  the  livef 
one-half  mile  distant.  Above  the  ledjie  of  rock  on  the  left  shore  General  Wa.vne  bnilt  his  Fort  Deposit 
within  his  encampment,  before  the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timber,  the  place  of  whicli  is  about  three  miles 
down  llie  river.  In  the  left  distance  is  a  larye  crusher  of  stone  for  road  macadamizing:  and  to  the 
right  of  it  are  several  derricks  of  a  newly  developed  petroleum  field  in  the  ancient  deserted  channel  of 
the  Maumee,     In  Lucas  County,  Ohio. 

As  to  the  number  of  the  enemy  engaged  in  this  action,  opinions  are  so  various 
that  1  am  at  a  loss  to  know  what  to  say  ;  the  most  general  opinion  is  one  thousand 
fi\'e  hundred,  one-third  of  which  are  supposed  to  be;-i  I  am  led  to  believe 
this  number  is  not  over  the  mark.  .\fter  the  troops  had  taken  some  refreshment, 
the  legion  continued  their  route  down  the  river,  and  encamped  in  sight  of  the  British 
garrison.  One  Canadian  [Antoine  Lasselle]  fell  into  our  hands,  whom  we  loaded 
with   irons. 

Camp  Foot  of  the  Rapids  21st  August,  \T.H.  We  are  now  lying  within  half  a 
mile  of  a  British  garrison  [Fort  Miami].  A  flag  came  to  the  Commander-in-chief, 
the  purport  of  which  was  that  he,  the  commanding  officer  of  the  British  fort,  was 
surprised  to  see  an  American  army  so  far  advanced  in  this  country ;  and  why  they 
had  the  assurance  to  encamp  under  the  mouths  of  his  Majesty's  cannons!  The 
Commander-in-chief    answered,    that    the    aflair   of   yesterday   might   well    inform    him 


why  this  army  was  encamped  in  its  present  position,  and  had  the  fleeing  savages 
taken  shelter  under  the  walls  of  the  fort,  his  Majesty's  cannons  should  not  have  pro- 
tected them. 

Camp  Foot  of  the  Rapids  22d  August,  1794.  We  have  destroyed  all  the 
property  within  one  hundred  yards  of  the  British  garrison.  The  volunteers  were 
sent  down  eight  miles  below  the  fort,  and  have  destroyed  and  burnt  all  the  pos- 
sessions belonging  to  the  Canadians  and  savages.  The  Commander-in-chief  led 
his  light  infantry  within  pistol  shot  of  the  garrison  to  find  out  the  strength 
and  situation  of  the  place,  and  in  hopes  of  bringing  a  shot  from  our  inveterate  but  silent 
enemies.  They  were  too  cowardly  to  come  up  to  our  expectations,  and  all  we  got  by  in- 
sulting the  colors  of  Britain  was  a  flag,  the  amount  of  which  was,  that  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  fort  felt  himself  as  a  soldier  much  injured  by  seeing  His  Majesty's  colors 
insulted,  and  if  such  conduct  was  continued  he  would  be  under  the  necessity  of  making  a 
proper  resentment ;  upon  which  the  Commander-in-chief  demanded  the  post,  it  being  the 
right  of  the  United  States,  which  was  refused.  A  small  party  of  dragoons  were  sent  over 
the  ri\'er  to  burn  and  destrov  all  the  houses,  corn  t*cc..  that  were  under  cover  of  the  fort, 
which  was  effected. 

Ancient   River   Channel   in  lore   and   middle   ijround        Presrjue    Isle,   where   the   battle   began, 
obscures  the  Mauniee  River  on  the  Riyht.     Lookini;  Eastward  April  1.5,  19(12. 

Camp  Deposit  2;!d  August,  K'.U.  Having  burned  and  destroyed  everything  con- 
tiguous to  the  fort  [British  Fort  Miami]  without  any  opposition,  the  legion  took  up 
the  line  of  march,  and  in  the  evening  encamped  on  this  ground,  being  the  same  they 
marched  from  the  20th.  It  may  be  proper  to  remark  that  we  have  heard  nothing  from 
the  savages,  or  their  allies  the  Canadians,  since  the  action.  The  honors  of  war  have  been 
paid  to  the  remains  of  those  brave  fellows  who  fell  on  the  20th,  by  a  discharge  of  three 
rounds  from  sixteen  pieces  of  ordnance,  charged  with  shells.  The  ceremony  was  per- 
formed with  the  greatest  solemnity. 

Camp  Ihirty-two  Mile  Tree"  24th  August,  17!t4.  The  wounded  being  well  pro- 
vided for  with  carriages,  &c..  the  legion  took  up  the  line  of  march,  and  halted  in  their 
old  camp  about  two  o'clock  in  the  evening  without  any  accident.  In  this  day's  march  we 
destroyed  all  the  corn  and  burnt  all  the  houses  we  met  with,  which  were  very  considerable. 

Camp  Fifteen  Mile  Treef  2.")th  August,  1794.  The  legion  continued  their  march, 
and  encamped  on  this  ground  at  three  o'clock  P.  M.     This  morning  a  few  of  the  volun- 

*  Council  Ehn  at  the  Grand  Rapids  of  the  Mamnee.  about  thirty-two  miles  below  Defiance.  Ohio. 
1  At  or  a  little  above  the  present  Village  of  Napoleon.  Henry  County.  Ohio. 



teers  remained  in  the  rear  of  the  army,  and  soon  after  the  legion  took  up  their  line  of 
march  they  saw  eight  Aborigines  coming  into  our  camp;  they  fell  in  with  them,  killed 
one  and  wounded  two. 


Looking!  south  November  13,  1903.  up  the  Mauinee  River  seen  on  the  left.  Presque  Isle  in  cen- 
tral distance.  Ancient  deserted  Channel  of  the  Mauniee  on  the  ri^rht.  Maumee  Valley  Electric  Railway, 
built  in   1901,  on  the  left. 

General  Wayne  beean  the  Battle  on  Presiju'  ile,  and  the  Aborigines  were  rapidly  driven  to  the 
lower  lands,  and  down  the  river.  On  the  right  side  of  the  public  road  at  the  foot  of  Presqu'  ile  is  situated 
Turkeyfoot  Rock,  a  fair  size  Corniferous  Limestone  boulder,  by  which,  tradition  says.  Chief  Turkey- 
foot  was  killed  while  trying  to  rally  the  retreating  Aborigines,  see  ante  page  194. 

This  place  was  surveyed,  in  common  with  the  other  historic  places  along  the  Mauniee  River,  in 
188S  by  O.  M.  Poe,  Colonel  of  Engineers  and  Brevet  Brigadier  General  United  States  Army,  who  reported 
favorably  to  the  purchase  hereof  twelve  and  one-third  acres  of  land,  mostly  on  Presqu"  ile  and  west  of  it, 
and  the  erection  of  a  monument,  all  at  a  cost  of  about  $17,000.  But  Congress  has  not  made  any  appropri- 
ation for  this  purpose. 

The  surveys  of  these  historic  places  were  the  result  of  the  work  of  The  Maumee  Valley  Monument 
Association,  which  was  incorporated  28  July.  1885  ;  and  which  was  succeeded  in  1899  by  the  Maumee 
Valley  Pioneer  and  Historical  Association.  In  the  summer  of  1903  this  Association  acquired  title  to  a 
small  portion  of  land  around  Turkeyfoot  Rock  which  is  now  established  on  a  permanent  foundation.  It 
is  the  desire  of  this  Association  to  acquire  title  to  this  Battle  Field,  and  to  care  for  it. 

Camp  Nine  Mile  Tree*  2(>th  August.  171)4.  The  legion  continued  their  march,  and 
after  burning  and  destroying  all  the  houses  and  corn  on  their  route,  arrived  on  this 
ground  at  two  o'clock,  being  one  of  our  encamping  places  when  on  our  advance. 

*.lust  above  the  present  Florida.  Henry  County.  Ohio,  nine  miles  below  Detiance. 





_,t^/P\  /try 

IS  ; 




All  the  wounded  that   were  carried  on  litters  and  horseback  were  sent  forward  to 

Fort  Defiance.  Doctor  Carmichael 
through  neglect  had  the  wounded  men 
of  the  artillery  and  cavalry  thrown  into 
wagons,  among  spades,  axes,  picks,  dfec, 
in  consequence  of  which  the  wounded 
are  now  lying  in  extreme  pain,  besides 
the  frequent  shocks  of  a  wagon  on  the 
worst  of  roads.  The  wounded  of  the 
third  sub-legion  are  under  obligations 
to  Doctor  Haywood  for  his  attention 
and  humanity  to  them  in  their  distress. 

Camp  Fort  Defiance  2~th  August, 
ITIM.  The  legion  continued  their  route, 
and  at  three  o'clock  were  encamped  on 
the  Miami  [Maumee  River,  right  bank, 
a  little  below  the  mouth  of  the  Tiffin] 
one  mile  above  the  garrison  [Fort  De- 
fiance], On  this  day's  march  we  de- 
stroyed all  the  corn  and  burnt  all  the 
houses  on  our  route.  The  wounded 
are  happily  fixed  in  the  garrison,  and 
the  doctors  say  there  is  no  great  danger 
of  any  of  them  dying. 

Fort  Defiance  2Sth  August,  17S(4. 
The  Commander  -  in  -  Chief  thinks  pro- 
per to  continue  on  this  ground  for 
some  time,  to  refresh  the  troops  and 
send  for  supplies.  There  is  corn, 
beans,  pumpkins,  &c.,  within  four 
miles  of  this  place  to  furnish  the  troops 
three  weeks. 




1,  LioOfattiU  MmioV  ba«inn, 

H,  Hi'arc3'i^'''y> 

2.  LicUtcoiuii  Fopri" biurtion 

12.  Kfoi,-.  CiK-vai-. 

3. 1'lpiain  PorUT*  ba.umi. 

13,ii;-l  H.  Thinl  fliilhl^^o! 

4.  Comiin  Fcnl'i  baiuon. 

l.".  ...,.(   11..   flM'.  *ul-l.:hloH 

6.  H^»a-qiurt«^ 
e.  I'.rti  of  drmirry. 

17»,„1   l«    S.-,-„r,J  lut^kCi 

10  iu.\-JK  K..1K1I.  bul-lffpo 

7.  Srcuixl  ir<>op  ol  JnuooEU. 

'^1,  ■.:-,  i3,  i:j,  :5,  ■iH.  :: 

9.  FiM  L'jop  of  Jr*?i>oii*. 

ID.  iWl  Uoop  of  dniipon*. 

30.  Rcar^njri 

Geneiai  Wayne  kept  his  army  secure  from  be- 
ing surprised  by  the  stealthy  enemy.  This  ^ave 
rise  to  the  statement  by  the  savages  that  he  never 
slept.  The  rapidity  and  security  of  his  army's 
movement  through  the  enemy's  wilderness  strong- 
hold, caused  the  savages  to  call  him  the  wind  ;  and 
after  his  impetuous,  and  to  them  disastrous,  charge 
at  the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timber,  the  survivors  called 
him  The  'Whirlwind'  probably  in  comparison 
to  the  wind  that  had  prostrated  the  forest  at  the 
Battle  Field.  The  engraving  is  taken  from  The 
American  Pioneer,  ii.  39("i. 

General  Orders. 
The  Quartermaster  General  will  issue  one 
gill  of  whisky  to  every  man  belonging  to  the 
Federal  army  (this  morning)  as  a  small  com- 
pensation for  the  fatigues  they  have  under- 
gone for  several  days  past.  Major  General 
Scott  will  direct  his  quartermasters  to  attend 
accordingly  with  their  respective  returns. 
The  Commander-in-Chief  wishes  it  to  be  fairly 
understood  that  when  he  mentioned  or  may 
mention  the  Federal  army  in  General  Orders, 
that  term  comprehends  and  includes  the  legion 

and  mounted  volunteers  as  one  compound 
army,  and  that  the  term  legion  comprehends  the  regular  troops,  agreeable  to  the  organization  by  the 
President  of  the  United  States,  and  by  which  appellation  they  are  known  and  recognized  on  all  occasions 
when  acting  by  themselves,  and  separate  from  the  mounted  volunteers.  As  the  army  will  probably 
remain  on  this  ground  for  some  time,  vaults  must  be  dug,  and  every  precaution  taken  to  keep  the 
encampment  clean  and  healthy. 

The  legion  will  be  reviewed  the  day  after  to-morrow  at  ten  o'clock.  In  the  interim  the  arms  must 
be  clean  and  varnished,  and  the  clothing  of  the  soldiers  repaired  and  washed,  to  appear  in  the  most 
military  condition  possible ;  but  in  these  necessary  preparations  for  a  review  great  caution  must  be  used 
by  the  commanding  officers  of  wings,  not  to  permit  too  many  men  at  one  time  to  take  their  locks  off.  or 
to  be  engaged  in  washing. 

All  the  horses  belonging  to  the  quarter  master  and  contractors' department,  in  possession  of  the 
legion,  must  be  returned  this  afternoon. 



This  is  the  first  fair  day  we  have  had  since  we  began  to  return  to  this  place,  it 
having  rained  nearly  constant  for  five  days,  which  was  the  occasion  of  fatiguing  the 
troops  very  much. 

Fort  Defiance  39th  August,  1704,  We  are  as  yet  encamped  on  this  ground;  all 
the  pack-horses  belonging  to  the  quarter-master  and  contractors'  department  moved 
this   morning    for    Fort  Recovery,    escorted  by    Bigadier    General    Todd's     brigade    of 

Looking  northwest  November  18,  I90:i,  across  Maumee  River  to  site  of  the  tiritish  Fort  Miami, 
built  in  ,-\pril,  1794,  and  surrendered  to  American  troops  July  II,  1796.  The  road  up  the  distant  river  bank 
passes  throuyli  the  yet  existing  earthworks. 

The  United  States  surveyor  of  the  historic  places  along  the  Maumee  River  in  I88JS,  recommended 
to  Congress  that  5  6H-100  acres  of  land  including  the  site  of  this  Fort  be  purchased  and  a  monument  erect- 
ed, all  at  a  probable  cost  of  $7,.VHi.     Congress  has  not  made  any  appropriation  foi  tliis  purpose. 

mounted  volunteers,  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  supplies  to  this  place.  It  is  said  the 
legion  will  continue  in  their  present  camp  until  the  return  of  this  escort.  Our  spies 
were  yesterday  twelve  miles  up  this  river  [the  Maumee]  and  they  bring  information 
that   the  cornfields   continue  as  far  as  they  were  up  the  river. 

Fort  Defiance  TtOth  August.  r7!)4.  This  day  at  ten  o'clock,  the  Commander-in- 
Chief  began  to  review  the  troops  at  the  posts  occupied  by  the  different  corps,  and  I  am 
led  to  believe  that  he  was  well  pleased  at  their  appearance.  Major  Hughes,  Captain 
Slough.  Captain  Van  Rensselaer  and  Lieutenant  Younghusband  obtained  a  furlough 
to  go  home  to  repair  their  healths,  being,  as  they  pretended,  very  much  injured  by  the 
service.  I  believe  the  two  first  and  the  last  mentioned,  if  they  never  return  will  not 
be  lamented  by  the  majoritv  of  the  army. 

The  out-guards  were  much  alarmed  this  morning  at  the  mounted  volunteers  firing 
oft  all  their  arms  without  our  having  any  notice. 

General  Oroers.     Headuvarters  31st  August.  1794. 

A  general  court-martial  to  consist  of  live  members,  will  sit  to-morrow  morning  at  ten  o'clock,  for 
the  trial  of  such  pi  isoners  as  may  be  brought  before  them.  Major  Shaylor.  President,  Lieutenant  Wade, 
Judge  .advocate. 

The  disorderly  and  dangerous  practice  of  permitting  the  soldiery  to  pass  the  chain  of  sentinels,  on 
pretext  of   going  after  vegetables,  can  no   longer  be  suffered.      In  future,  on  issuing   day.  only  one  man 


from  each  mess,  properly  armed,  and  commanded  by  the  respective  sub-legionary  'Quarter  masters,  will 
be  sent  as  a  detachment  for  vegetables,  to  march  at  7  o'clock  in  the  morning. 

The  pack-horses  shall  forage  daily  under  protection  of  a  squadron  of  dragoons;  every  precaution 
must  be  taken  to  guard  against  surprise.  Any  non-commissioned  officer  or  soldier  found  half  a  mile 
without  the  chain  of  sentinels,  without  a  pass  signed  by  the  commanding  officer  of  wings  or  sub-legion, 
or  from  Headquarters,  shall  be  deemed  a  deserter,  and  punished  accordingly.  Every  sentinel  suttering 
a  non-commissioned  officer  or  private  to  pass  without  such  written  permit,  except  a  party  on  command, 
shall  receive  fifty  lashes  for  each  and  every  violation  of  this  order. 

A  fatigue  party  of  three  hundred  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  with  a  proportion  of 
commissioned  officers,  will  parade  at  7  o'clock  to-morrow  morning,  furnished  with  one  hundred  axes,  one 
hundred  picks,  and  one  hundred  spades  and  shovels,  with  arms,  commanded  by  Major  Burbeck. 

A  part  of  this  order  was  in  consequence  of  three  men  of  the  first  sub-legion  being 
either  killed  or  taken  bv  the  enemy  when  out  a  foraging,  which  was  done  some  time 
since  in  a  very  disorderly  manner,  at  the  same  time  liable  to  the  attacks  of  the  enemy 
without  having  it  in  their  power  to  make  the  smallest  resistance. 

Fort  Defiance  1st  September.  1 7!U.  This  morning  the  fatigue  party  ordered  yes- 
terday began  to  fortify  and  strengthen  the  fort  and  make  it  of  sufficient  strength  to 
be  proof  against  heavy  metal.     The  work  now  on  hand  is  a  glacis  with  fascines,  and  a 

ditch  twelve  feet  wide  and  eight  feet 

deep.  The  blockhouses  are  to  be 
made  bomb-proof. 

Fort  Defiance,  2nd  September, 
17i)4.  Every  effective  man  of  the 
light  troops  in  the  redoubts  round 
the  camp  was  ordered  this  morning 
to  make  three  fascines. 

The  foraging  party  that  went  out 
this  day  brought  in  as  much  corn, 
dry  enough  to  grate,  as  will  suffice 
the  troops  three  days.  The  soldiery 
get  sick  very  fast  with  the  fever  and 
ague,  and  have  it  severely. 

Fort  Defiance  ord  September, 
1794.  Nothing  but  hard  fatigues 
going  forward  in  all  quarters.  The 
garrison  [the  Fort]  begins  to  put  on 
the  appearance  of  strength,  and  will 
in  a  few  days  be  able  to  stand  the 
shock  of  heavy  cannon.  The  troops 
are  very  sickly,  and  I  believe  the 
longer  we  continue  in  this  place  the 
worse  it  will  be. 

Fort  Defiance  4th  September,  17114. 
The  number  of  our  sick  increases 
daily  ;  provision  is  nearly  exhausted  ; 
the  whisky   has   been   out    for  some 

Distance  between  opposite  Palisades.  ItXf  feet  ; 
length  of  Palisades  between  Blockhouses,  seventy-five 
feet.  The  entrance  was  on  the  southwest  side  by  means  of 
a  Drawbridge  that  was  raised  and  lowered  over  the  Ditch 
by  chains  working  over  the  top  of  the  Palisade  timbers,  be- 
tween which  there  was  a  Gate.  The  Rivers  were  approached 
for  water  at  their  junction  under  protection  of  triangular 
Palisade   and   l^nderground  way.    The   Ditches,    sites  of 

Blockhouses  and  Palisades,  yet  remain   (19t>4)   in  fair  out 

line.     From   Researches  and  Surveys   by  Charles  E.   Slo-     time,    which   makes    the    hours    pass 

cum.    Compare  American  Pioneer,  volume  ii,  pages  3K6-    heavily  to  the  tune  of  Roslin   Castle. 

87,  and  copies  therefrom.  ,  .  ^     -^      .■         ^u 

'  when  in  our  present  situation   they 

ought  to  go  to  the  quick  step  of  the  merry  man  down  to  his  grave.      Hard  duty  and  scant 

allowance  will  cause  an  army  to  be  low  spirited,  particularly  the  want  of  a  little  of  the  wet. 

If  it  was   not  for  the  forage  we  get  from  the  enemy's  fields,  the  rations  would  not 

be  sufficient  to  keep  soul  and  body  together. 





*  Fort  Dehance  was  the  sironyest  fortitication  built  by  General  Wayne—  where  he  could  defy  the 
hostile  Aborigines  and  the  British  —  and  he  styled  it  'an  Important  and  Formidable  Fort.'  His  careful 
study  of  the  strong  British  Fort  Miami  induced  the  strenetheninK  of  Fort  Defiance  after  the  return  of 
the  army  from  the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timber,  it  beiny  thought  possible,  if  not  probable,  that  the  Aborigines 


Fort  Defiance  .'nh  September,  17i*4.  No  news  of  the  escort  ;  this  day  the  troops 
drew  no  flour,  and  I  fear  we  will  shortly  draw  no  beef;  however,  as  long  as  the  issuing  of 
beef  continues  the  troops  will  not  suffer,  as  there  is  still  corn  in  abundance  along  the 

Fort  Defiance  fUh  September.  1704.  The  work  on  the  [Fort]  garrison,  goes  on  with 
life  and  will  be  completed  in  a  few  days.  The  weather  very  wet  and  cold  ;  this  morning 
there  is  a  small  frost. 

Fort  Defiance  7th  September,  r7!*4.  Nothing  of  consequence  took  place  this  day. 
Our  sick  are  getting  better. 

Fort  Defiance  8th  September,  17i(4.  This  day  brings  us  information  of  the  escort  ; 
by  express  we  learn  it  will  be  with  us  to-morrow.  It  will  be  fortunate  for  us  should 
provisions  arrive,  as  we  have  not  drawn  any  flour  since  the  7th  instant ;  nevertheless 
we  have  the  greatest  abundance  of  vegetables. 

Fort  Defiance  9th  September,  1704.  The  escort  has  not  yet  arrived,  but  will  be 
in  to-morrow.  General  Scott  with  the  residue  is  ordered  to  march  to-morrow  morning 
at  reveille.  The  Commander-in-Chief  engaged  with  the  volunteers  [General  Scott's  com- 
mand] to  bring  on  the  flour  from  Greenville  on  their  own  horses,  for  which  they  are  to 
receive  three  dollars  per  hundred,  delivered  at  the  Miami  villages,  [the  present  Fort 
Wayne.    Indiana]. 

Fort  Defiance  10th  September.  171)4.  The  escort  arrived  this  day  about  ^^  o'clock, 
and  brought  with  them  two  hundred  kegs  of  flour  and  nearly  two  hundred  head  of 
cattle.  Captain  Preston  and  Ensigns  Strother,  Bowyer  and  Lewis,  joined  us  this 
day  with  the  escort.  We  received  no  liquor  by  this  command,  and  I  fancy  we  shall 
not  receive  any  until  we  get  into  winter  quarters,  which  will  make  the  fatigues  of  the 
campaign  appear  double,  as  I  am  persuaded  the  troops  would  much  rather  live  on 
half  rations  of  beef  and  bread,  provided  they  could  obtain  their  full  rations  of  whiskey. 
The  vegetables  are  as  yet  in  the  greatest  abundance.  The  soldiers  of  Captain  William 
Lewis'  company    are  in    perfect  health,  the  wounded  excepted. 

Fort  Defiance  11th  September,  171*4.  This  day  General  Barber's  brigade  of 
mounted  volunteers  marched  for  Fort  Keco\ery  for  provisions,  to  meet  us  at  the  Miami 
villages  [the  present  Fort  Wayne]  by  the  '*Oth. 

might  raHy  and.  aided  a^ain  by  the  British,  endeavor  to  destroy  ii.  It  was  principally  built  between 
the  8th  AuEUst  and  the  Nth  September.  1794. 

Outside  the  Palisades  and  Blockhouses  there  was  a  glacis  or  wall  of  earth  eii;ht  feet  thick,  whicli 
sloped  outwards  and  upwards,  and  was  supported  on  its  outer  side  by  a  log  wall  and  fascines.  A  ditch 
encircled  the  entire  works  excepting  the  east  side  of  the  east  Blockhouse  which  was  near  the  precipi- 
tous bank  of  the  Auglaise  River  along  which  was  a  line  of  fagots.  The  Ditch  was  fifteen  feet  wide  and 
eight  feet  deep.  It  was  protected  by  pickets  eleven  feet  long  and  nearly  a  foot  apart,  secured  to  the 
log  walls,  and  projecting  over  the  Ditch  at  an  angle  of  forty-five  degrees.  The  outlines  of  these  earth- 
works are  yet  well  maintained. 

Generally  this  Fort  was  garrisoned  by  about  one  hundred  men,  with  an  armament  of  several 
small  field  cannon  which  had  been  dismounted  and  brought  through  the  forest  on  the  backs  of  horses. 
Captain  William  March  Snook  commanded  it  for  three  or  four  months,  and  Major  (afterwards  Colonel) 
Thomas  Hunt  about  eighteen  months.  It  was  probably  dismantled  and  abandoned  by  I'nited  States 
soldiers  about  the  1st  June,  1796. 

The  site  has  continued  the  property  of  the  (\'iltage  and  the)  City  of  Defiance,  and  it  is  freely  open 
as  a  Public  Park.  This  Fort  Defiance  Park  was  surveyed,  in  common  with  the  other  historic  places 
along  the  Maumee  River,  in  August,  1K8M,  under  the  supervision  of  Colonel  O.  M.  Poe,  of  the  Corps  of 
Engineers  of  the  United  States  Army,  and  in  obedience  to  Act  of  Congress  approved  24th  May,  188H.  A 
monument  was  recommended  for  this  place  to  cost  five  thousand  dollars;  but  the  bill  was  not  passed. 
John  S.  Snook,  M.  C.  introduced  a  bill  to  the  Linited  States  House  of  Representatives  February  10. 
1904,  for  the  appropriation  of  $"3.'),(XK)  for  the  erection  of  a  monument  in  this  Park  to  the  honor  of  General 
Anthony  Wayne.  The  Trustees  of  The  Defiance  Public  Library,  by  permission  of  the  City  Council, 
located  the  Carnegie  Library  building  in  this  Park  west  of  the  Earthworks  in  1904.  See  Chapter  on 


Fort  Defiance  12th  September,  1794.  This  day  the  pioneers  were  ordered  to  cut 
the  road  up  the  [north  side  of  the]  Miami  [Maumee]  under  the  direction  of  the  sub- 
legionary  quartermaster  ;   they  are  to  commence  at  seven  o'clock  to-morrow  morning. 

Fort  Defiance  fifth  September.  1794.  This  day  a  general  order  was  issued,  setting 
forth  that  the  legion  would  march  to-morrow  morning  precisely  at  seven  o'clock,  every 
department  to  prepare  themselves  accordingly.  The  squaw  that  Wells  captured  on  the 
11th  August,  was  this  day  liberated  and  sent  home.  Three  soldiers  of  the  1st  and  three 
of  the  3rd  sub-legions  deserted  last  night  :  sixteen  volunteers  pursued  them  ;  they  are  to 
receive  twenty  dollars  if  they  bring  them  in  dead  or  alive. 

Camp  Hi  Mile  Tree*  14th  September.  17!M.  The  legion  began  their  march  for 
the  Miami  villages  at  7  o'clock  this  morning  and  encamped  on  this  ground  at  ii  o'clock, 
after  marching  in  the  rain  eight  hours. 

Camp  2.'!rd  Mile  Treet  l-)th  September,  1794.  The  legion  marched  at  0  and  en- 
camped at  4  o'clock.  Captain  Preston,  who  commanded  the  light  troops  in  the  rear, 
got  lost  and  lay  out  from  the  army  all  night  with  a  large  part  of  the  baggage. 

Camp  33rd  Mile  TreeJ  Kith  September,  1794.  We  encamped  on  this  ground  at  4 
o'clock,  after  passing  over  very  rough  roads,  and  woods  thick  with  brush,  the  timber  very 
lofty  and  the  land  generally  rich  and  well  watered. 

Camp  Miami  'Villagesll  17th  September.  1794.  The  army  halted  on  this  ground  at  5 
o'clock  P.  M.,  being  47  miles  from  Fort  Defiance  and  14  from  our  last  encampment; 
there  are  nearly  five  hundred  acres  of  cleared  land  lying  in  one  body  on  the  rivers  St. 
Joseph,  St.  Mary  and  the  Miami  [Maumee]  ;  there  are  fine  points  of  land  contiguous  to 
these  rivers  adjoining  the  cleared  land.  The  rivers  are  navigable  for  small  craft  in  the 
summer,  and  in  the  winter  there  is  water  sufficient  for  large  boats,  the  land  adjacent 
fertile  and  well  timbered,  and  from  every  appearance  it  has  been  one  of  the  largest 
settlements  made  by  the  Aborigines  in  this  country. 

Camp  Miami  'Villages  l.Sth  September,  1794.  This  day  the  Commander-in-Chief 
reconnoitered  the  ground  and  determined  on  the  spot  to  build  a  fort.  The  troops 
fortified  their  camps,  as  they  halted  too  late  yesterday  to  cover  themselves.  Four  de- 
serters from  the  British  came  to  us  this  day  ;  they  bring  information  that  the  Aborigines 
are  encamped  eight  miles  below  the  British  fort  [Miami]  to  the  number  of  1(300. 

Camp  Miami  'Villages  19th  September,  1794.  This  day  we  hear  that  General  Bar- 
ber's brigade  of  mounted  volunteers  are  within  twelve  miles  of  this  place,  and  will  be  in 
early  to-morrow  with  large  supplies  of  flour  ;  we  have  had  heavy  rains,  the  wind  north- 
west, and  the  clouds  have  the  appearance  of  emptying  large  quantities  on  this  western 

Camp  Miami  'Villages  20th  September,  1794.  Last  night  it  rained  violently,  and 
the  wind  blew  from  the  northwest  harder  than  I  knew  heretofore.  General  Barber  with 
his  command  arrived  in  camp  about  9  o'clock  this  morning  with  ."i."i3  kegs  of  flour,  each 
containing  100  pounds. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  21st  September,  1794.  The  Commander-in-Chief  reviewed 
the  legion  this  day  at  1  o'clock.  All  the  quartermaster's  horses  set  off  this  morning, 
escorted  by  the  mounted  volunteers,  for  Greenville  and  are  to  return  the  soonest 
possible.  We  have  not  one  quart  of  salt  on  this  ground,  which  occasions  bad  and  dis- 
agreeable living  until  the  arrival  of  the  next  escort. 

Camp  Miami  'Villages  22nd  September,  1794.  Nothing  of  consequence  took  place 
to-day  except  that  the  troops  drew  no  salt  with  their  fresh  provisions. 

'Near  the  mouth  of  Platter  Creek,  westward  from  Defiance  eleven  and  a  half  miles. 
1  Nearly  opposite  the  present  Village  of  Antwerp,  Paulding  County,  Ohio, 
t  Near  the  east  line  of  Milan  Township,  Allen  County,  Indiana. 
IIAt  the  head  of  the  Maumee  River.     See  map  ante  pa^e  97. 


Camp  Miami  Villages  2lird  September,  ITW.  Four  deserters  from  the  British 
garrison  arrived  at  our  camp;  they  mention  that  the  Aborigines  are  still  em'bodied  on  the 
Miami  [Maumee]  nine  miles  below  the  British  fort  [at  the  mouth  of  Swan  Creek]  ;  that 
they  are  somewhat  divided  in  opinion,  some  are  for  peace  and  others  for  war. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  24th  September,  17il4.  This  day  the  work  commenced  on 
the  Fort,  which  I  am  apprehensive  will  take  some  time  to  complete.  A  keg  of  whiskey 
containing  ten  gallons  was  purchased  this  day  for  eighty  dollars,  a  sheep  for  ten  dollars  : 
three  dollars  was  offered  for  one  pint  of  salt,  but  it  could  not  be  obtained  for  less 
than  six. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  2.1th  September,  1794.  Lieutenant  Blue  of  the  dragoons  was 
this  day  arrested  by  [on  complaint  of]  Ensign  Johnson  of  the  4th  sub-legion,  but  a 
number  of  their  friends  interfering  the  dispute  was  settled  upon  Lieutenant  Blue  asking 
Ensign  Johnson's  pardon. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  2()th  September.  17114.  M'Clelland.  one  of  our  spies,  with 
a  small  party  came  in  this  evening  from  Fort  Defiance,  and  brings  information  that  the 
enemy  are  troublesome  about  the  Fort,  and  that  they  have  killed  some  of  our  men  under 
its  walls.  Sixteen  Aborigines  were  seen  to  day  near  this  place  ;  a  small  party  went  in 
pursuit  of  them.     I  have  not  heard  what  discoveries  they  have  made. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  27th  September,  17'.M.  No  intelligence  of  the  enemy.  The 
rain  fell  considerably  last  night  ;  this  morning  the  wind  is  southwest. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  2iSth  September.  17i(4.     The  weather  proves  colder. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  .'iOth  September.  17i)4.  Salt  and  whisky  were  drawn  by  the 
troops  this  day,  and  a  number  of  the  soldiers  became  much  intoxicated,  they  having  stolen 
a  quantity  of  liquor  from  the  quartermaster. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  1st  October,  1794.  The  volunteers  appear  to  be  uneasy,  and 
have  refused  to  do  duty.  They  are  ordered  by  the  Commander-in-Chief  to  march  to- 
morrow for  Greenville  to  assist  the  pack-horses,  which  I  am  told  they  are  determined  not 
to  do. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  2d  October,  1794.  This  morning  the  volunteers  refused  to  go 
on  command,  and  demanded  of  General  Scott  to  conduct  them  home  ;  he  ordered  them 
to  start  with  General  Barber,  and  if  they  made  the  smallest  delay  they  should  lose  all 
their  pay  and  be  reported  to  the  war  office  as  revolters.  This  had  the  desired  effect  and 
they  went  off,  not  in  good   humor. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  lid  October.  1794.  Every  officer,  non-commissioned  officer 
and  soldier  belonging  to  the  square  are  on  fatigue  this  day,  hauling  trees  on  the  hind 
wheels  of  wagons ;  the  first  day  we  got  an  extra  gill  [of  whiskey]  per  man,  which  appears 
to  be  all  the  compensation  at  this  time  in  the  power  of  the  Commander-in-Chief  to  make 
the  troops. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  4th  October,  1794.  This  morning  we  had  the  hardest  frost  I 
ever  saw  in  the  middle  of  December;  it  was  like  a  small  snow  ;  there  was  ice  in  our 
camp-kettles  three-fourths  of  an  inch  thick.  The  fatigues  go  on  with  velocity,  considering 
the  rations  the  troops  are  obliged  to  live  on. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  .5th  October.  1794.  The  weather  extremely  cold,  and  hard 
frosts;  the  wind  northwest.  Everything  quiet,  and  nothing  but  harmony  and  peace 
throughout  the  camp,  which  is  something  uncommon. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  lith  October,  1794.  Plenty  and  quietness  the  same  as  yester- 
day. The  volunteers  engaged  to  work  on  the  Fort,  for  which  they  are  to  receive  three 
gills  of  whisky  per  man  per  day  ;  their  employment  is  digging  the  ditch  and  filling  up  the 

Camp  Miami  Villages  7th  October,  1794.  The  volunteers  are  soon  tired  of  work  and 
have  refused  to  labor  any  longer ;  they  have  stolen  and  killed  seventeen  beeves  in  the 
course  of  these  two  days  past. 



P    E 

*Fort  Wayne  was  principally  built  under  direct  supervision  ot  ( .tMiei  al  Anthony  Wayne  between  the 
18th  September  and  22nd  October.  1794.  There  were  but  two  blockhouses.  The  palisaded  enclosure 
was  about  150  feet  square.  The  Officers'  quarters  were  at  the  north  ;  the  Quartermaster's  quarters,  with 
subordinates,  at  the  west,  or  front  ;   the  Cooks'  .quarters  at  the  east  ;   and  the  Stores  at  the  south. 


Camp  Miami  Villages  Sth  October.  1704.  The  troops  drew  but  half  rations  of  flour 
this  day.      The  cavalry  and  other  horses  die  very  fast,  not  less  than  four  or  five  per  day. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  itth  October.  1701.  The  volunteers  have  agreed  to  build  a 
blockhouse  in  front  of  the   Fort. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  llth  October,  1704.  A  Canadian  (Rozelle)  [Antoine  Lasalle] 
with  a  flag  [of  truce]  arrived  this  evening;  his  business  was  to  deliver  up  three  prisoners 
in  exchange  for  his  brother,  who  was  taken  on  the  20th  August.  He  brings  information 
that  the  Aborigines  are  in  council  with  Girty  and  M'Kee  near  the  fort  of  Detroit  ;  that  all 
the  tribes  are  for  peace  except  the  Shawneese  who  are  determined  to  prosecute  the  war. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  12th  October,  1704.  The  mounted  volunteers  of  Kentucky 
marched  for  Greenville,  to  be  mustered  and  dismissed  the  service  of  the  United  States 
army,  they  being  of  no  further  service  therein. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  13th  October.  1704.  Captain  Gibson  marched  this  day,  and 
took  with  him  a  number  of  horses  for  Fort  Recovery  to  receive  supplies  of    provisions. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  14th  October,  1704.     Nothing  particular  this  day. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  15th  October.  1704.  The  Canadian  that  came  in  on  the  llth. 
left  us  this  day  accompanied  by  his  brother;  they  have  promised  to  furnish  the  garrison 
at  Defiance  with  stores  at  a  moderate  price,  which,  if  performed,  will  be  a  great  advan- 
tage to  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  that  post. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  KHh  October.  1704.  Nothing  new;  weather  wet  and  cold, 
wind  from  the  northwest.     The  troops  healthy  in  general. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  17th  October,  1704.  This  day  Captain  Gibson  arrived  with  a 
large  quantity  of  flour,  beef  and  sheep. 

Camp  Miami  Villages,  18th  October,  1704.  Captain  Springer  and  Brock,  with  all 
the  pack-horses,  marched  with  the  cavalry  this  morning  for  Greenville,  and  the  foot 
[infantry]  for  [Fort]  Recovery,  the  latter  to  return  with  the  smallest  delay  with  a  supply 
of  provisions  for  this  post  and  Defiance. 

The  Commandants  were  :  Colonel  John  Francis  Haintiainck.  22nd  Ociobei.  1794.  to  17th  May.  1796; 
he  died  at  Detroit,  llth  .-Vpril.  18(>3.  Major  [afterwards  Colonel}  Thomas  Hunt.  25th  May.  1796,  to  1799? 
He  brought  his  family  from  Massachusetts  to  the  Fort  in  1797,     His  son  General  John  E.  Hunt,  was  born 

here  1st  .\pril,   179H.     Major Whipple?   Major  Thomas  Fasteuer'   Major  Zebulon  M.  Pike.  Captain 

Nathan  Heald.  Captain  James  Rhea,  to  13th  September.  1812.  Captain  Hugh  Moore,  1812.  Captain  Joseph 
Jenkinson.  1813.  The  Maumee  reeion  was  at  this  date  in  Military  District  No.  8.  Captain  [brevet  Major) 
John  Whistler  conunanded  from  1814  to  1817.  He  was  probably  there  in  the  early  summer  of  1812.  The 
Fort  was  generally  rebuilt  by  him  in  1814-15.  and  materially  changed.  He  infused  new  life  in  the  carrison. 
and  into  the  town  as  well.  Major  Whistler  came  to  America  in  Bureoyne's  army  and  was  taken  prisoner  at 
Saratoga.  He  was  in  St.  Clair's  army  at  its  defeat  in  1791.  Was  aspiring  and  won  his  commissions  from 
merit.  He  was  the  last  commander  of  Fort  St.  Marys  in  1814.  He  died  at  St.  Louis  about  1826.  Captain 
(afterwards  Major  and  Colonel  by  brevet)  Josiah  H.  Vose  commanded  Fort  Wayne  from  1817  until  its 
abandonment  19th  April.  1819.  when  it  was  in  Department  No.  5,  yet  subordinate  to  Detroit.  Colonel 
John  Johnston  wrote  in  1859  that  Major  Vose  was  the  only  army  officer  known  to  him  in  1812  who 
publicly  professed  Christianity.  He  was  constant  in  assembling  his  men  on  Sunday,  reading  the  Scriptures 
to  them  and  discoursing  thereon.  He  died  at  New  Orleans  iDth  July,  1845. — Lossings  War  of  1812, 
page  316. 

The  later  garrisons  of  Fort  Wayne  numbered  as  follows:  1st  January,  1803,  64  soldiers:  Early  in 
1812.  85  according  to  the  Peace  Establishment;  1815,  60;  31st  December.  1817,  56;  October.  1818.  91  ;  19th 
April.  1819,  91  men,  viz:  Major  Vose;  1  Post  Surgeon;  2  Captains;  1  1st  Lieutenant;  5  Sergeants;  4 
Corporals;  4  Musicians  (2  fifers.  1  snare  drummer  and  1  bass  drummer) ;  and  74  Matrosses  (artillerymen) 
and  Privates.     The  artillery  then  consisted  of  one  six  and  one  twelve  pounder. 

All  that  is  now  left  to  the  public  of  the  site  of  Fort  Wayne  beside  streets,  is  a  small  triangular  piece 
of  ground  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Main  and  Clay  Streets,  narrowed  on  the  north  by  the  New  York, 
Chicago  and  St.  Louis  Railway  along  the  line  of  the  former  Wabash  and  Erie  Canal. 

In  an  appendix  of  the  Annual  Report  of  ithe  Chief  of  United  States  Engineers  for  1889.  it  is  re- 
commended that  a  monument  to  cost  $5,000  be  erected  here  ;  but  Congress  has  not  made  up  to  this  time 
(1904)  any  appropriation  for  this  p-urpose-  Grand  Army  Posts  have  since  mounted  a  more  modern  cannon 
on  a  high  pedestal  which  is  inscribed  in  memory  of  General  Wayne,  and  of  later  wars. 


Camp  Miami  Villages  Utth  October,  1794.  This  day  the  troops  were  not  ordered 
for  labor,  being  the  first  day  for  four  weeks,  and  accordingly  attended  divine  service. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  20th  October,  1794.  An  express  arrived  this  day  with  dis- 
patches to  the  Commander-in-Chief;   the  contents  are  kept  secret. 

A  court-martial  to  sit  this  day  for  the  trial  of  Lieutenant  Charles  Hyde. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  21st  October,  1794.  This  day  were  read  the  proceedings  of  a 
general  court-martial  held  on  Lieutenant  Charles  Hyde  (yesterday) ;  was  found  not 
guilty  of  the  charges  exhibited  against  him,  and  was  therefore  acquitted. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  22d  October,  1794.  This  morning  at  7  o'clock  the  following 
companies,  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant  Hamtramck  of  the 
1st  sub-legion,  took  possession  of  this  place,  viz;  Captain  Kingsbury's  1st;  Captain 
Greaton's  2d;  Captain  Spark's  and  Captain  Reed's  Hd ;  Captain  Preston's  4th;  and 
Captain  Porter's,  of  artillery  ;  and  after  firing  fifteen  rounds  of  cannon  [one  for  each  of 
the  States  then  in  the  Union]  Colonel  Hamtramck  gave  it  the  name  of  Fort  Wayne. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  2)M  October,  1794.  The  general  fatigue  of  the  garrison 
ended  this  day  and  Colonel  Hamtramck,  with  the  troops  under  his  command  to  furnish 
[finish]  it  as  he  may  think  fit.  All  the  soldiers'  huts  are  completed  except  covering,  and 
the  weather  is  favorable  for  that  work. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  24th  October,  1794.  This  day  the  troops  drew  but  half 
rations  of  beef  and  flour,  the  beef  very  bad. 

Camp  Miami  \'illages  2.")th  October,  1794.  Nothing  extraordinary  the  same  as 

This  evening  Captain  Springer  with  the  escort  arrived  with  a  supply  of  flour  and 
salt.  .\  Frenchman  and  a  half  Aborigine  came  to  headquarters,  but  where  they  are 
from  or  their  business  we  cannot  learn  but  that  it  is  of  a  secret  nature. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  26th  October,  1794.  Nothing  occurring  today  except  an 
expectation  to  march  the  day  after  to-morrow. 

Camp  Miami  Villages  27th  October,  1794.  Agreeable  to  general  orders  of  this  day, 
we  will  march  for  Greenville  to-morrow  morning  at  8  o'clock. 

Camp  Nine  miles  [southeast]  from  Fort  Wayne  2Sth  October,  1794.  The  legion 
took  up  the  line  of  march  at  9  o'clock  and  arrived  here  without  anything  particular 

Camp  Twenty-one  miles  [southeast]  from  Fort  Wayne  29th  October,  1794.  The 
troops  proceeded  on  their  march  at  sunrise,  and  arrived  on  this  ground  at  half  past 
ff  o'clock,  our  way  was  through  rich  and  well  timbered  land,  the  weather  cold  and  much 
like  for  rain. 

Camp  Southwest  side  of  St.  Mary  River  80th  October,  1794.  The  legion  proceeded 
on  their  march  at  7  o'clock,  and  arrived  here  at  sunset ;  continual  heavy  rain  all  day. 

Camp  Girty  Town*  81st  October,  1794.  The  troops  took  up  their  line  of  march  at 
sunrise,  and  arrived  here  three  hours  after  night,  through  heavy  rain. 

Greenville  2nd  November  1794.  This  evening  the  legion  arrived  here,  where  they 
marched  from  28th  July,  1794. 

We  were  saluted  with  twenty-four  rounds  from  a  six-pounder.  Our  absence  from 
this  ground  amounted  to  three  months  and  six  days.  And  so  ends  the  expedition  of  Gen- 
eral Wayne's  campaign. 

*From  James  Girty  the  trader.     Site  of  the  present  City  of  St,  Marys,  Auglaise  County,  Ohio. 



General  Wayne's   Reports — Treaty  at  Greenyille.      1794,     1795. 

General  Wayne  reported  to  the  Secretary  of  War  from  time  to  time, 
and  such  reports  as  are  of  interest  to  this  rej^ion  are  here  given: 

Head  Quarters.   Grand  [Fort  Defiance]  14th   August,    1794. 

Sir  ;  I  have  the  honor  to  inform  you,  that  the  army  under  my  command  took  posses- 
sion of  this  very  important  post  on  the  morning  of  the  .Sth  instant — the  enemy,  on  the  pre- 
ceding evening,  having  abandoned  all  their  settlements,  towns,  and  villages,  with  such 
apparent  marks  of  surprise  and  precipitation,  as  to  amount  to  a  positive  proof  that  our 
approach  was  not  discovered  by  them  until  the  arrival  of  a  Mr.  Newman,  of  the  Quarter- 
master General's  department,  who  deserted  from  the  army  near  the  St.  Mary  [River] 
and  gave  them  every  information  in  his  power  as  to  our  force,  the  object  of  our  destina- 
tion, state  of  provision,  number  and  size  of  the  artillery,  &c..  &c.,  circumstances  and 
facts  that  he  had  but  too  good  an  opportunity  of  knowing,  from  acting  as  a  field  quarter- 
master on  the  march,  and  at  the  moment  of  his  desertion.  Hence.  I  have  good  grounds 
to  conclude  that  the  defection  of  this  villain  prevented  the  enemy  from  receiving  a  fatal 
blow  at  this  place,  when  least  expected.""" 

I  had  made  such  demonstrations,  for  a  length  of  time  previously  to  taking  up  our  line 
of  march,  as  to  induce  the  savages  to  expect  our  advance  by  the  route  of  the  Miami  vill- 
ages to  the  left,  or  towards  Roche  de  Bout  by  the  right ;  which  feints  appear  to  have  pro- 
duced the  desired  effect  by  drawing  the  attention  of  the  enemy  to  those  points,  and  gave 
an  opening  for  the  arm\'  -to  approach  undiscovered  by  a  devious  route,  i.  e.  in  a  central 
direction,  and  which  would  be  impracticable  for  an  army,  except  in  a  dry  season  such  as 
then  presented. 

Thus  sir.  we  ha\'e  gained  possession  of  the  grand  emporium  of  the  hostile  ,\liorigines 
of  the  West,  without  loss  of  blood.  The  very  extensive  and  highly  cultivated  fields  and 
gardens  show  the  work  of  many  hands.  The  margin?  of  these  beautiful  rivers,  the  Mia- 
mies  of  the  lake  [Maumee]  and  An  Glaize,  appear  like  one  continued  village  for  a  number 
of  miles  both  above  and  below  this  place  [chief  Blue  Jacket's  towns  on  right  bank  of 
Auglaise  River  one  mile  above  its  mouth,  and  on  left  bank  of  Maumee  one  and  a  half 
miles  below  mouth  of  .Auglaise]  nor  have  I  ever  before  beheld  such  immense  fields  of  corn 
in  any  part  of  .America,  from  Canada  to  Florida. 

We  are  now  employed  in  completing  a  strong  stockade  fort,  with  four  good  block 
houses  by  way  of  bastions,  at  the  confluence  of  Au  Glaize  and  the  Miamies  [Maumee] 
which  I  have  called  Defiance.^  Another  fort  was  also  erected  on  the  bank  of  the  [River] 
St.  Mary  twenty-four  miles  advanced  of  Recovery,  which  was  named  .Adams  and  endowed 
with  provision  and  a  proper  garrison. 

Everything  is  now  prepared  for  a  forward  move  to-morrow  morning  towards  Roche 
de  Bout,  or  foot  of  the  Rapids,  where  the  British  have  a  regular  fortification  well  supplied 
with  artillery  and  strongly  garrisoned,  in  the  vicinity  of  which  the  fate  of  the  campaign 
will  probably  be  decided  ;  as,  from  the  best  and  most  recent  intelligence  the  enemy  are 
there  collected  in  force,  and  joined  by  the  militia  of  Detroit,  (Src.  &c.,  possessed  of  ground 
very  unfavorable  for  cavalry  to  act  in.    Yet.  notwithstanding  this  unfavorable  intelligence. 

*This  deserter.  Newman,  was  finally  arrested  at  Pittsburn  and  sent  down  the  Ohio  to  Headquarters. 

+  Regarding  the  naming  of  this  Fort,  tradition  says  that  General  Wayne,  as  the  walls  assumed  the 
desired  form,  remarked  that  he  could  here  safely  defy  the  savages,  the  British,  and  all  the  devils.  Then . 
said  General  Charles  Scott  who  was  present,  call  it  Fort  Deiiance.  ^ 


and  unpleasant  circumstances  of  ground,  I  do  not  despair  of  success  from  the  spirit  and 
ardor  of  the  troops,  from  the  generals  down  to  the  privates,  both  of  the  legion  and 
mounted  volunteers. 

Yet  I  have  thought  proper  to  offer  the  enemy  a  last  overture  of  peace;  and  as  they 
have  everything  that  is  dear  and  interesting  now  at  stake,  I  have  reason  to  expect  that 
they  will  listen  to  the  proposition  mentioned  in  the  enclosed  copy  of  an  address* 
despatched  yesterday  by  a  special  flag,  who  I  sent  under  circumstances  that  will  ensure 
his  safe  return,  and  which  may  eventually  spare  the  effusion  of  much  human  blood. 

But,  should  war  be  their  choice,  that  blood  be  upon  their  own  heads.  America 
shall  no  longer  be  insulted  with  impunity.  To  an  all-powerful  and  just  God  I  therefore 
commit  myself  and  gallant  army,  and  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  every  consideration  of 
respect  and  esteem,  Your  most  obedient  and  very  humble  servant. 

Anthony   Wavne. 
The   Hon.  Major  General  Knox,  Secretary  of  War. 

The  Report  of  General  Wayne  after  the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timber  is 
as  follows  : 

Head  Quarters,  Grand  Glaise  [Fort  Defiance]  2Hth  August,  1794. 
Sir  :  It  is  with  infinite  pleasure  that  I  now  announce  to  you  the  brilliant  success  of 
the  Federal  army  under  my  command,  in  a  general  action  with  the  combined  force  of  the 
hostile  Aborigines,  and  a  considerable  number  of  the  volunteers  and  militia  of  Detroit,  on 
the  20th  instant,  on  the  banks  of  the  Miami  [Maumee]  in  the  vicinity  of  the  British  post 
and  garrison,  at  the  foot  of  the  Rapids. 

*  To  the  Delawares.  Shawanese,  Miamis.  and  Wyandots.  and  to  each  and  every  one  of  them,  and 
to  all  other  nations  of  Aborigines  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  whom  it  may  concern  : 

I.  Anthony  Wayne,  Major  General  and  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Federal  army  now  at  Grand 
Glaise  [  Fori  Defiance  1  and  Commissioner  Plenipotentiary  of  the  United  States  of  America,  for  settlinR 
the  terms  upon  which  a  permanent  and  lasting  peace  shall  be  made  with  each  and  every  of  the 
hostile  tribes,  or  nations  of  Aboriirines  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  and  of  the  said  United  States,  actuated  by 
the  purest  principles  of  humanity,  and  urtjed  by  pity  for  the  errors  into  which  bad  and  desipninc  men 
have_led  you;  from  the  head  of  my  army,  now  in  possession  of  your  abandoned  villages  and  settlements, 
do  hereby  once  more  extend  the  friendly  hand  of  peace  towards  you,  and  invite  each  and  every  of  the 
hostile  tribes  of  Aborigines  to  appoint  deputies  to  meet  me  and  my  army,  without  delay,  between  this 
place  and  Roche  de  Bout,  in  order  to  settle  the  preliminaries  of  a  lastinp  peace  which  may  eventually, 
and  soon,  restore  to  you  the  Delawares,  Miamis.  Shawanese,  and  all  other  tiibes  and  nations  lately 
settled  at  this  place  and  on  the  margins  of  the  Miami  I  Maumee  1  and  au  Glaise  rivers,  your  late  grounds 
and  possessions,  and  to  preserve  you  and  your  distressed  and  hapless  women  and  children  from  danger 
and  famine  during  tlie  present  fall  and  ensuing  winter. 

The  arm  of  the  I'nited  States  is  strong  and  powerful,  but  they  love  mercy  and  kindness  more  than 
war  and  desolation. 

And.  to  remove  any  doubts  or  apprehensions  of  danger  to  the  persons  of  the  deputies  whom  you 
may  appoint  to  meet  this  army,  I  hereby  pledge  my  sacred  honor  for  their  safety  and  return,  and  send 
Christopher  Miller  [see  an(e  page  1871  an  adopted  Shawanee,  and  a  Shawanee  warrior  whom  I  took 
prisoner  two  days  ago,  as  a  flag,  who  will  advance  in  their  front  to  meet  me. 

Mr.  Miller  was  taken  prisoner  by  a  party  of  my  warriors  six  moons  since,  and  can  testify  to  you 
the  kindness  which  I  have  shown  to  your  people  my  prisoners,  that  is  five  warriors  and  two  women,  who 
are  now  all  safe  and  well  at  Greenville. 

But.  should  this  invitation  be  disregarded  and  my  flag,  Mr.  Miller,  be  detained  or  injured,  I  will 
immediately  order  all  those  prisoners  to  be  put  to  death,  without  distinction,  and  some  of  them  are 
known  to  belong  to  the  first  families  of  your  nations. 

Brothers:  Be  no  longer  deceived  or  led  astray  by  the  false  promises  and  language  of  the  bad 
white  men  at  the  foot  of  the  Rapids;  they  have  neither  the  power  nor  the  inclination  to  protect  you.  No 
longer  shut  your  eyes  to  your  true  interest  and  happiness,  nor  your  ears  to  this  last  overture  of  peace. 
But,  in  pity  to  your  innocent  women  and  children,  come  and  prevent  the  further  effusion  of  your  blood; 
let  them  experience  the  kindness  and  friendship  of  the  United  States  of  America,  and  the  invaluable 
blessings  of  peace  and  tranquility.  Anthony  Wayne. 

Grand  Glaise  [Fort  Defiance]  I3th  August,  1794,     ■  , 


The  army  advanced  from  this  place  on  the  1.5th,  and  arrived  at  Roche  de  Bout  on  the 
18th;  the  lOth  we  were  employed  in  making  a  temporary  post  for  the  reception  of  the  stores 
and  baggage  [Fort  Deposit]  and  in  reconnoitering  the  position  of  the  enemy,  who  were  en- 
camped behind  a  thick  brushy  wood  and  the  British  fort. 

At  S  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  20th  the  army  again  advanced  in  columns, 
agreeably  to  the  Standing  Order  of  March,  the  legion  on  the  right,  its  right  flank  covered 
by  the  Miamis  [Maumee  River]  one  brigade  of  mounted  volunteers  on  the  left  under 
Brigadier  General  Todd,  and  the  other  in  the  rear  under  Brigadier  General  Barbie.  A 
select  battalion  of  mounted  volunteers  moved  in  front  of  the  legion,  commanded  by  Major 
Price  who  was  directed  to  keep  sufficiently  advanced  so  as  to  give  timely  notice  for  the 
troops  to  form  in  case  of  action,  it  being  yet  undetermined  whether  the  Aborigines  would 
decide  for  peace  or  war.  After  advancing  about  five  miles  Major  Price's  corps  received 
so  severe  a  fire  from  the  enemy,  who  were  secreted  in  the  woods  and  high  grass,  as  to 
compel  them  to  retreat.  The  legion  was  immediately  formed  in  two  lines,  principally  in 
a  close  thick  wood  which  e.xtended  for  miles  on  our  left  and  for  a  considerable  distance 
in  front,  the  ground  being  covered  with  old  fallen  timber  probably  occasioned  by  a  tornado 
which  rendered  it  impracticable  for  the  cavalry  to  act  with  effect,  and  afforded  the  enemy 
the  most  favorable  covert  for  their  mode  of  warfare.  The  savages  were  formed  in  three 
lines,  within  supporting  distance  of  each  other  and  extending  for  near  two  miles,  at  right 
angles  with  the  river.  I  soon  discovered  from  the  weight  of  the  fire  and  extent  of  their 
lines,  that  the  enemy  were  in  full  force  in  front  in  possession  of  their  favorite  ground,  and 
endeavoring  to  turn  our  left  flank.  I  therefore  gave  orders  for  the  second  line  to  advance 
and  support  the  first,  and  directed  Major  General  Scott  to  gain  and  turn  the  right  flank  of 
the  savages  with  the  whole  of  the  mounted  volunteers  by  a  circuitous  route  ;  at  the  same 
time  I  ordered  the  front  line  to  advance  and  charge  with  trailed  arms  and  rouse  the 
Abori.gines  from  their  coverts  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet  and,  when  up,  to  deliver  a  close 
and  well  direct  fire  on  their  backs  followed  by  a  brisk  charge  so  as  not  to  give  them  time 
to  load  again. 

I  also  ordered  Captain  Mis  Campbell,  who  commanded  the  legionary  cavalry,  to 
turn  the  left  flank  of  the  enemy  next  to  the  river,  and  which  afforded  a  favorable  field 
for  that  corps  to  act  in.  All  these  orders  were  obeyed  with  spirit  and  promptitude ;  but 
such  was  the  impetuosity  of  the  charge  by  the  first  line  of  infantry,  that  the  Aborigines, 
and  Canadian  militia,  and  volunteers,  were  driven  from  all  their  coverts  in  so  short  a 
time  that,  although  every  possible  exertion  was  used  by  the  officers  of  the  second  line  of 
the  legion  and  by  Generals  Scott,  Todd  and  Barbie,  of  the  mounted  volunteers  to  gain 
their  proper  positions,  but  part  of  each  could  get  up  in  season  to  participate  in  the  action, 
the  enemy  being  driven  in  the  course  of  one  hour  more  than  two  miles  through  the  thick 
woods  already  mentioned,  by  less  than  half  their  numbers. 

From  every  account,  the  enemy  amounte(J  to  two  thousand  combatants.  The  troops 
actually  engaged  against  them  were  short  of  nine  hundred.  This  horde  of  savages,  with 
their  allies,  abandoned  themselves  to  flight,  and  dispersed  with  terror  and  dismay, 
leaving  our  victorious  armv  in  full  and  quiet  possession  of  the  field  of  battle  which  termi- 
nated under  the  influence  [range]  of  the  guns  of  the  British  garrison,  as  you  will  observe 
by  the  enclosed  correspondence  between  Major  Campbell,  the  commandant,  and  myself, 
upon  the  occasion.      [This  correspondence  is  given  after  this  report]. 

The  bravery  and  conduct  of  every  officer  belonging  to  the  army,  from  the  Generals 
down  to  the  Ensigns,  merit  my  highest  approbation.  There  were,  however,  some  whose 
rank  and  situation  placed  their  conduct  in  a  very  conspicuous  point  of  view,  and  which  I 
observed  with  pleasure  and  the  most  lively  gratitude ;  among  whom  I  must  beg  leave  to 
mention  Brigadier  General  Wilkinson  and  Colonel  Hamtramck  the  commandants  of  the 
right  and  left  wings  of  the  legion,  whose  brave  example  inspired  the  troops.  To  those  I 
must  add    the  names   of    my   faithful  and   gallant    Aids-de-camp  Captains    DeButt    and 


T.  Lewis,  and  Lieutenant  Harrison,  who,  with  the  Adjutant  General.  Major  Mills, 
rendered  the  most  essential  service  by  communicating  my  orders  in  every  direction,  and 
by  their  conduct  and  bravery  exciting  the  troops  to  press  for  victory. 

Lieutenant  Covington,  upon  whom  the  command  of  the  cavalry  now  devolved,  cut 
down  two  savages  witli  his  own  hand,  and  Lieutenant  Webb  one,  in  turning  the  enemy's 
left  flank. 

The  wounds  received  by  Captains  Slough  and  Prior,  and  Lieutenant  Campbell 
Smith  an  extra  aid-de-camp  to  General  Wilkinson  of  the  legionary  infantry,  and  Captain 
Van  Rensselaer  of  the  dragoons.  Captain  Rawlins.  Lieutenant  McKenny,  and  Ensign 
Duncan  of  the  mounted  volunteers,  bear  honorable  testimony  of  their  bravery  and 

Captains  H.  Lewis  and  Brock  with  their  companies  of  light  infantry,  had  to  sustain 
an  unequal  fire  for  some  time,  which  they  supported  with  fortitude.  In  fact,  every 
officer  and  soldier,  who  had  an  opportunity  to  come  into  action,  displayed  that  true 
bravery  which  will  always  ensure  success.  And  here  permit  me  to  declare  that  I  never 
discovered  more  true  spirit  and  anxiety  for  action  than  appeared  to  pervade  the  whole 
of  the  mounted  volunteers,  and  I  am  well  persuaded  that,  had  the  enemy  maintained 
their  favorite  ground  for  one  half  hour  longer,  they  would  have  most  severely  felt  the 
prowess  of  that  corps. 

But,  whilst  I  pay  this  just  tribute  to  the  living,  I  must  not  neglect  the  .gallant  dead, 
among  whom  we  have  to  lament  the  early  death  ot  those  worthy  and  brave  officers 
Captain  Mis  Campbell  of  the  dragoons,  and  Lieutenant  Towles  of  the  light  infantry,  of 
the  legion,  who  fell  in  the  first  charge. 

Enclosed  is  a  particular  return  of  the  [thirty-three]  killed  and  [one  hundred] 
wounded  [eleven  of  whom  died  previous  to  the  sending  of  this  report].  The  loss  of  the 
enemy  was  more  than  double  to  that  of  the  Federal  army.  The  woods  were  strewed  for 
a  considerable  distance  with  the  dead  bodies  of  the  Aborigines  and  their  white  auxil- 
iaries, the  latter  armed  with  British  muskets  and  bayonets. 

We  remained  three  days  and  nights  on  the  banks  of  the  Miami  [Maumee]  in  front 
of  the  field  of  battle,  during  which  time  all  the  houses  and  cornfields  were  consumed 
and  destroyed  for  a  considerable  distance,  both  above  and  below  Fort  Miami,  as  well  as 
within  pistol  shot  of  that  garrison  who  were  compelled  to  remain  tacit  spectators  to  this 
general  devastation  and  conflagration,  among  which  were  the  houses,  stores,  and  prop- 
erty of  Colonel  McKee  the  British  Aborigine  agent  and  principal  stimulator  of  the  war 
now  existing  between  the  United  States  and  the  savages. 

The  army  returned  to  this  place  [Fort  Defiance]  on  the  27th  by  easy  marches,  laying 
waste  the  villages  and  cornfields  for  about  fifty  miles  on  [along]  each  side  of  the  Miami 
[Maumee].  There  remain  yet  a  great  number  of  villages,  and  a  great  quantity  of  corn, 
to  be  consumed  or  destroyed,  upon  An  Glaise  and  the  Miami  [Maumee]  above  this  place, 
which  will  be  effected  in  the  course  of  a  few  days. 

In  the  interim  we  shall  improve  Fort  Defiance  and,  as  soon  as  the  escort  returns  with 
the  necessary  supplies  from  Greenville  and  Fort  Recovery,  the  army  will  proceed  to  the 
Miami  Villages  [at  the  head  of  the  Maumee  River]  in  order  to  accomplish  the  [final] 
object  of  the  campaign. 

It  is,  however,  not  improbable  that  the  enemy  may  make  one  desperate  effort  against 
this  army,  as  it  is  said  that  a  reinforcement  was  hourly  expected  at  Fort  Miami  from  Nia- 
gara as  well  as  numerous  tribes  of  Aborigines  living  on  the  margin  and  islands  of  the 
lakes.  This  is  a  business  rather  to  be  wished  for  than  dreaded  whilst  the  army  remains 
in  force.  Their  numbers  will  only  tend  to  confuse  the  savages  and  the  victory  will  be  the 
more  complete  and  decisive,  and  which  may  eventually  ensure  a  permanent  and  happy 


Under  these  impressions,  I  have  the  honor  to  be  your  most  obedient  and  very  hum- 
ble servant.  Anthony   Wayne. 

The  honorable  Major  General  H.  Knox,  Secretary  of  War. 

N.  B.  I  forgot  to  mention  that  I  met  my  flag  [Christopher  Miller]  on  the  Kith,  who 
was  returning  with  an  evasive  answer  in  order  to  gain  time  for  the  arrival  of  the  rein- 
forcement mentioned  by  the  Shawanee  Aborigine,  and  which  actually  did  arrive  two  days 
before  the  action. 

The  correspondence  that  passed  between  the  British  and  American 
commanders,  mentioned    on  page  209,  is  as  follows: 

Miami  [MaumeeI  River  August  21.  1794. 
Sir  :  An  army  of  the  United  States  of  America,  said  to  be  under  your  command,  having  taken  post 
on  the  banks  of  the  Miami  [Maumee]  for  upwards  of  the  last  twenty-four  hours,  almost  within  the  reach 
of  the  cuns  of  this  fort  [Miamil.  beinc  a  post  belonpinK  to  his  Majesty  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  occupied 
by  his  Majesty's  troops,  and  which  I  have  the  honor  to  command,  it  becomes  my  duty  to  inform  myself  as 
speedily  as  possible,  in  what  light  I  am  to  view  your  making  such  near  approaches  to  this  garrison. 

I  have  no  hesitation  on  my  part  to  say  that  I  know  of  no  war  existing  between  Great  Britain  and 

!  have  the  honor  to  be.  sir,  with  great  respect,  your  most  obedient  and  very  humble  servant. 

William  Campbell, 
Major   24th    regiment,  commanding  a  British  post  on  the  banks  of  the  Miami  [MaumeeI.    To  Major 
General  Wayne,  &c. 

Camp  on  the  Bank  of  the  Miami  [Maumee]    August  31,  1794. 

Sir:  I  have  received  your  letter  of  this  date,  requiring  from  me  the  motives  which  have  moved 
the  army  under  my  command  to  the  position  they  at  present  occupy,  far  within  the  acknowledged  juris- 
diction of  the  United  States  of  America.  Without  questioning  the  authority  or  the  propriety,  sir,  of 
your  interrogatory.  I  think  I  may  without  breach  of  decorum  observe  to  you  that,  were  you  entitled  to  an 
answer,  the  most  full  and  satisfactory  one  was  announced  to  you  from  the  muzzles  of  ray  small  arms  yes- 
terday morning  in  the  action  against  the  horde  of  savages  in  the  vicinity  of  your  post,  which  terminated 
gloriously  to  the  American  arms  ;  but,  had  it  continued  until  the  Aborigines.  &c..  were  driven  under  the 
influence  of  the  post  and  guns  you  mention,  they  would  not  have  much  impeded  the  progress  of  the  vic- 
torious army  under  my  command,  as  no  such  post  was  established  at  the  commencement  of  the  present 
war  between  the  Aborigines  and  the  United  States. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  with  great  respect,  your  most  obedient,  and  very  humble  servant. 

Anthony  Wayne. 
Major  General,  and  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Federal  Army. 

To  Major  William  Campbell.  &c. 

Fort  Miami  August  22d,  1794. 

Sir  :  Although  your  letter  of  yesterday's  date  fully  authorizes  me  to  any  act  of  hostility  against  the 
army  of  the  United  States  of  America  in  this  neighborhood  under  your  command,  yet,  still  anxious  to 
prevent  that  dreadful  decision  which,  perhaps,  is  not  intended  to  be  appealed  to  by  either  of  our  coun- 
tries. I  have  forborne,  for  those  two  days  past,  to  resent  those  insults  you  have  offered  to  the  British  flag 
flying  at  this  fort,  by  approaching  it  within  pistol  shot  of  my  works,  not  only  singly,  but  in  numbers,  with 
arms  in  their  hands. 

Neither  is  it  my  wish  to  wage  war  with  individuals  ;  hut,  should  you  after  this  continue  to  approach 
my  pobt  in  the  threatening  manner  you  are  at  this  moment  doing,  my  indispensable  duty  to  my  King  and 
country,  and  the  honor  of  my  profession,  will  oblige  me  to  have  recourse  to  those  measures  which  thou- 
sands of  either  nation  may  hereafter  have  cause  to  regret,  and  which,  1  solemnly  appeal  to  God,  I  have 
used  my  utmost  endeavors  to  arrest. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  sir,  with  much  respect,  your  most  obedient  and  very  humble  servant. 

William  Campbell. 
Major  24th  regiment,  commanding  at  Fort  Miami. 

Major  General  Wayne,  i^c,  &c.. 

General  Wayne  adds  in  his  report  that 

No  other  notice  was  taken  of  this  letter  than  what  is  expressed  in  the  following 
letter.  The  fort  and  works  were,  however,  reconnoitered  in  every  direction,  at  some 
points  possibly  within  pistol  shot.  It  was  found  to  be  a  regular  strong  work,  the  front 
covered  by  a  wide  river,  with  four  guns  mounted  in  that  face.  The  rear,  which  was 
most  susceptible  of   approach,  had   two  regular   bastions  furnished  with   eight   pieces  of 


artillery,  the  whole  surrounded  by  a  wide  deep  ditch  with  horizontal  pickets  projecting 
from  the  burn  of  the  parapet  over  the  ditch.  From  the  bottom  of  the  ditch  to  the  top  of 
the  parapet  was  about  twenty  feet  perpendicular.  The  works  were  also  surrounded  by 
an  abbatis,  and  furnished  with  a  strong  garrison.  [The  correspondence  concluded  as 
follows]  : 

Camp,   Banks  of   Miami  [Maumee]  23d  August,   1794. 

Sir  :  In  your  letter  of  the  21st  instant  you  declare  '  I  have  no  hesitation,  on  my  part,  to  say  that  I 
know  of  no  war  existint:  between  Great  Britain  and  America." 

I,  on  my  part,  declare  the  same,  and  that  the  only  cause  I  have  to  entertain  a  contrary  idea  at 
present,  is  the  hostile  act  you  are  now  in  commission  of.  i.  e.  by  recently  taking  post  far  within  the  well 
known  and  acknowledeed  limits  of  the  United  States,  and  erecting  a  fortification  in  the  heart  of  the 
settlements  of  the  Aboriyine  tribes  now  at  war  with  the  United  States.  This,  sir,  appears  to  be  an  act 
of  the  hi^rhest  aggression,  and  destructive  to  the  peace  and  interest  of  the  Union.  Hence,  it  becomes  my 
duty  to  desire,  and  1  do  hereby  desire  and  demand,  in  the  name  of  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
that  you  immediately  desist  from  anv  further  act  of  hostility  or  aggression,  by  forbearing  to  fortify,  and 
by  withdrawing  the  troops,  artillery,  and  stores,  under  your  orders  and  direction,  forthwith,  and  remov- 
ing to  the  nearest  post  occupied  by  his  Britannic  Majesty's  troops  at  the  peace  of  1783.  and  which  you 
will  be  permitted  to  do  unmolested  by  the  troops  under  my  command. 

I  am.  with  very  great  respect,  sir,  your  most  obedient  and  very  humble  servant, 

Anthony  Wayne, 

Major  William  Campbell,  &c. 

Fort  Miami  23d  August,  17fH, 

Sir:  I  have  this  moment  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  this  date;  in  answer  to 
which  I  have  only  to  say,  that,  being  placed  here  in  the  command  of  a  British  post,  and  acting  in  a 
military  capacity  only,  I  cannot  enter  into  any  discussion,  either  on  the  right  or  impropriety  of  my  occu- 
pying my  present  position.  Those  are  matters  that  I  conceive  will  be  best  left  to  the  embassadors  of  our 
different  nations. 

Having  said  this  much,  permit  me  to  inform  you  that  I  certainly  will  not  abandon  this  post  at  the 
summons  of  any  power  whatever,  until  I  receive  orders  to  that  purpose  from  those  I  have  the  honor  to 
serve  under,  or  the  fortune  of  war  should  oblige  me. 

I  must  still  adhere,  sir,  to  the  purport  of  my  letter  this  morning,  to  desire  that  your  army,  or 
individuals  belonging  to  it,  will  not  approach  within  reach  of  my  cannon,  without  expecting  the  conse- 
quences attending  it. 

Although  1  have  said,  in  the  former  part  of  m\'  letter,  that  my  situation  here  is  totally  military,  yet, 
let  me  add.  sir,  that  I  am  much  deceived  if  his  Majesty,  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  had  not  a  post  on  this 
river  at  and  prior  to  the  period  you  mention.  (Fort  Miami  at  the  head  of  the  Maumee  River,  captured 
by  Chief  Nicholas  in  1763]. 

I  have  the  lienor  to  be,  sir.  with  the  greatest  respect,  your  most  obedient  and   very  humble  servant. 

William  Campbell, 
Major  24th  regiment,  commanding  at  Fort  Miami. 

To  Major  General  Wayne,  &c. 

In  his  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War  General  Wayne  writes  that 
The  only  notice  taken  of  this  letter,  was  by  immediately  setting  fire 
to,  and  destroying,  everything  within  view  of  the  fort,  and  even  under 
the  muzzles  of  his  guns.  Had  Mr.  Campbell  carried  his  threats  into 
execution,  it  is  more  than  i>rol)able  that  he  would  have  experienced  a 

Antoine  Lassell,  a  native  of  Canada  and  a  volunteer  in  the  British 
Captain  Caldwell's  company  of  refugees,  friends  and  allies  of  the 
hostile  Aborigines,  was  captured  by  the  Americans  the  20th  August, 
the  day  of  the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timber,  and  he  testified  before  General 
Wayne  at  Fort  Defiance  as  follows  : 

He  says  that  he  has  resided  for  twenty-nine  years  in  Upper  Canada,  twenty-one  of 
which  he  has  passed  at  Detroit  and  on  this  [Maumee]  river,  and  that  he  has  constantly 
traded  with  the  Aborigines  all  that  time  ;  that  he  resided  at  the  Miami  villages  for  nine- 
teen years  before  Harmar's  expedition,  when   he  kept  a  store  at   that  place,  and   used  to 


supply  other  traders  with  goods  ;  that  he  has  since  lived  chiefly  at  Bean  Creek  or  Little 
Glaise  [on  left  bank  of  Tiffin  River,  one  rffile  below  Brunersburg  and  one  mile-and-a-half 
from  Fort  Defiance]  at  the  Little  Turtle's  town. 

That,  having  lived  so  long  among  the  hostile  Aborigines,  he  is  perfectly  acquainted 
with  the  tribes  and  numbers. 

That  the  Delawares  have  about  MK)  men  including  those  who  live  on  both  rivers  — 
the  White  River  and  Bean  Creek.  That  the  Miamis  are  about  200  warriors  ;  part  of 
them  live  on  the  [River]  St.  Joseph,  eight  leagues  from  this  place  [Fort  Defiance]  ;  that 
the  men  were  all  in  the  action  [at  Fallen  Timber]  but  the  women  are  yet  at  that  place, 
or  Piquet's  village  [not  far  from  the  present  St.  Joseph.  Indiana]  ;  that  a  road  leads 
from  that  place  directly  to  it ;  [This  trail  is  yet  remembered  in  Defiance  County.  It 
remained  until  obliterated  by  the  development  of  farms,  in  places  being  noticeable  as 
late  as  the  year  18(i0]  ;  that  the  number  of  warriors  belonging  to  that  place,  when  all 
together,  amounts  to  about  40. 

That  the  Shawanese  have  about  :{00  warriors  ;  that  the  Tawas  [Ottawas]  on  this 
river  are  2.50  ;   that  the  Wyandots  are  about  :i00. 

That  those  Aborigines  were  generally  in  the  action  of  the  20th  instant,  except  some 
hunting  parties.  That  a  reinforcement  of  regular  troops  and  200  militia  arrived  at  Fort 
Miami  a  few  days  before  the  army  appeared ;  that  the  regular  troops  in  the  fort 
amounted  to  2.i0,  exclusive  of  militia. 

That  about  seventy  of  the  militia,  including  Captain  Caldwell's  corps,  were  in  the 
action.  That  Colonel  McKee,  Captain  Elliott,  and  Simon  Girty,  were  in  the  field,  but 
at  a  respectful  distance  and  near  the  river. 

That  Colonel  M'Kee's  existence  now  depends  upon  the  exertions  he  can  make  to 
retrieve  the  loss  and  disgrace  of  the  Aborigines  ;  that  he  will  use  every  influence  and 
means  in  his  power  to  raise  the  distant  nations  to  come  forward  immediately  and  assist 
in  the  war. 

That,  should  they  not  be  able  to  collect  in  force  sufiicient  to  fight  this  army,  their 
intention  is  to  move  on  the  Spanish  side  of  the  Mississippi  where  part  of  their  nations 
now  live ;  that  Blue  Jacket  told  him  (Lassell)  that  he  intended  to  move  immediately  to 
Chicago,  on  the  Illinois. 

That  the  Aborigines  have  wished  for  peace  for  some  time,  but  that  Colonel  M'Kee 
always  dissuaded  them  from  it.  and  stimulated  them  to  continue  the  war. 

Colonel  John  Johnson,  while  American  Agent  to  the  Aborigines 
at  Fort  Wayne  knew  this  Antoine  Lasselle,  or  LaSalle.  He  was 
informed  that  Lasselle  was  captured  at  the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timber 
while  dressed  and  painted  as  a  savage,  and  that  upon  examination  at 
Fort  Deposit  he  was  sentenced  to  be  hung.  A  temporary  gallows  was 
erected,  and  the  execution  was  ordered,  when  Colonel  John  F.  Ham- 
tramck  of  the  1st  Regiment  Infantry,  who  was  also  a  Frenchman, 
interceded  and  saved  his  life.  His  brother  ransomed  him  at  Fort 
Wayne  the  13th  October,  1794  (see  ante,  page  '205)  by  three  American 
prisoners.  General  Wayne  and  Colonel  Hamtramck  were  quick  to  see 
the  worth  of  these  brothers  Lasselle  to  the  American  cause,  and  culti- 
vated their  interest  which,  from  their  wit  and  gratitude,  amounted  to  a 
great  force  in  turning  the  Aborigines  from  the  British.  The  blanks  in 
General  Wayne's  reports  on  another  page  may  be  filled  with  the  name 
Antoine  Lasselle.      Colonel    Hamtramck  refers  to  his  favorable  work  in 


letters  given  on  subsequent  pages.  In  after  years  Antoine  was  licensed 
to  trade  with  the  Aborigines  at  Fort  Wayne.  Occasionally,  in  his  rem- 
iniscent moods,  he  would  clasp  his  neck  with  both  hands  in  reference  to 
'  Mad  Anthony's  '  (General  Wayne's)  desire  to   hang   him.  Another 

prisoner,  John  Bevin,  a  drummer  in  the  24th  British  regiment,  testified 
after  the  battle  as  follows: 

There  are  now  four  companies  of  the  24th  at  Fort  Miami,  averaging  about  .'iO  men, 
non-commissioned  officers  and  privates  included  ;  that  there  was  part  of  Governor 
Simcoe's  corps  in  the  garrison,  together  with  about  sixty  Canadians  ;  that  the  whole 
number  of  men  actually  in  the  garrison,  including  officers,  &c.,  exceeded  400;  that  the 
number  of  Aborigines,  Canadians,  &c.  in  the  action  [Battle  of  Fallen  Timber]  were  at 
least  2000,  according  to  the  report  made  by  Colonel  M'Keeand  Captain  Elliott  to  Major 
Campbell  after  the  action,  who  declared  in  his  presence  that  there  was  actually  that 
number  engaged. 

That  there  were  four  nine-pounders,  two  large  howitzers,  and  six  six-pounders, 
mounted  in  the  fort,  and  two  swivels,  and  well  supplied  with  ammunition. 

That  the  Aborigines  were  regularly  supplied  with  provision  drawn  from  the  British 
magazine  in  the  garrison  by  Colonel  M'Kee. 

That  a  certain  Mr.  Newman,  a  deserter  from  the  American  army,  arrived  at  the 
fort  about  eight  days  before  the  army  made  its  appearance,  who  gave  information  to 
Major  Campbell  that  the  object  of  the  Americans  was  to  take  that  post  and  garrison; 
that  General  Wayne  told  the  troops  not  to  be  uneasy  about  provisions,  that  there  was 
plenty  in  the  British  garrison. 

That  Governor  Simcoe  was  expected  at  that  place  every  hour  in  consequence  of  an 
express  sent  to  Niagara  after  the  arrival  of  Newman  the  deserter,  but  had  not  arrived 
when  he  came  away  ;  that  the  distance  from  Fort  Miami  to  Detroit  is  sixty  miles,  which 
is  generally  performed  in  two  days. 

The  militia  of  Detroit  and  its  vicinity  amounts  to  near  two  thousand ;  that  a 
Colonel  Baubee  commands  them;  that  M'Kee  is  also  a  Colonel  of  militia;  that  a 
Lieutenant  Silve  of  the  British  regiment  is  in  the  Aborigine  department  and  acts  as 
secretary  to  Colonel  M'Kee;  that  a  Captain  Bunbury  of  the  same  regiment  is  also  in 
the  .Aborigine  department. 

That  he  has  seen  a  great  number  of  wounded  Aborigines  pass  the  fort,  but  did  not 
learn  what  number  were  killed  ;  that  the  retiring  Aborigines  appeared  much  dejected 
and  much  altered  to  what  they  were  in  the  morning  before  the  action  ;  that  he  knew  of 
one  company  of  volunteers,  commanded  by  Captain  Caldwell,  all  white  men  and  armed 
with  British  muskets  and  bayonets,  who  were  in  the  action. 

A    returned    prisoner    gave    information     21st     October,    1794,    as 
follows : 

James  Neill,  a  packhorse-man  in  the  service  of  Elliott  and  'Williams,  aged  Vi  years, 
and  belonging  to  Beardstown,  in  Kentucky,  was  in  the  action  of  the  .Wth  June  at  Fort 
Recovery,  and  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Aborigines,  together  with  Peter  Keil  and 
another  by  the  name  of  Cherry,  and  three  pack  horse-men. 

After  he  was  taken  prisoner  he  was  carried  to  the  British  fort  at  the  Miami 
[Maumee]  where,  however,  he  was  not  permitted  to  be  seen  by  the  British  as  the  Abo- 
rigines wanted  to  carry  him  to  their  own  town;  thence  he  was  taken  to  Detroit,  and 
thence  to  Michilimackinac,  where  a  British  officer  bought  him,  who  sent  him  to  Detroit 
to  Colonel  England  who  treated  them  well,  and  sent  them  to  Niagara,  at  which  place 
Peter  Keil,  being  an  Irishman,  enlisted  in  the  Queen's  rangers. 


Neill  understood  that  there  were  of  Aborigines  and  white  men,  1500  in  the  attack  of 
Fort  Recovery ;  he  himself  did  not  see  the  whole,  but  he  saw  upwards  of  seven  hundred. 

He  understood  they  lost  a  great  many  in  killed  and  wounded  ;  he  himself  saw  about 
twenty  dead  carried  off,  and  many  wounded,  while  he  was  tied  to  the  stump  of  a  tree 
about  half  a  mile  distant  from  the  firing. 

The  Aborigines,  on  their  return  to  the  Miami  fort,  asserted  that  no  enemy  ever 
fought  better  than  the  people  at  Fort  Recovery ;  and  Neill  was  told  by  Captain  Doyle  at 
Michilimackinac,  that   the  Aborigines  lost  two  to  one  that  they  did  at  St.  Clair's  defeat. 

Neill  was  taken  by  the  and  made  a  present  to  the  Ottawas  who  live  near 
the  fort  at  Michilimackinac. 

Neill  was  at  Detroit  when  the  news  arrived  of  General  Wayne's  action  with  the 
Aborigines,  the  20th  August.  He  received  the  information  from  one  John  Johnson  who 
was  a  deserter  from  General  Wayne's  army,  and  then  was  a  militia  man  of  Detroit,  and 
in  the  action  against  General  Wayne.  He  spoke  of  the  affair  as  a  complete  defeat ; 
that  the  Aborigines  lost  a  great  many  but  he  could  not  tell  how  many.  He  says  the 
Aborigines,  upon  being  defeated,  wanted  to  take  refuge  in  the  British  fort ;  that  they 
were  denied,  which  greatly  exasperated  them. 

The  militia  of  Detroit  were  again  ordered  out,  and  several  Captains  put  in  the 
guard-house  for  refusing.  He  understood  the  militia  men  were  forced  on  board  vessels 
and  sent  to  Roche  de  Bout. 

Upon  his  arrival  at  Niagara  he  understood  that  most  of  the  troops  were  ordered  to 
reinforce  the  garrison  at  the  Miami   [Maumee]   River,  but  Governor  Simcoe  did  not  go. 

Neill  says  that  it  was  generally  said  there  were  only  seven  hundred  Aborigines  at 
General  St.  Clair's  defeat. 

Immediately  following  the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timber  many  ot  the 
savages,  not  finding  the  expected  support  and  protection  from  the 
British  at  Fort  Miami,  fled  to  Detroit  the  British  headquarters,  where 
an  estimate  placed  their  number,  within  a  few  days,  at  thirteen  hun- 
dred. Another  evidence  of  the  severe  effect  of  the  battle  on  them  and 
the  British  militia  with  them,  was  the  equipment  of  another  hospital 
with  an  additional  surgeon  at  Detroit,  the  expense  of  which  was 
approved  by  Lieutenant  Governor  Simcoe  the  31st  October.  The 
British  also  proceeded  at  once  to  strengthen  Fort  Lernoult  at  Detroit; 
and  a  blockhouse  was  built  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river,  also  six 
gunboats  for  patrolling  the  river.  ' 

Ten  days   after   the   Battle  of    Fallen    Timber,   30th    August,  1794, 

Colonel   M'Kee  wrote  to  Colonel  England,  commandant  at  Detroit,  as 

follows : 

Camp  near  Fort  Miami  August  30,  ITOl. 

Sir  ;  I  have  been  employed  several  days  in  endeavoring  to  fix  the  Aborigines  (who 
have  been  driven  from  their  villages  and  cornfields)  between  the  fort  and  the  Bay.  Swan 
Creek  is  generally  agreed  upon,  and  will  be  a  very  convenient  place  for  the  delivery  of 
provisions,  &c. 

The  last  accounts  from  General  Wayne's  army  were  brought  me  last  night  by  an 
Aborigine  who  says  the  army  would  not  be  able  to  reach  the  Glaise  [at  Fort  Defiance] 
before  yesterday  evening,  it  is  supposed   on  account  of  the  sick   and   wounded,  many  of 

"^Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Collections.     Farmer's  History  of  Detroit  and  Michigan. 


whom  they  bury  every  day.    I  propose  being  in  town  in  a  day  or  two  when  I  hope  for  the 
pleasure  of  paying  you  my  respects. 

The  military  interests  of  this  reg^ion  in  the  latter  part  of  1794  are 
set  forth  in  the  followinjj^  report  of  General  Wayne  to  the  Secretary  of 
War,  viz : 

Head  Quarters,  Miami  Villages  [Fort  Wayne]  17th  October,  1794. 

Sir;  I  have  the  honor  to  enclose  a  duplicate  of  my  letter  of  the  20th  ultimo, 
together  with  the  general  return  of  the  legion,  and  an  invoice  of  stores  and  medicine 
wanted  in  the  hospital  department. 

The  great  number  of  sick  belonging  to  the  mounted  volunteers,  added  to  the  sick 
and  wounded  of  the  legion,  has  exhausted  all  the  stores  forwarded  for  the  year  1794,  so 
that  1  shall  be  under  the  necessity  of  ordering  the  Surgeon  General  to  purchase  a  tem- 
porary supply  at  Fort  Washington  at  an  advanced  but  current  price,  at  that  place. 

The  Quartermaster  General  is  directed  to  make  out  a  return  of  the  stores  issued,  on 
hand,  and  wanting,  in  his  department.  Major  Burbeck  has  similar  orders  for  the 
Ordnance  Department,  which  will  be  transmitted  by  the  first  opportunity.  The  unfor- 
tunate death  of  Mr.  Robert  Elliot,  the  acting  contractor,  who  was  killed  by  the 
Aborigines  on  the  (ith  instant  near  Fort  Hamilton,  added  to  the  deranged  state  of 
that  department,  has  made  it  my  duty  to  order  the  Quartermaster  General  to  supply 
every  defect  on  the  part  of  the  contractors,  and  at  their  expense,  in  behalf  of  the  United 
States,  to  be  settled  at  the  treasury  at  a  future  day.  The  posts  in  contemplation  at 
Chillicothe  or  Picquetown  on  the  Miami  of  the  Ohio,  at  Loramie's  store  on  the  north 
branch,  and  at  the  old  Tawa  town  on  the  AuGlaise  [River]  are  with  a  view  to  facilitate 
the  transportation  of  supplies  by  water  and  which,  to  a  certainty,  will  reduce  the  land 
carriage  of  dead  or  heavy  articles,  at  proper  seasons,  viz  :  late  in  the  fall  and  early  in 
the  spring,  to  thirty-five  miles,  and  in  times  of  freshets  to  twenty  in  place  of  17.")  by  the 
most  direct  road  to  Grand  Glaise  [Fort  Defiance]  and  150  to  the  Miami  Villages  from 
Fort  Washington  on  the  present  route  of  transport  in  time  of  war,  and  decidedly  so  in 
time  of  peace. 

The  mounted  volunteers  of  Kentucky  marched  from  this  place  on  the  morning  of 
the  14th  instant  for  Fort  Washington,  where  they  are  to  be  mustered  and  discharged 
agreeably  to  instructions  mentioned  in  the  enclosed  duplicates  of  letters  to  Major 
General  Scott  and  Captain  Edward  Butler,  upon  the  occasion. 

The  conduct  of  both  officers  and  men  of  this  corps,  in  general,  has  been  better  than 
any  militia  I  have  heretofore  seen  in  the  field  for  so  great  a  length  of  time.  But  it  would 
not  do  to  retain  them  any  longer,  although  our  present  situation,  as  well  as  the  term  for 
which  they  were  enrolled,  would  have  justified  their  being  continued  in  service  until  the 
14th  November,  in  order  to  escort  the  supplies  from  Fort  Washington  to  the  head  of  the 
line,  whilst  the  regular  troops  were  employed  in  the  completion  of  the  fortifications,  and 
keeping  the  enemy  in  check  so  as  to  prevent  them  from  insulting  the  convoys;  but  they 
were  homesick.  All  this  I  am  now  obliged  to  perform  with  the  skeleton  of  the  legion,  as 
the  body  is  daily  wasting  away  from  the  expiration  of  the  enlistments  of  the  soldiery. 
Nor  is  it  improbable  that  we  shall  yet  have  to  fight  for  the  protection  of  our  convoys  and 
posts.  It  is  therefore  to  be  regretted  that  the  bill  in  contemplation  for  the  completion  of 
the  legion,  as  reported  by  the  committee  of  the  House  of  Representatives,  was  not  passed 
into  a  law  in  the  early  part  of  last  session  of  Congress. 

The  enclosed  estimate  will  demonstrate  the  mistaken  policy  and  bad  economy  of 
substituting  mounted  volunteers  in  place  of  regular  troops  ;  and  unless  effectual  measures 
are  immediately  adopted  by  both  Houses  for  raising  troops  to  garrison  the  Western 
posts,  we   have   fought,  bled,  and  conquered,  in  vain;    the  fertile  country  we  are  now  in 


possession  of  will  again  become  a  range  to  the  hostile  Aborigines  of  the  West.  who. 
meeting  with  no  barrier,  the  frontier  inhabitants  will  fall  an  easy  prey  to  a  fierce  and 
savage  enemy  whose  tender  mercies  are  cruelty  :  and  who  will  improve  the  opportunity 
to  desolate  and  lay  waste  all  the  settlements  on  the  margin  of  the  Ohio,  and  which  they 
will  be  able  to  effect  with  impunity,  unless  some  speedy  and  proper  measures  are 
adopted  to  re-engage  the  remnant  of  the  legion.  The  present  pay  and  scanty  ration  will 
not  induce  the  soldiery  to  continue  in  service  after  the  period  for  which  they  are  now 
enlisted,  and  which  will  expire,  almost  in  toto.  between  this  and  the  beginning  of  May. 

I  had  the  honor  to  transmit  you  a  copy  of  the  deposition  of  a  certain 

[.A.ntoine  Laselle]  a  Canadian  prisoner,  taken  in  the  action  of  the  20th  August  [the 
Battle  of  Fallen  Timber];  his  brother  arrived  at  this  place  on  the  i::!th  instant  with  a 
flag  [of  truce]  and  three  American  prisoners  which  he  redeemed  from  the  Aborigines 
with  a  view  of  liberating.  Enclosed  is  his  narrative  given  upon  oath,  by  which  you  will 
see  that  Governor  Simcoe.  Colonel  M'Kee,  and  the  famous  Captain  Brandt,  are  at  this 
moment  tampering  with  the  hostile  chiefs,  and  will  undoubtedly  prevent  them  from 
concluding  a  treaty   of   peace   with    the    United    States,    if   possible.     I  shall,  however. 

endeavor   to  counteract   them   through   the  means  of [Antoine   Lasalle] 

who  has  a  considerable  influence  with  the  principal  hostile  chiefs,  and  whose  interests  it 
will  eventually  be  to  promote  a  permanent  peace.  But.  in  order  to  facilitate  and  effect 
this  desirable  object,  we  ought  to  produce  a  conviction  to  them,  as  well  as  to  the  British 
agents,  that  we  are  well  prepared  for  war ;  hence  I  have  been  induced  to  bestow  much 
labor  upon  two  forts  [Fort  Defiance  and  Fort  Wayne]  of  which  the  enclosed  are 
draughts*  and  I  am  free  to  pronounce  them  the  most  respectable  now  in  the  occupancy 
of  the  United  States,  even  in  their  present  situation  [condition]  which  is  not  quite 
perfect  as  yet.  The  British,  however,  are  not  to  learn  that  they  may  possibly  be  left 
without  garrisons ;  they  well  know  the  term  for  which  the  veterans  of  the  legion  are 
engaged,  as  well  from  our  laws  and  proceedings  of  Congress  as  from  our  deserters,  and 
that  no  provision  is  yet  made  to  supplv  their  places;  circumstances  that  Mr.  Simcoe 
will  not  fail  to  impress  most  forcibly  upon  the  minds  of  the  .\borigines  with  whom  he  is 
now  in  treaty ;  and  to  hold  up  to  them  a  flattering  prospect  of  soon  possessing  those 
posts,  and  their  lost  country,  with  ease  and  certainty. 

I  have  thought  it  ray  duty  to  mention  those  facts  to  you  at  this  crisis,  to  the  end  that 
Congress  may  be  early  and  properly  impressed  with  the  critical  situation  of  the  Western 
country-,  so  as  to  adopt  measures  for  retaining  the  posts,  and  for  the  protection  of  the 
frontier  inhabitants,  previouslv  to  the  expiration  of  the  term  of  service  for  which  the 
troops  have  been  enlisted.  I  have  the  honor  to  be.  Sec. 

Anthony   W.avne. 
Major  General  Knox.  Secretan.-  of  War. 

An  army  of  two  thousand  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates 
was  recommended  to  be  enlisted  for  three  years.  The  general  expense 
of  such  army  was  estimated  as  follows,  viz:  Bounty  to  each  soldier 
ten  dollars:  each  'stand  of  arms'  ten  dollars:  one  suit  clothing  per 
year  thirty  dollars:  subsistence  per  man  four  dollars  per  month.  Pav 
per  month :  twelve  sergeant-majors  and  quartermaster  sergeants  seven 
dollars  each:  Eighty-four  sergeants  six  dollars  each;  ninety-six  cor- 
porals live  dollars  each:  and  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eight 
privates  each  at  three  dollars  per  month. 

'-■'  The  writer  has  been  unable  lo  6nd  ihe  plans  of  the  Forts  here  mentioned,  by  his  several  inquiries 
at  the  State  and  War  Departments,  and  United  States  Library,  at  Washington. 


The  return  of  the  army,  opinions  regarding  questions  in  general, 
and  the  opening  of  friendly  negotiations  with  the  Aborigines,  are 
announced  in  the  following  letter  from  General  Wayne  to  the  Secre- 
tary, viz : 

Head  Quarters,  Greenville  12  November,  1794. 

Sir  ;  I  have  the  honor  to  transmit  you  a  duplicate  of  my  letter  of  the  ITth  ultimo 
from  the  Miami  villages,  and  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  a  letter  from  Colonel  Alex- 
ander Hamilton  of  the  2.")th  September,  enclosing  an  extract  of  a  letter  from  Mr.  Jay 
Minister  Plenipotentiary  from  the  United  States  at  the  court  of  London,  dated  the  12th 
July,  r7!)4  ;   also  a  letter  from  Major  Stagg  of  the  4th  ultimo. 

The  enclosed  copy  of  a  correspondence  between  the  contractor's  agents,  the 
Quartermaster  General  and  myself,  will  inform  you  of  additional  measures  taken  to 
obtain  supplies  for  the  support  of  the  respective  posts,  and  the  skeleton  of  the  legion. 
I  have  the  honor  to  enclose  copies  of  certain  overtures  and  speeches  from  the  Wyandots 
settled  at,  and  in  the  vicinity  of,  Sandusky,  together  with  my  answer ;  what  the  result 
may  be  is  yet  very  problematical ;  they  have,  however,  left  two  hostages  with  me  (one  of 
them  a  young  chief)  until  the  return  of  the  flag  that  went  from  this  place  on  the  .^th 
instant,  and  promised  to  be  here  again  in  the  course  of  twenty  days  with  an  answer  to 
my  propositions. 

From  the  enclosed  narrative  of a  half  breed,  and  a  brother  to (whose 

interest  I  have  made  it  to  be  true  and  faithful  to  the  United  States)  it  would  appear  that 
the  savages  are  playing  an  artful  game ;  they  have  most  certainly  met  Governor  Simcoe, 
Colonel  M'Kee,  and  Captain  Brandt,  at  the  mouth  of  Detroit  River,  at  the  proposed 
treaty  of  hostile  Aborigines ;  and,  at  the  same  time,  sent  a  deputation  to  me  with  the 
overtures  already  mentioned  as  coming  from  only  part  of  one  nation ;  it  is,  however, 
understood  by  all,  that  there  shall  be  a  temporary  suspension  of  hostilities  for  one  moon 
say  until  the  22nd  instant ;  in  fact  it  has  been  a  continued  suspension  upon  their  own 
part  ever  since  the  action  of  the  20th  August,  except  a  few  light  trifling  predatory 
parties ;  it's  true,  we  always  moved  superior  to  insult,  which  may  account  for  this 
apparent  inactivity. 

Permit  me  now  to  inform  you  that  the  skeleton  of  the  legion  arrived  at  this  place  on 
the  2nd  instant,  in  high  health  and  spirits  after  an  arduous  and  very  fatiguing,  but  a 
glorious,  tour  of  ninety-seven  days  ;  during  which  period  we  marched  and  countermarched 
upwards  of  three  hundred  miles  through  the  heart  of  an  enemy's  country,  cutting  a 
wagon  road  the  whole  way,  besides  making  and  establishing  those  two  very  respectable 
fortifications  [Forts  Defiance  and  Wayne]  the  draughts  of  which  were  enclosed  in  my 
letter  of  the  17th  ultimo.  [The  plans  of  the  Forts,  here  referred  to,  cannot  be  found 
in  the  War  Department.     They  may  have  been  in  the  British  fire  of  1814.] 

,\s  soon  as  circumstances  will  admit,  the  posts  contemplated  at  Picquetown, 
Loramie's  stores,  and  at  the  old  Tawa  [Ottawa]  towns  at  the  head  of  navigation  on 
Au  Glaise  River*  will  be  established  for  the  reception,  and  as  the  depositories,  for  stores 
and  supplies  by  water  carriage,  which  is  now  determined  to  be  perfectly  practicable  in 
proper  seasons ;  I  am,  therefore,  decidedly  of  opinion  that  this  route  ought  to  be  totally 
abandoned  and  that  adopted  as  the  most  economical,  sure,  and  certain  mode  of  supply- 
ing those  important  posts,  at  Grand  Glaise  [Fort  Defiance]  and  the  Miami  Villages ' 
[Fort  Wayne]  and  to  facilitate  an  effective  operation  towards  the  Detroit  and  Sandusky, 
should  that  measure  eventually  be  found  necessary ;  add  to  this  that  it  would  afford  a 
much  better  chain   for   the  general  protection  of  the  frontiers,  which,  with  a  block  house 

*  Probably   al  the   site  of  Fort  Amanda  built   in  1H12  at  the  north  line  of  the  present  Auplaise 
County.  Ohio, 


at  the  landing  place  on  the  Wabash  [Little  River]  eight  miles  southwest  of  the  post*  at 
the  Miami  Villages  [Fort  Wayne]  would  give  us  possession  of  all  portages  between  the 
heads  of  the  navigable  waters  of  the  Gulfs  of  Mexico  and  St.  Lawrence,  and  serve  as  a 
barrier  between  the  different  tribes  of  Aborigines  settled  along  the  margins  of  the 
rivers.  [Here  some  words,  or  sentences,  are  lost]  emptying  into  the  creek,  as  mentioned 
in  the  enclosed  copy  of  instructions  of  the  22nd  ultimo  to  Colonel  Hamtramck. 

But,  sir,  all  this  labor,  and  expense  of  blood  and  treasure,  will  be  rendered  abortive, 
and  of  none  effect,  unless  speedy  and  efficient  measures  are  adopted  by  the  National 
Legislature  to  raise  troops  to  garri-son  those  posts. 

As  I  have  already  been  full  and  explicit  upon  this  subject,  in  my  letter  of  the  l/th 
ultimo,  I  shall  not  intrude  further  upon  your  time  and  patience  than  to  assure  you  of   the 

high  esteem  and  regard  with  which  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  &c., 

Anthony    Wayne. 
Major  General  Henry  Knox,  Secretary  of  War. 

The  autumn  of  179-t,  and  the  following  winter,  were  times  of  great 
suffering  among  the  Aborigines  of  the  Maumee  River  Basin.  Their 
crops  being  destro\ed  by  General  Wayne's  army,  rendered  them  more 
than  ever  dependent  on  the  British  who,  not  being  prepared  for  so 
great  a  task  and,  withal,  quite  fatigued  already  with  their  exactions 
'did  not  half  supply  them'.t  They  were  huddled  along  the  Maumee 
River  at  the  mouth  of  Swan  Creek  where  much  sickness  prevailed  on 
account  of  exposures,  scant  supplies,  and  want  of  sanitary  regulations. 
What  few  domestic  animals  they  possessed  also  died  or  languished  on 
account  of  improper  food  and  care  and  were  eaten,  even  the  dogs. 
They  became  impatient,  murmured  at  the  failure  of  the  British  to  pro- 
tect and  supply  them  according  to  promise,  and  lamented  that  they 
did  not  make  peace  with  the  Americans  in  oyiposition  to  the  British 

They  turned  to  the  Americans  who  were  more  able  and  willing  to 
protect  and  to  Communications  from  them  were  encouraged 
by  General  Wayne  and  his  officers:  and  they  were  received  at  first  by 
way  of  iiersons  whose  interests  were  enlisted  by  the  General  (the 
brothers  Antoine  and  Jacques  Lasselle  particularh')  and  whose  names 
were  for  a  time  suppressed.  Later,  some  chiefs  personally  visited 
Forts  Defiance  and  Wayne,  and  General  Wayne  at  Greenville  on  invi- 
tation.     Evidence  now  accumulated   that  some  of   the    former   appeals 

*  This  blockhouse  was  probably  not  built,  as  no  further  mention  of  it  is  found. 

t  Narrative  of  John  Brickell  who  was  durinc  this  time  with  these  Aborigines  along  the  Maumee  as 
a  captive  of  the  Delawares— T/ie  American  Pioneer  volume  i,  page  53. 

f  Canadian  Archives,  Letters  of  Oct.  22.  24,  Nov.  2S,  and  Dec.  7,  1794;  Feb.  24  and  March  17,  27, 

II  See  Canadian  .Archives,  Letter  of  George  Ironside  to  Alexander  M'Kee  December  13,  1794,  in 
which  is  stated  that  the  Aborigines  as  yet  had  felt  only  the  weight  of  General  Wayne's  little  linger,  and 
that  he  would  surely  destroy  all  the  tribes  if  they  did  not  turn  to  peace.  M'Kee.  in  a  letter  of  March 
27.  1795,  to  Joseph  Chew  Secretary  of  the  British  Aborigine  Office,  chided  the  government  for  leaving  to 
shift  for  themselves  "  the  poor  Aborigines  who  have  long  fought  for  us  and  bled  freely  for  us,  which  is  no 
bar  to  a  peaceable  accommodation  with  .\merica'. 


to  the  Aborigines  had  been  intercepted  and  wholly  suppressed  by  white 
people  in  employ  of  the  British,  or  by  them  changed  in  interpretation 
to  suit  British  desires. 

Meantime,  the  settlers  at  the  frontiers  of  the  southern  States,  in 
conjunction  with  United  States  troops,  were  having  much  trouble  in 
allaying  the  hostility  of  the  Cherokees,  Creeks,  and  other  southern 
Aborigines  who  had  been  incited  by  their  attendance  at  the  general 
councils  held  in  179"2-93  at  the  mouth  of  the  Auglaise  River  and  at  the 
foot  of  the  lowest  rapids  of  the  Maumee,  in  accordance  with  the  British 
efforts  'to  unite  the  American  tribes'  in  their  interest. 

General  Wayne's  next  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  then  Tim- 
othv  Pickering,  is  as  follows: 

Head  Quarters.   Greenville  23rd  December,  1794. 

Sir  '.  I  have  the  honor  to  inform  you  that  the  flag  from  the  Wyandots  of  Sandusky, 
after  an  absence  of  forty-two  days,  returned  to  this  place  on  the  evening  of  the  14th 

The  enclosed  copies  of  letters  and  speeches*  will  best  demonstrate  the  insidious  part 
recently  taken  by  the  British  agents,  Messrs.  Simcoe,  M'Kee,  and  Brandt,  to  stimulate 
the  savages  to  continue  the  war,  who,  being  but  too  well  acquainted  with  the  near 
approach  of  that  period  in  which  the  legion  will  be  dissolved,  have  artfully  suggested  a 
suspension  of  hostilities  until  spring,  in  order  to  lull  us  into  a  state  of  security  to  prevent 
the  raising  of  troops,  and  to  afford  the  .\borigines  an  opportunity  to  make  their  fall  and 
winter  hunt  unmolested. 

In  the  interim,  the  British  are  vigilantly  employed  in  strengthening  and  making 
additions  to  their  fortification  at  the  foot  of  the  rapids  of  the  Miamies  of  the  lake  [Mau- 
mee River]  evidently  with  a  view  of  convincing  the  Aborigines  of  their  determination  to 
assist  and  protect  them ;  hence  there  is  strong  ground  to  conclude  that  Governor  Simcoe 
has  not  received  any  orders  to  the  contrary,  otherwise  he  would  not  presume  to  persevere 
in  those  nefarious  acts  of  hostility. 

The  Wyandots  and  other  .\borigines,  at  and  in  the  vicinity  of  the  rapids  of  San- 
dusky [River]  are  completely  within  our  power,  and  their  hunting  grounds  all  within 
striking  distance  ;  hence  their  present  solicitude  for  a    suspension  of  hostilities. 

It  is,  however,  probable  that ^ may  now  be  seriously  inclined  for  peace, 

being  the  only  surviving  principal  chief  out  of  four  belonging  to  the  Wyandots  of 
Sandusky ;  the  three  were  killed  in  the  action  of  the  20th  August  [Battle  of  Fallen 
Timber]  and  he  himself  shot  through  the  right  elbow  which  has  deprived  him  of  the  use 
of  that  arm  ;   add  to  this  his  present  candid  information  of  opinion,  which  is  corroborated 

by ,  now  with   me,  who   has  a  little  village  of   his  own  consisting  of  a  few 

Aborigine  families  settled  at  and  well  known  to  be  friendly  to  the  United  States. 

All  those  people  are,  or  affect  to  be,  in  dread  of  the  hostile  Aborigines  in  the  vicinity 
of  Detroit   (who  are  under   the  immediate  influence  of  the  British   agents)  on  account  of 

the  part   they   have   recently   taken. says,   that   the   present   flag   is   sent 

without  the  privity  or  consent  of  those  tribes,  and  expresses  some  doubts  of  its  safe 
return  should  any  of  the  hostile  Aborigines  meet  it  on  its  way  home  and  discover  the 
object  of  its  mission. 

I  shall  endeavor  to  benefit  by  this  real,  or  affected  dread,  and  propose  to  take  them 
under  the  immediate  protection  of    the  United  States,  and  build  a  fortification  at  the  foot 

*  See  American  Stale  Papers.  Aborigine  Atlairs  volume  i,  page  54H  et  sequentia. 


of  the  rapids  of  Sandusky  [River]  as  soon  as  the  season  and  circumstances  will  permit; 
this  will  serve  as  a  criterion  by  which  their  sincerity  may  be  tried,  and  [is]  perfectly 
consistent  with  the  treaty  of  the  !lth  January,  1780. 

But  unless  Congress  has  already,  or  will  immediately  adopt  effectual  measures  to 
raise  troops  to  garrison  this  as  well  as  the  other  posts  already  established,  it  would  only 
be  a  work  of  supererogation,  as  the  whole  must  [otherwise]  be  abandoned  by  the  middle 
of  May.  I  have,  however,  succeeded  in  dividing  and  distracting  the  counsels  of  the 
hostile  Aborigines,  and  hope  through  that  means  eventually  to  bring  about  a  general 
peace,  or  to  compel  the  refractory  to  pass  the  Mississippi  and  to  the  northwest  side  of 
the  lakes. 

The  British  agents  have  greatly  the  advantage  in  this  business  at  present  by  having 
it  in  their  power  to  furnish  the  Aborigines  with  every  necessary  supply  of  arms,  ammu- 
nition, and  clothing,  in  exchange  for  their  skins  and  furs,  which  will  always  make  the 
savages  dependent  upon  them  until  the  United  States  establish  trading  houses  in  their 
country,  from  which  they  can  be  supplied  with  equal  facility,  and  at  reasonable  rates. 

The  country  we  acquired  in  the  course  of  the  late  campaign,  and  the  posts  we  now 
occupy,  are  happily  situate  for  this  purpose  and  which,  with  the  addition  of  a  post  at 
Sandusky  and  one  at  the  mouth  of  the  Miamies  of  the  lake  [Maumee  River]  would 
render  the  .Aborigines  as  dependent  upon  the  ITnited  States  then,  as  they  are  now  upon 
the  British.*  If  my  recollection  serves  me,  the  President  has  more  than  once  recom- 
ended  this  measure  to  the  serious  attention  of  Congress ;  and  without  its  being  adopted 
we  can  never  expect  a  permanent  peace  with,  or  fidelity  from,  the  Aborigines. 

Could  I.  with  truth  and  propriety,  pledge  myself  to  the  hostile  tribes  that  this 
measure  would  be  adopted,  and  that  they  would  with  certainty  be  supplied  in  this  way 
in  the  course  of  the  ensuing  spring,  as  well  as  in  the  future,  I  am  confident  we  should 
draw  them  over  to  our  interest,  notwithstanding  every  effort  of  the  British  to  prevent  it : 
because  the  inclemency  of  the  winter  season,  the  sterility  of  soil,  and  the  scarcity  of 
game  within  the  British  territory,  are  all  opposed  to  their  removing  to  the  north  side  of 
the  lakes;  and  certain  I  am  that,  had  not  Governor  Simcoe  held  up  to  the  Aborigines  at 
the  late  council  the  fond,  but  I  trust  idle,  hope  of  compelling  the  Americans  to  aban- 
don and  relinquish  to  them  all  the  posts  and  lands  on  the  west  side  of  the  Ohio  [River] 
the  principal  part  of  the  hostile  tribes  would  either  have  accepted  of  the  invitation  to 
treat,  or  have  passed  to  the  Spanish  [west]  side  of  the  Mississippi  in  the  course  of  the 
fall  and  winter.  Possibly  they  may  yet  do  the  one  or  the  other,  as  I  am  informed  that 
their  present  dependent  situation  is  far  from  pleasant ;  nor  have  we  much  cause  to  en\'y 
the  British  the  pleasure  and  expense  of  supporting  and  clothing  this  numerous  horde  of 
savages,  thrown  upon  them  by  their  own  insidious  conduct,  and  the  fortuitous  events 
of  war. 

The  following'  e.xcerpts  of  letters,  communicated  by  John  W.  Van 
Cleve  of  Dayton,  Ohio,  to  The  American  Pioneer  24th  June,  1843,  were 
taken  from  Colonel  John  Francis  Hamtramck's  letter-book  which  re- 
mained, after  his  death  11th  .\pril,  1H03,  among  the  papers  of  the 
Detroit  garrison  until  the  surrender  of  Detroit  by  General  William  Hull 
in  1812,  when  an  officer  of  Ohio  militia  was  permitted  by  the  British  to 
take  possession  of  it.  Colonel  Hamtramck  is  described  as  a  small 
Canadian  Frenchman,  but  he  had  proved  himself  an  intelligent,  capable 
and  meritorious  officer.      His  letters  throw  some  interesting   side-lights 

'■"  The  surrender  of  the  British  Fort  Miami  to  United  States  troops  11th  July.  1796.  under  the  Jay 
Treaty,  obviated  the  necessity  for  building  a  fort  by  the  lower  Maumee. 


on  the  events  of  the  times.      The  first  were  written  from  Fort  Wayne  to 

General  Wayne  at  Greenville,  viz  : 

Fort  Wayne  December  ."ith.    1704. 

Sir:  .      It  is  with  a  great  degree  of  mortification  that  I  am  obliged  to  inform  your 

excellency  of  the  great  propensity  many  of  the  soldiers  have  for  larceny.  I  have  flogged 
them  until  I  am  tired.  The  economic  allowance  of  one  hundred  lashes,  allowed  by 
government,  does  not  appear  a  sufficient  inducement  for  a  rascal  to  act  the  part  of  an 
honest  man.  I  have  now  a  number  in  confinement  and  in  irons  for  having  stolen  four 
quarters  of  beef  on  the  night  of  the  3rd  instant.  I  could  wish  them  to  be  tried  by  a 
general  court  martial,  in  order  to  make  an  example  of  some  of  them.  I  shall  keep  them 
confined  until  the  pleasure  of  your  excellency  is  known. 

Fort  Wayne  December  20,  1704. 
Sir;  Yesterday  a  number  of  chiefs  of  the  Chippeways,  Ottawas,  Socks  [Sacs]  and 
Potawotamies  arrived  here  with  the  two  Lassells.  It  appears  that  the  Shawanese,  Del- 
awares,  and  Miamies  remain  still  under  the  influence  of  M'Kee  ;  but  Lassell  thinks  that 
they  will  be  compelled  to  come  into  the  measures  of  the  other  Aborigines.  After  the 
chiefs  have  rested  a  day  or  two,  I  will  send  them  to  headquarters. 

December  20,  1704. 
Sir  ;  Since  my  letter  to  your  excellency  of  the  present  date,  two  war-chiefs  have 
arrived  from  the  Miami  nation,  and  inform  me  that  their  nation  will  be  here  in  a  few 
days,  from  whence  they  will  proceed  to  Greenville.  They  also  bring  intelligence  of  the 
remaining  tribes  of  savages  acceding  to  the  prevalent  wish  for  peace,  and  collecting  for 
the  purpose  the  chiefs  of  their  nations,  who,  it  is  expected,  will  make  their  appearance 
at  this  post  about  the  same  time  the  Miamies  may  come  forward. 

Fort  Wayne  January   1."),    170.5. 

Sir  ;  .  .  .^  number  of  chiefs  and  warriors  of  the  Miamis  arri\'ed  at  the  garrison 
on  the  I'ith  instant.  Having  informed  them  that  I  could  do  nothing  with  them,  and  that 
it  was  necessary  for  them  to  proceed  to  headquarters,  finding  it  inconvenient  for  so 
many  to  go,  they  selected  five,  who  are  going  under  charge  of  Lieutenant  Massie,  and 
perhaps  will  be  accompanied  by  some  warriors.  The  one  whose  name  is  Jean  Baptiste 
Richardville,  is  half  white  and  a  village  chief  of  the  nation. 

As  you  are  well  acquainted  with  the  original  cause  of  the  war  with  the  .\borigines, 
I  shall  not  say  much  upon  it,  except  to  observe  that  all  the  French  traders,  who  were  so 
many  machines  to  the  British  agents,  can  be  bought,  and  M'Kee,  being  then  destitute  of 
his  satellites,  will  remain  solus,  with  perhaps  his  few  Shawanese,  to  make  penance  for 
his  past  iniquities. 

Since  writing  the  foregoing,  I  have  had  a  talk  with  the  chiefs.  I  have  shown  them 
the  necessity  of  withdrawing  themselves  from  the  headquarters  of  corruption,  and  in- 
vited them  to  come  and  take  possession  of  their  former  habitations  [across  the  Maumee 
and  St.  Mary  from  Fort  Wayne]  which  they  have  promised  me  to  do.  Richardville  tells 
me,  that  as  soon  as  he  returns  he  will  go  on  the  Salamonie  [River]  on  [near]  the  head  of 
the  Wabash,  and  there  make  a  village.  He  has  also  promi.sed  me  to  open  the  naviga- 
tion of  the  Wabash  to  the  flag  of  the  United  States.      .     . 

February  :ird,  170."). 

Sir  :     Lieutenant   Massey  arrived   on   the   .'ilst.     The   Aborigines  also  returned  on 

the   20th   in   high  spirits  and  very   much  pleased   with   their  reception    [by  you.  General 

Wayne]  at   head-quarters.     They   assure   me  that  they   will   absolutely   make   a   lasting 

peace  with  the  United  States.     .     . 

March   1,   170.i. 

Sir:     .     .      1  have  now  with  me  about  forty   Aborigines  on  a  visit.     They  are  Pota- 


wotamies,  who  live  on  Bear  Creek  [in  the  present  Lenawee  County,  Michigan].  They 
say  that  as  they  are  making  peace  with  us,  they  will  expect  us  to  give  them  some  corn  to 
plant  next  spring.  Indeed  all  the  Aborigines  who  have  been  here  have  requested  that 
I  would  inform  your  excellency  of  their  miserable  situation,  and  that  they  expect  every- 
thing from  you. 

March  ."),   179."). 

Sir;  .  .  A  number  of  I'otawotamie  .Aborigines  arrived  here  yesterday  from 
Huron  River.  They  informed  me  that  they  were  sent  by  their  nation  at  that  place,  and 
by  the  Ottawas  and  Chippeways  living  on  the  same  river,  as  also  in  the  name  of  the 
Chippeways  living  on  the  Saginaw  River  which  empties  into  Lake  Huron,  in  order  to 
join  in  the  good  intention  of  the  other  Aborigines,  by  estalilishing  a  permanent  peace 
with  the  United  States.  I  informed  them  that  I  was  not  the  first  chief,  and  invited  them 
to  go  to  Greenville ;  to  which  they  replied  that  it  was  rather  a  long  journey,  but  from 
the  great  desire  they  had  to  see  The  Wind  (for  they  called  you  so)  they  would  go.  I 
asked  them  for  an  explication  of  your  name.  They  told  me  that  on  the  20th  August 
last,  you  were  exactly  like  a  hurricane,  which  drives  and  tears  everything  before  it. 
Mr.  LeChauvre,  a  Frenchman,  is  a  trader  with  them  and  has  come  as  their  interpreter. 
Father  Burke  continues  his  exhortations.  He  assures  the  inhabitants  that  if  any  of 
them  should  be  .so  destitute  of  every  principle  of  honor  and  religion  as  to  aid  or  advise 
the  .Aborigines  to  come  to  the  Americans,  they  shall  be  anathematized.  He  is  now  a 
commissary  and  issues  corn  to  the  Aborigines.  Mr.  LeChauvre  informs  me  that  Burke 
is  going,  in  the  spring,  to  Michilimackinac.  Of  consequence  we  may  easily  judge  of  his 
mission.  He  will,  no  doubt,  try  to  stop  the  nations  from  coming  in  to  the  treaty.  How- 
would  it  do  to  take  him  prisoner?     I  think  that  it  could  be  done  very  easily. 

March  17,  17!»,i. 
Sir  :  .  .  I  had  very  great  hopes  that  the  man  who  deserted  when  on  his  post 
would  have  been  made  an  example  of ;  but  weakness  too  often  appears  in  the  shape  of 
lenity,  for  he  was  only  sentenced  to  receive  one  hundred  lashes,  to  be  branded,  and 
drummed  out.  This  man,  from  his  past  conduct,  was  perfectly  entitled  to  the 
gallows.     .     . 

March  27,    17'.r). 

Sir  ;  .  .  Le  Gris  [Nag-oh-quang-ogh]  the  village  chief  of  the  Miami  nation,  and 
one  of  the  commanding  trumps  in  M'Kee's  game,  has  at  last  come  in.  He  stood  out  for 
a  long  time,  but  from  a  number  of  circumstances,  too  tedious  to  mention,  that  passed 
between  him  and  me  by  messengers,  and  with  Lassell,  he  has  surrendered  and,  I  be- 
lieve [him]  fully  converted.  I  have  promised  him  a  great  deal  of  butter  with  his  bread, 
but  your  excellency  very  well  knows  that  flies  are  not  caught  with  gall  or  bitter,  particu- 
larly after  having  experienced  for  sixteen  years  the  dulcet  deceptions  of  the  British. 
He  was  four  days  with  me,  during  which  time  I  had  an  opportunity  of  examining  him 
with  great  attention.  He  is  a  sensible  old  fellow,  and  no  ways  ignorant  of  the  cause  of 
the  war,  for  which  he  blames  the  Americans,  saying  that  they  were  too  extra\'agant  in 
their  demands  in  their  first  treaties;  that  the  country  they  claimed  by  virtue  of  the 
definitive  treaty  of  178:i  was  preposterous:  that  the  king  of  Great  Britain  never  had 
claimed  their  land  after  the  conquest  of  Canada,  and  far  less  ever  attempted  to  take  any 
part  of  it  without  the  consent  of  the  Aborigines,  and  of  consequence  had  no  authority  to 
cede  their  country  to  the  United  States.  I  have  spoken  with  him  respecting  the  medi- 
tated treaty  of  M'Kee  in  May  next,  and  he  very  honestly  told  me  that  he  had  received 
wampum  and  tobacco  on  that  head,  but  that  he  would,  on  his  return,  send  it  back  and 
also  send  speeches  to  the  different  nations  requesting  them  to  adhere  strongly  to  the 
preliminaries  between  you  and  them,  saying  that  they  must  be  sensible  how  they  had 
been  deluded  by  M'Kee,  and  entreating  them  at  least  to  hear  you  first  before  they  should 


come  to  any  other  determination.      He  is  also   to  keep  a  couple  of  men  at   the  rapids  [at 
M'Kee's  station  near  Fort  Miami]   in  order  to  ascertain  what  is  going  on,  and  has  prom- 
ised me  that  as  soon  as  his  messengers  return   he  will   come   himself  and  give  me  all   the  . 

April  U),  17'.lo. 

Sir  :  .  .  Le  Gris  is  again  with  me.  and  tells  me  that  the  two  first  chiefs  of  the 
Potawotamies  of  the  St.  Joseph  [River]  passed  his  camp  the  other  day.  from  Detroit, 
with  four  horses  loaded  with  presents.  These  chiefs  informed  him  that  a  speech  from 
lord  Dorchester  [Governor  of  Canada]  had  arrived  at  Detroit  directed  to  all  nations, 
wherein  he  assures  them  of  his  friendship  and  of  his  readiness  to  support  them  in  all 
their  distresses.  He  invites  them  to  make  peace  with  the  United  States,  if  they  can  do 
it  on  honorable  terms,  and  tells  them  that  they  will  see  him  before  the  time  of  our 
treaty.  One  would  suppose  that  his  lordship  is  coming  up  to  Detroit  to  feel,  himself, 
the  pulse  of  the  Aborigines. 

April  25,  1795. 

Sir  The  Aborigines  are  truly  starving,  and  say  that  we  must  support  them,  at 
least  until  they  have  made  corn,  as  it  will  not  do  for  them  to  ask  provision  of  the  British 
without  remaining  with  them. 

Fort  Wayne  June  17.    1795. 

Sir  :  .  .  The  Miamies  go  to  Greenville  tomorrow.  I  believe  they  are  the  last 
that  will  pass  this  way.  Enclosed  is  a  letter  from  Major  Hunt.  I  believe  that  M'Kee 
is  using  every  strategem  to  prevent  the  treaty,  but  the  bayonet  of  the  20th  of  August  last 
[the  Battle  of  Fallen  Timber]  embarrasses  him.     .      .  J-   F.  Hamtr.4Mck. 

The  diplomacy  of  General  Wayne  and  his  agents  was  successful 
and,  1st  January,  1795,  he  sent  a  message  to  the  petitioning  Wyandots 
at  Sandusky  that  the  chiefs  of  the  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  Sacs,  Potta- 
wotamis,  and  Miamis  had  arrived  at  Fort  Wayne  and  would  soon  visit 
him  at  Greenville  in  the  interest  of  jjeace.  The  '1-^ih  January  he  re- 
ported to  the  Secretary  of  War  that  two  preliminary  articles  of  peace 
had  been  signed  by  him  and  the  sachems  and  war  chiefs  of  the  Chip- 
pewas, Pottawotamis,  Sacs,  and  Miamis.  These  preliminary  articles 
provided  that  hostilities  should  cease:  that  there  should  be  a  meeting 
for  council  and  treaty  at  Greenville,  Ohio,  on  or  about  the  15th  June, 
1795;  and  that  immediate  information  should  be  given  to  General 
Wayne  of  all  hostile  movements  that  came  to  the  knowledge  of  any  of 
the  Aborigines;  and  the  General  was  to  reciprocate. 

The  Delawares  soon  visited  Fort  Defiance  and  exchanged  prison- 
ers to  the  number  of  nine,  this  being  all  of  the  Aborigines  then  held  at 
that  place.  John  Brickell,  from  whom  this  information  is  obtained* 
then  fourteen  years  of  age,  had  been  a  captive  with  the  Delawares  four 
years  and  on  this  occasion  keenly  felt  the  want  of  another  Aborigine 
prisoner  of  war  that  he  also,  might  be  exchanged.  In  May,  however, 
the  Delawares  appeared  across  the  Maumee  from  Fort  Defiance  and 
discharged  their  guns  in   salute.      The   garrison    of   the    Fort    returned 

*  The  American  Pioneer  1842  volume  i.  page  .M. 


the  salute  with  a  cannon  shot  for  each  State  in  the  Union,  then  num- 
bering fifteen.  At  this  visit  Brickell  was  surrendered  to  the  garrison 
with  some  sentiment  on  the  part  of  the  Atiorigines,  and  good  fellow- 
ship prevailed.* 

The  Treaty  at  Greenville. 

Meantime  ground  was  cleared  at  Greenville,  an  ample  Council 
House  was  built,  a  large  quantity  of  clothing  and  other  useful  articles 
were  obtained  for  presents,  and  liountiful  supplies  received  for  the 
feeding  and  entertainment  of  large  numbers  of  iVborigines  during  the 

About  the  1st  June  a  considerable  number  of  Delaware,  Ottawa, 
Pottawotami  and  Eel  River  Aborigines  began  to  arrive,  and  they  were 
well  received. t  Others  arrived  each  day,  and  the  general  council  was 
opened  June  16th  with  a  goodly  attendance.  i\.fter  smoking  the 
Calumet  of  Peace,  an  oath  of  accuracy  and  fidelity  was  subscribed  to 
by  eight  interpreters,  and  by  Henry  DeButts  as  Secretary.  General 
Waj'ne  as  presiding  officer,  stated  the  object  of  the  council,  exhibited 
his  commission  received  from  President  Washington,  and  put  all 
present  in  good  humor  liy  his  happy  remarks,  saying  in  closmg: 
"The  heavens  are  bright,  the  roads  open;  we  will  rest  in  peace  and 
love,  and  wait  the  arrival  of  our  brothers  [the  tardy  Aborigines  who, 
at  similar  times  like  sulking  children,  desired  to  be  sent  for  with 
special  overtures].  In  the  interim  we  will  have  a  little  drink  to  wash 
the  dust  from  our  throats.  We  will  on  this  happy  occasion  be  merry 
without,  however,  passing  the  bounds  of  temperance  and  sobriety." 
The  council  was  then  adjourned  until  the  arrival  of  the  other  chiefs. 

Forty  Pottawotamis  arrived  June  17th  and  were  received  by  the 
General.  Chief  Buck-on-ge-he-las  with  a  party  of  Delawares,  and  Asi- 
me-the  with  Pottawotamis  arrived  June  21st  and  were  received  at  the 
Council  House,  and  June  2;-Jrd  Le  Gris,  Little  Turtle  and  seventeen 
other  Miamis  arrived.  The  2r)th  some  Chijijiewas  arrived  :  and  other 
Chippewas  with  Pottawotamis  caine  the  next  day. 

The  third  day  of  July  General  Wayne  called  all  the  Aborigines  to- 
gether and  explained  to  them  why  Americans  celebrated  the  Fourth  of 
July,  adding  : 

To  morrow  we  shall  for  the  twentieth  time  salute  the  annual  return  of  this  happy 
anniversary,  rendered  still  more  dear  by  the  brotherly  union  of  the  American  and  red 
people  ;  tomorrow  all  the  people  within  these  lines  will  rejoice ;  you,  my  brothers,  shall 
also  rejoice  in  your  respective  encampments.  I  called  you  together  to  explain  these 
matters  to  you  :  do  not,  therefore,  be  alarmed  at  the  report  of  our  big  guns  ;   they  will  do 

*  See  American  Captives  among  the  Ohio  Aborigines,  by  Charles  E.  Slocum. 
I  American  State  Papers.  Aborii;ine  Attairs  volume  i,  paae  ,*J64. 


no  harm  ;  they  will  be  the  harbingers  of  peace  and  gladness,  and  their  roar  will  ascend  into 
the  heavens.  The  flag  of  the  United  States,  and  the  colors  of  this  legion,  shall  be  given 
to  the  wind  to  be  fanned  by  its  gentlest  breeze  in  honor  of  the  birth-day  of  American 
freedom.  I  will  now  shew  you  our  colors  that  you  may  know  them  to-morrow.  Formerly 
they  were  displayed  as  ensigns  of  war  and  battle  ;  now  they  will  be  exhibited  as  emblems 
of  peace  and  happiness.  This  eagle  which  you  now  see,  holds  close  his  bunch  of  arrows 
whilst  he  seems  to  stretch  forth,  as  a  more  valuable  ofiering,  the  inestimable  branch  of 
peace.  The  Great  Spirit  seems  disposed  to  incline  us  all  to  repose  for  the  future  under 
its  grateful  shade  and  wisely  enjoy  the  blessings  which  attend  it. 

The  4th  July  twenty-four  additional  Ottawas  came  to  swell  the 
numbers  of  other  tribes  that  had  been  arriving  almost  daily.  Others 
continued  to  come,  and  all  were  received  with  expressions  of  pleasure. 
A  sachem  arriving  with  a  hand  of  Chippewas  July  18th,  said  to  General 
Wayne  '  We  would  have  come  in  greater  numbers  but  for  Brant's  en- 
deavors to  prevent  us'  in  interest  of  the  British. 

-  With  great  thoughtfulness  and  circumspection  General  Wayne  drew 
up  the  treaty,  and  he  impressed  all  present  with  his  cheerful  yet  serious 
and  dignified  demeanor  to  a  careful  consideration  and  assent  to  each  of 
its  provisions,  separately. 

Little  Turtle  was  slow  in  becoming  possessed  with  the  spirit  of  the 
meeting,  but  gradually  became  one  of  the  principal  participators, 
making  ten  addresses  in  representing  the  Miamis  and  allied  tribes  of 
Weas,  Piankeshaws,  Kaskaskias  and  Kickapoos.  He  had  not  been  in 
favor  of  the  former  treaties,  knew  nothing  about  them  because  he  was 
not  present  at  their  ratification  by  his  young  men  who  were  seduced  to 
this  action  by  the  other  tribes.  Little  Turtle  did  not  want  to  wholly 
surrender  the  portage  between  the  head  of  the  Maumee  and  Little  River 
on  account  of  the  revenue  derived  therefrom,  sa\ing  .  .  That 
place  has  brought  to  us  in  the  course  of  one  day  the  amount  of  one 
hundred  dollars.  Let  us  both  own  this  place  and  enjoy  in  common  the 
advantages  it  affords.'  .  .  But  this  could  not  be  granted  to  him  on 
accountof  the  Ordinances  of  1786-87  which  declared  portages  free  public 
ways.  The  chiefs  generally  and  fully  expressed  their  views  as  favorable 
to  the  former  treaties,  and  to  this  one  yet  more  liberal  to  the  Americans, 
attributing  their  hostile  acts,  and  their  delays  in  answering  the  appeals 
for  peace,  to  British  influences. 

The  9th  August,  1795,  General  Wayne  wrote  to  the  Secretary  of 
War  that  .  .  "it  is  with  infinite  pleasure  I  now  inform  you  that  a 
treaty  of  peace  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  all  the  late 
hostile  tribes  of  Aborigines  Northwest  of  the  Ohio,  was  unamimously 
and  volimtarily  agreed  to,  and  cheerfully  signed,  by  all  the  sachems  and 
war  chiefs  of  the  respective  nations  on  the  .Srd,  and  exchanged  on  the  7th, 
instant."  .  .  The  full  text  of  this  most  important  Treaty  is  here 
reproduced,  viz: 


A  Treaty  of  Peace  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  the  Tribes  of 
Aborigines  called  the  Wyandots.  Delawares.  Shawnees.  Ottawas.  Ghippewas.  Potta- 
wotamies.  Miamis.  Eel  Rivers.  Weas  [Ouis  or  Ouiotenons].  Kicl<apoos.  Pianl<eshaws 
and  Kasltaskias : 

To  put  an  end  to  a  destructive  war,  to  settle  all  controversies,  and  to  restore  har- 
mony and  friendly  intercourse  between  the  said  United  States  and  Aborigine  tribes, 
Anthony  Wayne.  Major-General.  commanding  the  Army  of  the  United  States,  and  sole 
Commissioner  for  the  purposes  above  mentioned ;  and  the  said  tribes  of  Aborigines,  by 
their  sachems,  chiefs,  and  warriors,  met  together  at  Greenville,  the  Head  Quarters  of 
said  Army,  have  agreed  on  the  following  articles,  which,  when  ratified  by  the  President, 
with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate  of  the  United  States,  shall  be  binding  on  them 
and  the  said  Aborigine  tribes: 

Article  I.  Henceforth  all  hostilities  shall  cease:  peace  is  hereby  established,  and 
shall  be  perpetual :  and  friendly  intercourse  shall  take  place  between  the  said  United 
States  and  Aborigine  tribes. 

Art.  2.  All  prisoners  shall,  on  both  sides,  be  restored.  The  Aborigines,  prisoners 
to  the  United  States,  shall  be  immediately  set  at  liberty.  The  people  of  the  United 
States  still  remaining  prisoners  among  the  Aborigines,  shall  be  delivered  up  within 
ninety  days  from  the  date  hereof,  to  the  General  or  Commanding  Officer  at  Greenville. 
Fort  Wayne,  or  Fort  Defiance:  and  ten  chiefs  of  the  said  tribes  shall  remain  at  Green- 
ville as  hostages  until  the  delivery  of  the  prisoners  shall  be  effected. 

Art.  3.  The  General  Boundary  Line  between  the  lands  of  the  United  States  and 
the  lands  of  the  said  Aborigine  tribes,  shall  begin  at  the  mouth  of  Cuyahoga  River  and 
run  thence  up  the  same  to  the  portage  between  that  and  the  Tuscarawas  branch  of  the 
Muskingum:  thence,  down  that  branch  to  the  crossing  place  above  Fort  Lawrence 
[Laurens]  ;  thence,  westerly  to  a  fork  of  that  branch  of  the  great  Miami  River,  running 
into  the  Ohio,  at  or  near  which  fork  stood  Loramie's  store,  and  where  commences  the 
portage  between  the  Miami  of  the  Ohio  and  the  St.  Mary  River  which  is  a  branch  of 
the  Miami  [the  Maumee  River]  which  runs  into  Lake  Erie  :  thence,  a  westerly  course  to 
Fort  Recovery  which  stands  on  a  branch  of  the  Wabash  ;  thence,  southwesterly  in  a 
direct  line  to  the  Ohio,  so  as  to  intersect  that  river  opposite  the  mouth  of  Kentucky  or 
Cuttawa  River.  .And,  in  consideration  of  the  peace  now  established,  of  the  goods 
formerly  received  from  the  United  States,  of  those  now  to  be  delivered,  and  of  the  yearly 
delivery  of  goods  now  stipulated  to  be  made  hereafter,  and  to  indemnify  the  United 
States  for  the  injuries  and  expenses  thev  have  sustained  during  the  war.  the  said  Abo- 
rigine tribes  do  hereby  cede  and  relinquish,  forever,  all  their  claims  to  the  lands  lying 
eastwardly  and  southwardly  of  the  General  Boundary  Line  now  described,  and  these 
lands,  or  any  part  of  them,  shall  never  hereafter  be  made  a  cause  or  pretense,  on  the 
part  of  said  tribes,  or  any  of  them,  of  war  or  injury  to  the  United  States,  or  any  of  the 
people  thereof. 

And  for  the  same  considerations,  and  as  an  evidence  of  the  returning  friendship  of 
the  said  Aborigine  tribes,  of  their  confidence  in  the  United  States,  and  desire  to  provide 
for  their  accommodation,  and  for  that  convenient  intercourse  which  will  be  beneficial  to 
both  parties,  the  said  Aborigine  tribes  do  also  cede  to  the  United  States  the  following 
pieces  of  land,  to  wit;  1.  One  piece  of  land  six  miles  square  at  or  near  Loramie's  . 
store,  above  mentioned.  2.  One  piece  two  miles  square  at  the  head  of  the  navigable 
water  or  landing  on  the  St.  Mary  River  near  Girty  town  [site  of  the  present  City  of  St. 
Marys].  '.'•.  One  piece  six  miles  square  at  the  head  of  the  navigable  water  of  the  Auglaise 
River  [probably  near  the  present  north  line  of  .Auglaise  County].  4.  One  piece 
six  miles  square  at  the  confluence  of  the  Auglaise  and  Miami  [Maumee]  Rivers  where 
Fort   Defiance  now  stands.      .">.      One  piece  six  miles  square  at  or  riear   the  confluence  of 


the  Rivers  St.  Mary  and  St.  Joseph  where  Fort  Wayne  now  stands,  or  near  it.  6.  One 
piece  two  miles  square  on  the  Wabash  [Little]  River  at  the  end  of  the  portage  from  the 
Miami  of  the  Lake  [Maumee],  and  about  eight  miles  westward  from  Fort  Wayne. 
7.  One  piece  six  miles  square  at  the  Ouiotanon  or  old  Wea  [Ouia]  towns  on  the 
Wabash  River.  8.  One  piece  twelve  miles  square  at  the  British  fort,  on  the  Miami  of 
the  lake  [Maumee]  at  the  foot  of  the  Rapids.  !•.  One  piece  six  miles  square  at  the 
mouth  of  the  said  river,  where  it  empties  into  the  lake.  10.  One  piece  six  miles  square 
upon  Sandusky  Lake  [Bay]  where  a  fort  formerly  stood.  11.  One  piece  two  miles 
square  at  the  lower  rapids  of  Sandusky  River.  12.  The  post  of  Detroit  and  all  the 
lands  to  the  north,  the  west,  and  the  south  of  it,  of  which  the  Aborigine  title  has  been 
extinguished  by  gifts  or  grants  to  the  French  or  English  governments ;  and  so  much 
more  land,  to  be  annexed  to  the  district  of  Detroit  as  shall  be  comprehended  between  the 
River  Rosine  [Raisin]  on  the  south.  Lake  St.  Clair  on  the  north,  and  a  line  the  general 
course  whereof  shall  be  six  miles  distant  from  the  west  end  of  Lake  Erie  and  Detroit 
River.  Ki.  The  post  of  Michilimackinac  and  all  the  land  on  the  island  on  which  that 
post  stands,  and  the  main  land  adjacent  of  which  the  Aborigine  title  has  been  extin- 
guished by  gifts  or  grants  to  the  French  or  English  governments;  and  a  piece  on  the  main 
to  the  north  of  the  island  to  measure  six  miles  on  Lake  Huron,  or  the  strait  between 
Lakes  Huron  and  Michigan  and  to  extend  three  miles  back  from  the  water  of  the  lake  or 
strait ;  and,  also,  the  Island  De  Bois  Blanc,  being  an  extra  and  voluntary  gift  of  the 
Chippewa  nation.  14.  One  piece  of  land  six  miles  square  at  the  mouth  of  Chicago 
River  emptying  into  the  southwest  end  of  Lake  Michigan  where  a  fort  formerly  stood. 
15.  One  piece  twelve  miles  square  at  or  near  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois  River  emptying 
into  the  Mississippi.  10.  One  piece  six  miles  square  at  the  old  Peorias  fort  and  village 
near  the  south  end  of  the  Illinois  Lake,  on  said  Illinois  River.  And  whenever  the 
United  States  shall  think  proper  to  survey  and  mark  the  boundaries  of  the  lands  hereby 
ceded  to  them,  they  shall  give  timely  notice  thereof  to  the  said  tribes  of  Aborigines  that 
they  may  appoint  some  of  their  wise  chiefs  to  attend  and  see  that  the  lines  are  run 
according  to  the  terms  of  this  Treaty.  And  the  said  Aborigine  tribes  will  allow  to  the 
people  of  the  United  States  a  free  passage  by  land  and  by  water,  as  one  and  the  other 
shall  be  found  convenient,  through  their  country,  along  the  chain  of  posts  hereinbefore 
mentioned  ,  that  is  to  say,  from  the  commencement  of  the  portage  aforesaid,  at  or  near 
Loramie's  store,  thence  along  said  portage  to  the  St.  Mary  and  down  the  same  to  Fort 
Wayne,  and  then  down  the  Miami  [Maumee]  to  Lake  Erie;  again,  from  the  commence- 
ment of  the  portage  at  or  near  Loramie's  store  along  the  portage  ;  from  thence  to  the 
River  Auglaise,  and  down  the  same  to  its  junction  with  the  Miami  [Maumee]  at  Fort 
Defiance ;  again,  from  the  commencement  of  the  portage  aforesaid  to  Sandusky  River, 
and  down  the  same  to  Sandusky  Bay  and  Lake  Erie  ;  and  from  Sandusky  to  the  post 
which  shall  be  taken  at  or  near  the  Foot  of  the  Rapids  of  the  Miami  of  the  Lake 
[Maumee]  ;  and  from  thence  to  Detroit.  Again,  from  the  mouth  of  the  Chicago  to  the 
commencement  of  the  portage  between  that  river  and  the  Illinois,  and  down  the  Illinois 
River  to  the  Mississippi ;  also,  from  Fort  Wayne  along  the  portage  aforesaid,  which 
leads  to  the  Wabash,  and  then  down  the  Wabash  to  the  Ohio.  .And  the  said  Aborigine 
tribes  will,  also,  allow  to  the  people  of  the  United  States  the  free  use  of  the  harbors  and 
mouths  of  rivers  along  the  lakes  adjoining  the  Aborigine  lands,  for  sheltering  vessels  and 
boats,  and  liberty  to  land  their  cargoes  where  necessary  for  their  safety. 

Art.  4.  In  consideration  of  the  peace  now  established,  and  of  the  cessions  and 
relinquishments  of  lands  made  in  the  preceding  Article  by  the  said  tribes  of  Aborigines, 
and  to  manifest  the  liberality  of  the  United  States,  as  the  great  means  of  rendering  this 
peace  strong  and  perpetual,  the  United  States  relinquish  their  claims  to  all  other  Abo- 
rigine lands  northward  of  the  River  Ohio,  eastward  of  the  Mississippi,  and  westward  and 
southward  of  the  Great  Lakes,  and  the  waters  uniting  them,  according  to  the  boundary 


line  agreed  on  by  the  United  States  and  the  King  of  Great  Britain,  in  the  treaty  of 
peace  made  between  them  in  the  year  178.'!.  But.  from  this  relinquishment  by  the 
United  States,  the  following  tracts  of  land  are  explicitly  excepted.  1st.  The  tract  of 
one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  acres  near  the  rapids  of  the  River  Ohio,  which  has  been 
assigned  to  General  [George  Rogers]  Clark  for  the  use  of  himself  and  his  warriors. 
2d.  The  post  of  St.  Vincennes  on  the  River  Wabash,  and  the  lands  adjacent  of  which 
the  Aborigine  title  has  been  extinguished,  iid.  The  lands  at  all  other  places  in  poss- 
ession of  the  French  people  and  other  white  settlers  among  them  of  which  the  Aborigine 
title  has  been  extinguished,  as  mentioned  in  the  .'id  Article ;  and  4th,  The  post  of  Fort 
Massac  towards  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio.  To  which  several  parcels  of  land,  so  excepted, 
the  said  tribes  relinquish  all  the  title  and  claim  which  they  or  any  of  them  may  have. 

And  for  the  same  considerations,  and  with  the  same  views  as  above  mentioned,  the 
United  States  now  deliver  to  the  said  Aborigine  tribes  a  quantity  of  goods  to  the  value  of 
twenty  thousand  dollars,  the  receipt  whereof  they  do  hereby  acknowledge  ;  and  hence- 
forward, every  year  forever,  the  United  States  will  deliver  at  some  convenient  place 
northward  of  the  River  Ohio,  like  useful  goods,  suited  to  the  circumstances  of  the 
Aborigines,  of  the  value  of  nine  thousand  five  hundred  dollars ;  reckoning  that  value  at 
the  first  cost  of  the  goods  in  the  city  or  place  in  the  United  States  where  they  shall  be 
procured.  The  tribes  to  which  those  goods  are  to  be  annually  delivered,  and  the  pro- 
portions in  which  they  are  to  be  delivered,  are  the  following ; 

1st.  To  the  Wyandots.  the  amount  of  one  thousand  dollars.  '2nd.  To  the  Dela- 
awares.  the  amount  of  one  thousand  dollars.  :.ird.  To  the  Shawanese.  the  amount  of 
one  thousand  dollars.  4th.  To  the  Miamies.  the  amount  of  one  thousand  dollars. 
•5th.  To  the  Ottawas,  the  amount  of  one  thousand  dollars,  (ith.  To  the  Chippewas, 
the  amount  of  one  thousand  dollars.  7th.  To  the  Pottawatamies.  the  amount  of  one 
thousand  dollars.  8th.  And  to  the  Kickapoo,  Wea.  Eel  River,  Piankeshaw,  and 
Kaskaskia,  tribes,  the  amount  of  five  hundred  dollars  each. 

Provided,  that  if  either  of  the  said  tribes  shall,  hereafter,  at  an  annual  delivery  of 
their  share  of  the  goods  aforesaid,  desire  that  a  part  of  their  annuity  should  be  furnished 
in  domestic  animals,  implements  of  husbandry,  and  other  utensils  convenient  for  them, 
and  in  compensation  to  useful  artificers  who  may  reside  with  or  near  them,  and  be 
employed  for  their  benefit,  the  same  shall,  at  the  subsequent  annual  deliveries  be 
furnished  accordingly. 

Art.  .5.  To  prevent  any  misunderstanding  about  the  Aborigine  lands  relinquished 
by  the  United  States  in  the  Fourth  Article,  it  is  now  explicitly  declared  that  the  mean- 
ing of  that  relinquishment  is  this :  The  Aborigine  tribes  who  have  a  right  to  those 
lands  are  quietly  to  enjoy  them,  hunting,  planting,  and  dwelling  thereon,  so  long  as  they 
please,  without  any  molestation  from  the  United  States;  but  when  those  tribes,  or  any 
of  them,  shall  be  disposed  to  sell  their  lands,  or  any  part  of  them,  they  are  to  be  sold 
only  to  the  United  States;  and  until  such  sale  the  United  States  will  protect  all  the  said 
Aborigine  tribes  in  the  quiet  enjovment  of  their  lands  against  all  citizens  of  the  United 
States,  and  against  all  other  white  persons  who  intrude  upon  the  same.  And  the  said 
Aborigine  tribes  again  acknowledge  themselves  to  be  under  the  protection  of  the  United 
States,  and  no  other  Power  whatever. 

Art.  (i.  If  any  citizen  of  the  United  States,  or  any  other  white  person  or  persons, 
shall  presume  to  settle  upon  the  lands  now  relinquished  by  the  United  States,  such 
citizen  or  other  person  shall  be  out  of  the  protection  of  the  United  States ;  and  the 
Aborigine  tribe  on  whose  land  the  settlement  shall  be  made  may  drive  off  the  settler,  or 
punish  him  in  such  manner  as  they  shall  think  fit ;  and  because  such  settlements  made 
without  the  consent  of  the  United  States  will  be  injurious  to  them,  as  well  as  to  the 
Aborigines,  the   United   States   shall   be  at   liberty   to   break  them   up,  and   remove  and 


punish  the  settlers  as  they  shall  think  proper,  and  so  effect  that  protection  of  the  Abo- 
rigine lands  herein  before  stipulated. 

Art.  7.  The  said  tribes  of  Aborigines,  parties  to  this  treaty,  shall  be  at  liberty  to 
hunt  within  the  territory  and  lands  which  they  have  now  ceded  to  the  United  States, 
without  hindrance  or  molestation,  so  long  as  they  demean  themselves  peaceably,  and 
offer  no  injury  to  the  people  of  the  United  States. 

Art.  8.  Trade  shall  be  opened  with  the  said  Aborigine  tribes ;  and  they  do  hereby 
respectively  engage  to  afford  protection  to  such  persons,  with  their  property,  as  shall 
be  duly  licensed  to  reside  among  them  for  the  purpose  of  trade,  and  to  their  agents  and 
servants ;  but  no  person  shall  be  permitted  to  reside  at  any  of  their  towns  or  hunting 
camps  as  a  trader,  who  is  not  furnished  with  a  license  for  that  purpose,  under  the  hand 
and  seal  of  the  Superintendent  of  the  Department  Northwest  of  the  Ohio,  or  such  other 
person  as  the  President  of  the  United  States  shall  authorize  to  grant  such  licenses,  to  the 
end  that  the  said  Aborigines  may  not  be  imposed  on  in  their  trade.  And  if  any  licensed 
trader  shall  abuse  his  privilege  by  unfair  dealing,  upon  complaint  and  proof  thereof,  his 
license  shall  be  taken  from  him,  and  he  shall  be  further  punished  according  to  the  laws 
of  the  United  States.  And  if  any  person  shall  intrude  himself  as  a  trader  without  such 
licence,  the  said  Aborigines  shall  take  and  bring  him  before  the  Superintendent  or  his 
Deputy,  to  be  dealt  with  according  to  law.  And,  to  prevent  impositions  by  forged  licences, 
the  said  ,\borigines  shall,  at  least  once  a  year,  give  information  to  the  Superintendent,  or 
his  Deputies,  of  the  names  of  the  traders  residing  among  them. 

Art.  9.  Lest  the  firm  peace  and  friendship  now  established  should  be  interrupted 
by  the  misconduct  of  individuals,  the  United  States  and  the  said  .aborigine  tribes  agree 
that,  for  injuries  done  by  individuals  on  either  side,  no  private  revenge  or  retaliation 
shall  take  place;  but,  instead  thereof,  complaint  shall  be  made  by  the  party  injured  to 
the  other;  by  the  said  Aborigine  tribes,  or  any  of  them,  to  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  or  the  Superintendent  by  him  appointed  ;  and  by  the  Superintendent,  or 
other  person  appointed  by  the  President,  to  the  principal  Chiefs  of  the  said  .\borigine 
tribes,  or  of  the  tribe  to  which  the  offender  belongs ;  and  such  prudent  measures  shall 
then  be  pursued  as  shall  be  necessary  to  preserve  the  said  peace  and  friendship 
unbroken,  until  the  Legislature  (or  great  council)  of  the  United  States  shall  make  other 
equitable  provision  in  the  case  to  the  .satisfaction  of  both  parties.  Should  any  Aborigine 
tribes  meditate  a  war  against  the  United  States  or  either  of  them,  and  the  same  shall 
come  to  the  knowledge  of  the  before  mentioned  tribes,  or  either  of  them,  they  do  hereby 
engage  to  give  immediate  notice  thereof  to  the  General,  or  officer  commanding  the 
troops  of  the  United  States  at  the  nearest  post.  And  should  any  tribe  with  hostile 
intentions  against  the  United  States,  or  either  of  them,  attempt  to  pass  through  their 
country,  they  will  endeavor  to  prevent  the  same,  and  in  like  manner  give  information  of 
such  attempt  to  the  General,  or  officer  commanding,  as  soon  as  possible,  that  all  causes 
of  mistrust  and  suspicion  may  be  avoided  between  them  and  the  United  States.  In  like 
manner  the  United  States  shall  give  notice  to  the  said  .Aborigine  tribes  of  any  harm  that 
may  be  meditated  against  them,  or  either  of  them,  that  shall  come  to  their  knowledge, 
and  do  all  in  their  power  to  hinder  and  prevent  the  same,  that  the  friendship  between 
them  may  be  uninterrupted. 

Art.  10.  All  other  treaties  heretofore  made  between  the  United  States  and  the 
said  Aborigine  tribes,  or  any  of  them,  since  the  treaty  of  1783  between  the  United  States 
and  Great  Britain,  that  come  within  the  purview  of  this  treaty,  shall  henceforth  cease, 
and  become  void. 

In  testimony  whereof,  the  said  Anthony  Wayne,  and  the  Sachems  and  War  Chiefs 
of  the  before  mentioned  nations  and  tribes  of  Aborigines,  have  hereunto  set  their  hands 
and  affixed  their  seals. 


Done  at  Greenville,  in  the  Territory  of  the   United   States  Northwest  of  the   River 
Ohio,  on  the  third  day  of  August,  One  thousand  seven  hundred  and  ninety-five. 

[Signed]  Antv   Wayne  [L.  S.] 



JiLety  ^  y 

)>   V 

^y  *    1 

signatures  to  the  Treaty  at  Greenville,  Ohio.  1795.  The 
names  were  written  by  the  Secretary  and  each  Aborigine 
chief  made  a  mark  or  imitation  of  an  animal  opposite  a 
seal.  This  and  the  two  following  plates  are  copied  from 
the  Ohio  Archaeological  and  Historical  Quarterly,  vol- 
ume xii,  for  which  publication  they  were  taken  from  the 
original  document  at  Washington. 


Tarhe.  or  Crane. 

J.  Williams,  Jun. 


Haroenyon  or  Half  King's  Son. 




Shateyyaronyah  or  Leather  Lips. 



Tetabokshke  or  Grand  Glaise  King. 
Lemantanquis  or  Black  King. 

Maghpiway  or  Red  Feather. 

Kikthawenund  or  Anderson. 




Peekeetelemund  or  Thomas  Adams. 

Kishkopekund  or  Capt.  Buffalo. 

Amenahehan  or  Capt.  Crow. 

Queshawksey  or  George  Washington. 

Weywinquis  or  Billy  Siscomb. 



Misquacoonacaw  or  Red  Pole. 

Cutthewekasaw  or  Black  Hoof. 




Waytheah  or  Long  Shanks. 

Weyapiersenwaw  or  Blue  Jacket. 


Hahgooseecaw  or  Capt.  Reed. 



•/Yol.  rvoMj-rmJ /fn__\  I   \ 



(  Jttawa. 

Chegonickska,  an  Ottawa  from  Sandusky 

Pattauatimas  of  the  River 
St.  Joseph. 


Nawac,  tor  himself  and  brother  Etsi- 


Keesass  or  Sun. 

Kabamasaw,  for  himself  and  brother 


Wapmeme  or  White  Pigeon. 

Wacheness.  for  himself  and  brother 



Meshegethenogh.  for  himself  and  broth- 
er Wawasek. 




Thawme  or  Le  Blanc. 
Geeque,  for  himself  and  brother  She- 

Pattawatimes  of  Huron. 
Nanawme,  for  himself  and  brother 

A.  Gin. 


Nagohquangogh  or  Le  Gris. 
Meshekunnoghquoh  or  Little  Turtle. 

La  Malice. 


Mashipinashiwish  or  Bad  Bird. 

Nahshogashe  from  Lake  Superior. 



Nemekass  or  Little  Thunder. 

Peshawkay  or  Young  Ox. 








MiAMis  AND  Eel  Rivers. 
Peejeewa  or  Richard  Villa. 

Eel  River  Tribe. 
Shamekunnesa  or  Soldier. 


Wapamangwa  or  White  Loon. 
Weas  for  Themselves  and  Pianke- 


Amacunsa  or  Little  Bea\'er. 
Acoolatha  or  Little  Fox. 



Keeawhah.  Hawkinpumisha. 

Nemighka  or  Josey  Renard.  Peyamawksey. 

Paikeekanogh.  Reyntueco  of  the  Six  Nations  living  at  Sandusky. 

In  presence  of  (the  word  'goods'  in  the  l!th  Hne  of  the  lird  article;  the  word  'before' 
in  the  20th  line  of  the  :ird  article  ;  the  words  '  five  hundred  '  in  the  10th  line  of  the  4th 
article,  and  the  word  '  Piankeshaw '  in  the  1 4th  line  of  the  4th  article,  being  first  interlined) : 

H.  DeButts  first  A.  D.  C.  and  Sec'y  to  Major  General  Wayne.  Wm.  H.  Harrison 
Aide-de-camp  to  Major  General  Wayne.  T.  Lewis  Aide-de-camp  to  Major  General  Wayne. 
James  O'Hara  Quarter  Master  General.  John  Mills  Major  of  Infantry  and  Adjutant 
General.  Caleb  Swan  L.  M.  T.  U.  S.  Geo.  Cemter  Lieut.  Artillery  U.  S.  A.  N.  Sr. 
LaFontaine.  Grant  Lasselle.  H.  Lasselle.  Wm.  Geo.  Pean.  Jun.  David  Jones  Chap- 
lain U.  S.  L[egion].  Louis  Beaufait.  R.  Echambre.  L.  Copen  U.  S.  L[egion].  Baties 
Coutien.      S.  Navarre — [Signed  as  witnesses;    also  the  sworn  interpreters  named  below]. 

The  number  of  Aborifj'iiies,  and  of  tribes  and  l)ands,  credited  as  at 
the  Treaty  of  Greenville  are  as  follows,  viz: 

Tribes.  Number.  Sworn  Interpreters. 

Wyandots,  180       Isaac  Zane  and  Abraham  Williams. 

Delawares,  ^Wl        Cabot  Wilson. 

Shawnees,  14M       Jacques  Lasselle  and  Christopher  Miller. 
Ottawas,  4')  i 

Chippewas,  4(i  ■    M.  Morans  and  Bt.  Sans  Crainte. 

Pottawotamis,  240  1 
Miamis  and  Eel  Rivers,  7.i  j 

Weas  and  Piankeshaws,  12  -    William  Wells. 

Kickapoos  and  Kaskaskias,  10  ) 

Total,  12,  li:!0 

A  number  of  hostile  Cherokees  who  were  lingering'  around  the 
head  waters  of  the  Scioto  River  did  not  accept  the  invitations  to  the 
council  at  Greenville  and,  3rd  August,  1795,  General  Wayne  notified 
them  of  the  Treaty  with  all  the  other  tribes  and,  also,  of  the  treat\'  re- 
cently effected  with  their  brethren  of  the  South.  He  also  notified  them  to 
immediately  accept  his  last  invitation  to  corne  to  Greenville  and  enter 
into  articles  of  peace  or  they  would  stand  alone  and  unprotected.  Some 
of  them  accompained  Captain  Longhair,  a  principal  Cherokee  chief  and 
General  Wayne's  messenger,  to  Greenville  and  soon  thereafter 
accomjiained  the  chief  to  the  South.  The  others  promised  to  hunt 
quietly  along  the  Scioto  until  their  crops  ripened  when  they  would  re- 
turn to  their  brethren  in  the  South  to  remain  permanently  with  them. 

The  Aborigines  lingered  at  Greenville  about  one  week  after  the 
completion  of  the  Treaty,  explaining  some  of  the  late  thieving  raids  of 
their  young  men  which  they  promised  to  correct  ;  in  exchanging  congrat- 
ulations -.  and  in  receiving  the  medals,  and  the  twenty  thousand  dollars 
worth  of  goods  mentioned  in  the  Treaty.  In  Council  the  10th  August, 
General  Wayne,  thinking  it  time  to  draw  the  meetings  to  a  close,  gave 
his  admirable  farewell  address,  viz  : 


Children  ;  All  you  nations  listen.  By  the  seventh  article  of  this  treaty  all  the 
lands  now  ceded  to  the  United  States  are  free  for  all  the  tribes  now  present  to  hunt 
upon,  so  long  as  they  continue  to  be  peaceable,  and  do  no  injury  to  the  people 
thereof.  It  is,  therefore,  the  common  interest  of  you  all  to  prevent  any  mischief  being 
done  upon  those  hunting  grounds.  Those  people  who  have  committed  the  late  outrage  on 
our  peaceable  inhabitants,  had  been  hunting  on  those  grounds  and,  after  finishing  their 
hunt,  proceeded  to  the  commission  of  the  bad  actions  of  which  I  have  complained. 
These  practices,  for  the  reasons  I  have  already  given  you,  must  have  an  immediate  end. 

The  Red  Pole,  [a  Shawnee  Chief]  has  behaved  like  a  candid,  honest  man,  in 
acknowledging  the  errors  of  his  people,  and  in  promising  to  restrain  them  immediately. 
He  has  done  more ;  he  has  offered  to  leave  his  own  father  as  a  hostage  until  he  can 
inform  me  of  his  having  called  them  home ;  but  I  will  not  separate  him  from  his  old 
father;  I  will  depend  upon  his  honor  for  the  performance  of  his  promise.  (Here  he 
gave  a  string  of  white  wampum  to  Red  Pole. ) 

All  you,  my  children,  listen  to  me.  The  great  business  of  peace,  so  long  and 
ardently  wished  for  by  your  great  and  good  father.  General  Washington  and  the  Fifteen 
Fires  [the  number  of  States  then  in  the  Union]  and,  I  am  sure,  by  every  good  man 
among  you,  being  now  accomplished,  nothing  remains  but  to  give  you  a  few  words  of 
advice  from  a  father  anxious  for  the  peace  and  happiness  of  his  children.  I^et  me 
earnestly  exhort  you  to  restrain  your  young  people  from  injuring,  in  any  degree,  the 
people  of  the  United  States.  Impress  upon  their  minds  the  spirit  and  meaning  of  the 
treaty  now  before  us.  Convince  them  how  much  their  future  welfare  will  depend  upon 
their  faithful  and  strict  observance  of  it.  Restore  to  me  as  soon  as  possible  all  my  flesh 
and  blood  which  may  be  among  you,  without  distinction  or  exception,  and  receive  now 
from  my  hands  the  ten  hostages  stipulated  by  the  second  article  to  be  left  with  me  as  a 
security  for  their  delivery.  This  unequivocal  proof  of  the  confidence  that  I  place  in 
your  honor,  and  in  the  solemn  promises  you  have  made  me,  must  satisfy  you  of  my  full 
persuasion  of  your  sincerity.  Send  those  ten  young  men  to  collect  your  prisoners ;  let 
them  bring  them  to  me,  and  they  shall  be  well  rewarded  for  their  trouble.  I  have  here 
a  particular  account  of  the  number  remaining  among  you.  and  shall  know  them  when 
they  are  all  restored. 

I  now  fervently  pray  to  the  Great  Spirit  that  the  peace  now  established  may  be 
permanent,  and  that  it  may  hold  us  together,  in  the  bonds  of  friendship  until  time  shall 
be  no  more.  1  also  pray  that  the  Great  Spirit  above  may  enlighten  your  minds,  and 
open  your  eyes  to  your  true  happiness ;  that  your  children  may  learn  to  cultivate  the 
earth,  and  enjoy  the  fruits  of  peace  and  industry.  (Here  he  gave  a  string  of  white 
wampum. ) 

As  it  is  probable,  my  children,  that  we  shall  not  soon  meet  again  in  public  council,  I 
take  this  opportunity  of  bidding  you  all  an  aftectionate  farewell,  and  of  wishing  ^-ou  a 
safe  and  happy  return  to  your  respective  homes  and  families.   (Gave  white  string  wampum.) 

Each  of  the  more  prominent  chiefs  desired  to  have  the  last  word 
with  General  Wayne  who  had  pleased  them  exceedingly  in  his  words, 
in  his  conduct  of  the  business  in  hand,  and  in  his  entertainment  of  them. 
Buck-on-ge-he-las,  the  great  war  chief  of  the  Delawares,  seemed  to  voice 
the  sentiments  of  all  when  he  said  : 

Your  children  all  well  understand  the  sense  of  the  Treaty  which  is  now  concluded. 
We  experience  daily  proofs  of  your  increasing  kindness.  I  hope  we  may  all  have  sense 
enough  to  enjoy  our  dawning  happiness.  Many  of  your  people  are  yet  among  us.  I 
trust  they  will  be  immediately  restored.  Last  winter  our  King  [Te-ta-boksh-ke]  came 
forward   to  you  with   two   [captives]    and  when  he  returned  with  your  speech  to  us,  we 


immediately  prepared  to  come  forward  with  the  remainder,  which  we  delivered  at  Fort 
Defiance.*  All  who  know  me.  know  me  to  be  a  man  and  a  warrior,  and  I  now  declare 
that  I  will  for  the  future  be  as  true  and  steady  a  friend  to  the  United  States  as  I  have 
heretofore  been  an  active  enemv.  We  have  one  bad  man  among  us  who.  a  few  days 
ago.  stole  three  of  your  horses;  two  of  them  shall  this  day  be  returned  to  you.  and  1 
hope  I  shall  be  able  to  prevent  that  youns  man  from  doing  any  more  mischief  to  our 
Father  the  Fifteen  Fires  [States]. 

The  9th  Septemlit-r  between  sixty  and  seventy  refractory  and  hostile 
Shawnee  warriors,  led  by  Chief  Puck-se-kaw  or  Jumper,  arrived  at 
Greenville  and  wished  to  be  counted  in  the  Treaty.  From  the  efforts 
of  Chief  Blue  Jacket  they  brought  and  surrendered  four  American 
captives  three  of  whom  were  taken  in  Randolph  County,  Virginia,  the 
13th  July.  These  being  the  last  of  the  malcontents,  General  Wayne 
turned  his  attention  to  matters  best  calculated  to  make  the  Treaty,  and 
peace,  permament. 

*It  was  the  Delawares.  or  Lenni  Lenapes,  who  took  captive  the  child  Frances  Slocum  2nd 
November.  1778.  followinj;  the  horrible  Wyomine  Massacre.  She  was  not  restored  :  nor  was  she  dis- 
covered to  her  surviving  relatives  until  after  a  residence  with  the  Delawares  and  Miamis  for  about  tifty- 
nine  years.  This  was  in  many  particulars  the  most  remarkable  captivity  on  record,  and  the  one  best 
illustrating  the  influence  of  heredity  over  environment.  See  Miner's.  Stone's.  Chapman's,  and  Peck's 
History  of  Wyoming :  The  Pennsylvania  Archives  :  Lossing's  Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  Revolution  : 
The  Story  of  the  Lost  Sister  hy  Rev.  John  Todd  ;  The  History  oj  the  Slocums  in  America  volumes  i  and 
ii.  by  Dr.  Charles  E.  Slocum  ;  and  The  Biography  of  Frances  Slocum  by  Johu  F.  Meginness. 




Treaties  —  The    Aborigines  —  Organizations    for  Civil    Govern- 
ment—  Renewal  of  Hostilites. 
1795  TO  1812. 

The  United  States  concluded  a  treaty  of  friendship,  of  limits,  and 
of  navigation  with  Spain  October  27,  1795.  This  treaty  further  allayed 
for  a  time  the  feelin^i  of  anxiety  and  unrest  with  some  and  of  ambition 
with  others,  and  contributed  to  the  strengthening  of  the  liond  of  union 
between  the  West  and  the  East.  This  was  also  a  year  of  much  migra- 
tion from  the  East,  with  increase  of  settlements  along  the  rivers  of 
southern  Ohio,  other  southern  parts  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  and 
south  of  the  Ohio  River. 

Colonel  Hamtramck's  letters  to  General  Wayne  during  the  winter  of 
1795-96  describe  the  temper  of  the  Aborigines,  and  their  disinclination 
to  supply  the  wants  of  the  younger  and  older  members  of  the  tribe,  viz: 

Fort  Waynk  December  l.'i,  IT!*."). 
Sir  :      .      .      The  issues  to  the  Aborigines  would  be  very  inconsiderable  this  winter  if 
it  was  not   for  about  ninety  old  women  and   children  with   some  very  old   men,  who  live 
near  us  and  have  no  other  mode  of   subsisting   but   by  the  garrison.      I    have  repeatedly 
tried  to  get  clear  of  them,  but  without  success. 

January    l.'i,    1790. 

Sir.  .  .  About  ninety  old  women  and  children  have  been  victualled  by  the 
garrison.  I  have,  yesterday,  given  them  five  days'  provisions  and  told  them  it  was  the 
last  they  should  have  until  spring.  I  was  obliged  to  do  so  because,  from  calculation,  I 
have  no  more  flour  than  will  last  me  until  spring.  But,  sir,  if  other  supplies  could  be 
got  by  land,  I  consider  it  politic  to  teed  these  poor  creatures,  who  will  suffer  very  much 
for  want  of  subsistence. 

The  military  stations  in  and  near  this  Basin  3rd  February,  1796, 
were:  Forts  Defiance,  Wayne,  Miami  (the  British  fort  by  the  lower 
Maumee,  which  the  Americans  expected  would  soon  be  surrendered  ) 
and  Sanduskv,  all  of  which,  excepting  Miami,  aggregated  a  force  of  one 
battalion  of  infantry,  one  company  of  riflemen,  and  one  company  of 
artillery  at  Fort  Wayne  which  fort  was  the  headquarters  for  these 
posts;  also  Forts  Adams,  Recovery,  Jefferson,  Loramie,  Head  of 
the  Auglaise,  and  Greenville  the  headquarters  of  this  group,  with  an 
aggregate  of  one  battalion  of  infantry  and  one  company  of  riflemen 
divided  among  them.  The  forts  recommended  March  29,  1796,  to  be 
maintained  were:  Defiance,  Wayne,  Adams,  Recovery,  Head  of 
Auglaise,  Miami  and  Michilimackinac,  each  by  a  garrison  of  fiftv-six 
men;  and  Detroit  with  one  hundred  and  twelve  men  —  Detroit  and 
Miami  being  yet  in  possession  of  the  British.* 

*See  American  State  Papers.  Military  Atlairs  volume  ii,  pages  113.  115. 


In  January,  1796,  General   Wayne  visited  the  seat  of  the  general 

Government,   probably  to  give  opinion   regarding  the   British   forts  in 

American  territory.      Great  courtesy  and   deference  were   given   him   in 

Philadelphia    and   his  native   County  of   Chester   near-by.      He  placed 

General  James  Wilkinson  in  charge  of   the   Northwestern    Army  during 

his  absence  with  headquarters  at  Greenville,  and  it  was  to  him  that  the 

following  letters  of   the  series  of   Colonel  Hamtramck   were  addressed, 

viz : 

Fort  Wayne  February  10,  179(1. 

Sir  :  .  .  Sometime  ago  I  wrote  you  that  I  had  refused  provisions  to  a  number  of 
old  men,  women,  and  children  of  the  Delaware  nation.  But  I  have  since  been  compelled 
to  give  to  them  or  see  them  die.      It  was  impossible  to  refuse, 

March  28,  1  TOfi. 

Sir  :  ,  .  I  am  out  of  wampum.  I  will  be  much  obliged  to  you  to  send  me  some, 
for  speaking  to  an  Aborigine  without  it  is  like  consulting  a  lawyer  without  a  fee.* 

The  British  agents  again  succeeded  in  arousing  dissatisfaction 
among  some  of  the  Aborigines,  and  a  council  was  called  in  the  interest 
of  the  British  for  June,  1796,  near  their  Fort  Miami.  To  counteract 
these  influences  General  Wilkinson  invited  some  of  the  chiefs  to  visit 
him  and,  later.  Colonel  Hamtramck  passed  down  the  Maumee  River 
with  a  detachment  of  troops  for  the  purpose  of  being  near  those  Abo- 
rigines attending  the  council.  The  parts  of  his  letters  to  General 
Wilkinson  regarding  these  movements,  are  here  excerpted: 

.\prii  ,1,  nnc. 

Sir  :  .  .  Little  Turtle  [war-chief  of  the  Miamis]  arrived  yesterday,  to  whom  I 
delivered  your  message.  His  answer  was,  to  present  his  compliments  to  you,  that  he 
was  very  glad  of  the  invitation,  as  he  wished  very  much  to  see  General  Wilkinson,  but  it 
is  impossible  for  him  to  go  to  Green\'ille  at  present,  as  he  had  ordered  all  his  voung  men 
to  repair  to  a   rendezvous  in  order,  when   assembled,  to  choose  a  place   for  their  perma- 

*  Wampum  to  the  Aborigines  served  the  purpose  of  money,  and  far  more  than  money.  It  was  not 
only  a  standard  of  value  and  a  medium  of  exchange,  but  it  was  worn  as  an  ornament  and  a  badge  of 
wealth,  and  of  position.  It  was  also  employed  as  symbols  of  various  sentiments  —  as  an  invitation  to  join 
in  war,  and  as  emblems  of  various  sentiments  of  peace  and  good  will  in  councils.  Originally  it  was  of 
any  bright,  hard  and  smooth  object  that  could  be  fastened  to  the  ears,  nose,  neck,  waist,  arms  or  lower 
limbs.  It  was  also  formed  from  Mollusk  shells  —  from  the  larger  clam  shells  of  the  rivers,  and  from  shells 
thrown  upon  the  shore  by  the  waves  of  tlie  lakes,  and  the  salt  sea.  The  shells  were  broken  into  small 
pieces  which  were  drilled  by  pieces  of  flint,  wood  and  sand,  and  shaped  and  smoothed  usually  into 
cylinders  one-eighth  inch  or  more  in  diameter,  and  one-fourth  to  a  half  inch  or  more  in  length,  by  rubbing 
them  on  stones  of  varying  roughness.  Considerable  time,  patience  and  skill  were  necessary  to  make 
pieces  somewhat  uniform  in  size  for  placing  on  strings  of  hemp  or  bark  liber  or  from  sl<ins  of  animals. 
These  strings  were  often  fastened  side  by  side  to  form  belts,  usually  of  few  strings  width,  but  sometimes 
of  eight,  ten,  twelve  or  more  wide.  Dark  beads  came  from  the  '  eye  '  of  the  shell.  In  some  tribes  they 
were  known  as  socki  and  were  of  twice  the  value  of  the  ordinary  while  beads  called  Wompi.  Sections  of 
bones  were  used  as  wampum,  also  the  claws  and  beaks  of  birds  and  the  teeth  of  animals;  but  the  latter 
could  not  be  so  readily  drilled  or  fastened  together  and  to  the  person  as  substances  of  less  hardness. 

Wampum  was  also  a  medium  of  payment  and  exchange  among  the  Europeans  in  America  as  well  as 
between  them  and  the  .\borigines.     See  engravings  of  wampum  on  page  23.^  and  later. 

The  Hollanders  for  some  years,  in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  were  the  principal 
manufacturers  and  wholesale  dealers  in  wampum  of  various  colored  glass  and  porcelain,  in  various  forms 
and  sizes.     This  wampum  was  a  great  attraction  to  the  .-Vborigines  who  eagerly  exchanged  the  skins  of 


nent  residence ;   that,  as  soon  as   that   object   shall   be  accomplished   he   would  go  to  see 
you.  which,  he  said,  would  be  by  the  time  he  hears  from  you  again. 

April   IS.    1796. 
Sir  ;     .      .     The  bearer  is  Captain  Blue  Jacket  [a  war-chief  of  the   Shawnees]  who, 
at  your  request,  is  now  going  to  Greenville.      Blue  Jacket  is  used  to  good  company  and  is 
always  treated  with  more  attention    than  other  Aborigines.      He  appears  to  be  very  well 
disposed,  and  I  believe  him  sincere.*     . 

C.'kMP  Deposit  [Roche  de  Bout]  June  S.  179(>. 
Sir  :  I  arrived  at  this  place  the  day  before  yesterday  and  have  been  waiting  the 
result  of  the  Aborigine  council  at  the  [British]  Miamis  fort.  It  would  appear  that  they 
are  divided  in  their  opinions.  White  Cap,  the  principal  Shawanese  chief,  wants  to 
alarm  the  Aborigines,  but  I  am  in  hopes  he  will  not  succeed.  Blue  Jacket  is  with  me, 
and  says  that  he  will  remain  until  your  arrival.  Yesterday  some  of 'their  chiefs  and 
young  men  were  with  me,  and  assured  me  of  their  good  intentions  towards  us.  How  far 
this  can  be  depended  upon  time  will  determine. 

Camp  Deposit  June  Hi,  179(5. 
Sir:     .      .     Two  of   my  men   deserted  on  the  14th  inst.      I  sent  my  interpreter  and 
an  Aborigine  after  them.     They  brought  them  back  last  night.      I  wish  they  had  brought 
their  scalps  for  I  know  not  what  to  do  with  them.     Could  I  have  power,  at  times,  to  call 
a  general  court  martial  for  the  trial  of  deserters,  it  would  save  a  great  deal  of  time. 

J.  F.  Hamtramck. 

The   British   Surrenher  the   Fiirts. 

John  Jay  Special  Minister  to  Great  Britain  concluded  a  treaty  19th 
November,  17'J4,  known  as  the  Jay  Treaty,  which  was  favorable  to  the 
Northwest  Territory  inasmuch  as  one  of  its  provisions  was  for  the 
British  abandonment  of  their  military  posts  on  American  soil  on  or 
before  the  1st  June,  179H.  This  treat\'  was  proclaimed  as  a  law  by 
the  President  1st  March,  1796.  The  27th  May  General  Wilkinson 
sent  Captain  Schaumberg  his  aide-de-camp  to  Detroit  to  demand  of 
Colonel    England   the   evacuation  of    the    forts   subject    to    his  orders  — 

tlie  best  fur-bearine  animals  for  it.  In  the  year  1627  De  Rasiers  with  a  Holland  trading  vessel  from  New 
Amsterdam  (now  New  York)  entered  Plymouth  Harbor  and  traded  this  wampum  to  the  Puritans  to  the 
value  of  ^,50.  By  the  year  1640  it  was  quite  generally  used  as  money,  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of  silver 
and  gold,  throughout  the  northern  Colonies,  exclusively  in  some  places,  as  the  most  convenient  article 
for  exchange  of  values  although  it  was  considered  in  places  "but  a  commodity,  and  it  is  unreasonable 
that  it  should  be  forced  upon  any  man.'  —  Rhode  Island  Colonial  Records.  1662.  Waiupum  was  current 
in  New  York  and  throughout  the  East  for  fare  in  public  conveyances,  also  in  many  places  for  taxes  and 
for  goods  until  near  the  close  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and  yet  later  in  this  Basin.  Strings  of  wampum 
were  of  definite  length  and  were  used  as  measurers  as  well  as  for  exchange.  In  the  year  1666  the  Con- 
necticut Assembly  made  a  land  grant  of  '  Fifty  fathoms  of  Wompom '  size. 

*  After  chief  Blue  Jacket  joined  the  .Americans  Colonel  M'Kee  British  Agent  said  to  him;  The 
commission  [see  Index  reference  to  Blue  Jacket]  you  received  from  Sir  John  Johnson  was  not  given  you 
to  carry  to  the  Americans.  I  am  grieved  to  find  that  you  have  taken  it  to  them  (at  the  preliminary 
treaty  in  January,  17951.  It  was  with  much  regret  I  learned  that  you  had  deserted  your  friends  [the 
British!  who  always  caressed  you  and  treated  you  as  a  great  man.  You  have  deranged,  by  your  im- 
prudent conduct,  all  our  plans  for  protecting  the  Aborigines  and  keeping  them  with  us.  They  have 
always  looked  up  to  you  for  advice  and  direction  in  war,  and  you  have  now  broken  the  strong  ties  which 
held  them  all  together  under  your  and  our  direction.  You  must  now  be  viewed  as  the  enemy  of  your 
people  and  the  other  Aborigines  whom  you  are  seducing  into  the  snares  the  Americans  have  formed  for 
their  ruin;  and  the  massacre  and  destruction  of  these  people  by  the  Americans  must  be  laid  to  your 
charge— Buttertields  History  o/  the  Girtys  page  396. 


Fort  Lernoult  at  Detroit,  Fort  Miami  near  the  foot  of  the  Maumee 
Rapids,  and  Fort  Michilimackinac  ;  but  Colonel  England  had  received 
no  orders  so  to  do  from  his  superior  officer  and  could  not  comply  with 
the  demand.  The  British,  however,  had  been  buildin^i  a  fort  at 
Maiden,  near  Captain  Matthew  Elliott's  estate,  at  the  present  Amherst- 
burg  on  the  left  liank  and  near  the  mouth  of  Detroit  River. 

The  first  of  June  having  passed  without  a  movement  of  the  British 
to  vacate  the  forts,  the  War  Department  decided  with  General  Wavne 
to  make  one  more  formal  demand.  Accordingly  Captain  Lewis  was 
sent  from  Philadelphia  direct  to  Lord  Dorchester  who  received  him, 
and  the  demand  from  headquarters,  with  great  civility,  and  caused 
orders  to  be  drawn  and  given  to  him  commanding  the  officers  in  charge 
of  the  Forts  —  Oswego,  Niagara,  Miami,  Lernoult,  and  Michilimackinac 
—  to  vacate  them  to  "  such  officer  belonging  to  the  forces  of  the  United 
States  as  shall  jiroduce  this  authority  to  you  for  that  jiurpose,  who 
shall  precede  the  troops  destined  to  garrison  it  by  one  day,  in  order 
that  he  may  have  time  to  view  the  nature  and  condition  of  the  works 
and  buildings."  The  orders  for  the  surrender  of  Forts  Oswego  and 
Niagara  were  handed  by  Captain  Lewis  on  his  return  to  Captain  Bruff 
at  Albany,  and  those  for  the  other  forts  were  given  to  General  Wayne 
at  Philadelphia  who  immediately  dispatched  them  to  General  Wilkin- 
son at  Greenville  and  he  sent  them  to  Colonel  Hamtramck  who  also 
acted  with  proinptness  as  shown    by    his  report    to    General  Wilkinson, 

viz : 

Fort  Miami  |uly  11,  ITitd. 

Sir  ;  On  the  '7th  instant  two  small  vessels  arrived  from  Detroit  in  which  I  sent  a 
detachment  of  artillery  and  infantry  consisting  of  sixty-five  men,  together  with  a  number 
of  cannon  with  ammunition,  &c.,  Ac,  the  whole  under  the  command  of  Captain  [Moses] 
Porter.  On  the  !)th  a  sloop  arrived  from  Detroit  at  Swan  Creek,  purchased  by  Captain 
Henry  DeButts,  which  carries  fifty  tons,  and  which  is  now  loaded  with  flour,  quarter- 
master's stores  and  troops.  That,  together  with  eleven  batteaux  which  I  have,  will  be 
sufficient  to  take  all  the  troops  I  have  with  me.  leaving  the  remainder  of  our  stores 
deposited  at  this  place,  which  was  evacuated  [by  the  British]  on  this  day,  and  where  I 
have  left  Captain  Marschalk  and  Lieutenant  Shauklin  with  fifty-two  men,  infantry,  and 
a  corporal  and  six  of  artillery,  that  is,  including  the  garrison  at  the  head  of  the  Rapids 
[Roche  de  Bout  ?].  I  have  endowed  Fort  Miami  with  one  month's  provision  for  both  the 
troops  and  the  Shawanese.  The  latter,  you  recollect,  you  promised  subsistence  until 
the  crops  were  ripe.  The  number  of  the  Shawane,se  is  about  one  hundred  and  eighty, 
besides  twenty-six  or  thirty  Ottawas.  I  shall  embark  in  two  hours,  with  all  the  troops, 
for  Detroit. 

Detroit,  July  17,  1'7!)(). 

Sir  ;  I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you  of  the  arrival  of  the  troops  under  my  com- 
mand at  this  place  [Fort  Lernoult]  which  was  evacuated  [by  the  British]  on  the  11th 
instant  and  [was]  taken  possession  of  by  a  detachment  of  sixty-five  men  commanded  by 
Captain  Moses  Porter,  whom  I  had  detached  from  the  foot  of  the  [Maumee]  Rapids  for 
that  purpose.     Myself  and  the  troops  arrived  on  the  IHth  instant.      .     . 

To  Major  General  Wilkinson.  J-   ^-   Hamtramck. 


Thus  was  accomplished,  after  a  further  struggle  of  thirteen  years 
by  the  young  Republic  with  the  loss  of  much  blood,  what  Great  Brit- 
ain should  have  at  once  surrendered  at  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary 
War  in  17h3  according  to  the  Treaty  of  Paris.  Instead  of  her  arrogant 
and  continued  aggressions  and  her  incitements  of  the  savages,  had  she 
by  proper  conduct  toward  these  savages  given  moral  support  to  the 
L'nited  States  in  their  efforts  to  cultivate  and  maintain  among  them  a 
desire  for  peace  and  progress  toward  civilization,  their  condition  would 
have  greatly  improved  and  the  United  States  would  have  been  saved 
many  lives  and  much  expense.  But  the  end  was  not  vet  come. 
Eighteen  more  years  the  British  persisted  in  their  infamous  conduct 
toward  the  United  States  and  with  the  savages  for  mastery  over  this 
Basin.  The  policy  of  the  British  was  then,  as  ever,  to  acquire  territory 
and  never  to  relinquish  any  that  was  possible  to  hold.  The  treaty 
necessary  to  close  the  Revolutionary  War  did  not  extinguish  their 
desire  and  expectation  of  re-possessing  the  American  Colonies,  or  the 
territory  west  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains  at  least.  This  is  shown  by 
their  continual  refusal  to  surrender  their  fortifications  on  the  American 
border;  by  their  building  the  strong  Fort  Miami  by  thi'  Maumee  River, 
a  great  advance  into  United  States  territory;  and  by  their  continued 
efforts  to  federate  and  control  all  the  Aborigine  tribes  in  this  Basin, 
also  those  to  the  westward  and  southward  of  it.  Some  of  Great  Brit- 
ain's apologists  have  attempted  to  attach  the  blame  for  these  undue 
and  persistent  aggressions  and  misdemeanors  on  the  British  subordi- 
nate officials.  This  would  imply  a  laxity  of  supervision  on  the  part  of 
their  superiors  that  no  well-informed  person  will  admit.  The  British 
Home  Office  in  London,  England,  kept  well  informed  regarding  the 
methods  and  details  of  their  subordinates  as  well  as  of  the  results  of 
them:  in  fact  the  Home  Office  dictated  all.  Many  occurrences  in  the 
conduct  of  affairs  here  that  were  reported  were  not  kept  of  record;  but 
enough  was  entered  upon  record  to  convict  all  parties,  as  shown  on 
previous  and  succeeding  pages  hereto.  Communications  with  London 
bv  trained  messengers  were  also  frequent.  The  most  alert  and  aggres- 
sive subordinates  were  sought  for  the  frontiers  ;  and  if  the  voice  of  one 
was  raised  for  a  less  aggressive  or  less  cruel  policy  it  was  soon  hushed, 
generally  b\-  his  removal. 

During  the  summer  of  1796  there  was  great  scarcity'  of  provisions 
at  Detroit  for  the  three  hundred  American  soldiers  as  well  as  for  the 
large  number  of  Aborigines  who  continued  to  gather  there.  Samuel 
Henley  Acting  (Quartermaster  went  to  Greenville  to  hasten  forward 
supplies  bv  way  of  the  Ohio  River.  He  wrote  l^'th  August  to  General 
Williams  Ouartermaster  General  at  Detroit  that  .  .  'the  Commis- 
sary General  gave  thirty  dollars   for  the  transjiortation  of   one  barrel  of 


flour  from  Fort  Washington  to  Fort  Wayne.''  .  .  I  am  well  con- 
vinced that  our  public  wagonmasters  are  a  poor  set  of  drunken 
men.'    . 

Death  ok  General  Wayne — W\\yne  County — Intrigues. 

General  Wayne,  on  his  return  from  Philadelphia,  arrived  at 
Detroit  13th  August,  1796,  probably  by  the  sloop  Detroit  from  Fresque 
Isle  the  present  Erie,  Pennsylvania.  He  was  received  by  demonstra- 
tions of  great  joy  by  all  persons,  including  the  twelve  hundred  Abo- 
rigines there  assembled.  He  remained  at  Detroit  until  the  17th  No- 
vember, when  he  again  started  for  Philadelphia  on  a  small  sloop. 
On  this  voyage  over  Lake  Erie  his  system  was  much  irritated  and 
fatigued  by  the  tossings  of  the  storms,  and  the  disease  from  which  he 
had  for  some  time  suffered  (  recorded  as  the  gout )  made  great  progress. 
It  could  not  be  allayed  after  his  arrival  at  Fort  Presque  Isle,  and  he 
there  died  l.Tth  December,  179fi,  aged  fift\-one  vears,  eleven  months 
and  fourteen  days.T 

General  Wayne  served  his  country  well,  and  with  much  (jatriotic 
fervor.  He  was  a  typical  American  commander.  He  was  a  thorough 
disciplinarian,  brave,  impetuous  and  irresistilile  in  battle,  and  success- 
ful in  inspiring  his  soldiers  with  these  requisites.  He  was  also 
thoughtful  and  conservative  in  planning  and  equally  successful  in 
strategy  and  assault,  as  shown  on  different  fields.  North  and  South, 
during  the  Revolutionary  War.  These  characteristics  were  very  pro- 
nounced during  his  campaign  through  the  Maumee  River  Basin :  and 
the  success  and  value  of  this  campaign  were  equalled  only  by  the  suc- 
cess and  value  of  his  dij^lomacy  in  drawing  the  savages  to  Greenville 
the  next  year,  away  from  their  British  keepers  and  to  the  most  import- 
ant of  treaties.  These  last,  and  greatest,  acts  of  his  life  should  ever 
be  respected  as  invaluable  to  our  countr\',  as  thev  settled  favorably  for 
the  Union  its  first  great  crisis. 

General  James  Wilkinson  continued  to  act  as  General-m-chiel  of 
the  United  States  Army  after  the  death  of   General  Wayne. 

The  15th  August  W^inthrop  Sargent,  Secretary  of  the  Northwestern 
Territory,  proclaimed  at  Detroit  the  organization  of  Wayne  County 
which  included  nearly  all  of  the  Maumee  River  Basin  and  eastward  to 
the  Cuyahoga  River,  and  all  of  the  Territory  north  of  a  line  extending 
from    Fort    Wayne    to    the   south  part   of    Lake    Michigan.      Thus  this 

'^The  form  of  money  most  in  use  at  this  time  was  '  York  Currency  '  issued  by  the  Provincial  Con- 
Eress  of  New  Yorli.  A  few  Spanish  silver  dollars  were  in  circulation.  They  were  then  the  most  valuable 
of  all  money  seen  and  were  rated  at  ten  shillings  each. 

+  In  1809  his  son  Colonel  Isaac  Wayne,  removed  his  remains  from  Presque  Isle  (Erie.  Pennsyl- 
vania) to  his  early  home  at  Radnor,  where  the  Society  of  the  Cincinnati  of  Pennsylvania  erected  a 
moderate  marble  monument  to  inatk  his  grave. 





Basin  was  brought  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  for  the 
first  time,  it  having  before  l)een,  excepting  the  sites  of  the  American 
Forts,  under  the  nominal  jurisdiction  of  County  Kent  organized  in  Can- 
ada in  1792;  but  during  this  time,  as  previously,  it  was  practically 
subject  to  the  Commandant  of  the  garrison  at  Detroit. 

With  the  occupation  of  Detroit  by  the  Americans,  there 
followed   the    necessity    for    regular   and    prompt    communication    with 

Fort  Washington  at  Cincinnati. 
Horses  were  kept  at  the  sev- 
eral stations  of  Greenville,  St. 
Marys,  Defiance,  and  Miami  at 
the  foot  of  the  lowest  Maumee 
Rapids,  for  this  purpose.  J. 
Wilkins,  Junior,  Quartermaster 
General  at  Detroit,  wrote  to 
Major  John  Wilson,  Assistant 
Quartermaster  at  Fort  Miami, 
under  date  of  16th  Sejitember, 
1796,  that  "I  send'  over  by 
Ogden  two  horses  which  are  to 
remain  at  Fort  Miami  to  serve 
as  a  relief  for  expresses;  when 
expresses  are  coming  to  this 
place  [Detroit]  they  are  to  leave 
the  horses  they  bring  with  you 
and  come  on  with  fresh  horses.  You  will  take  the  greatest  care  of  the 
horses  and  have  them  well  fed  and  attended  to." 

Near  the  close  of  the  year  1796  the  number  of  white  people  within 
the  present  limits  of  Ohio  was  recorded  as  about  five  thousand,  mostly 
located  along  the  Ohio  River  and  along  its  tributaries  within  fifty  miles 
of  the  Ohio.  With  the  prospects  of  peace  and  of  the  land  being  sur- 
veyed and  opened  to  settlers,  the  population  increased  rapidly. 

After  the  organization  of  Wayne  County,  and  until  the  formation 
of  the  Ohio  State  Government  in  1803,  lawyers  of  Cincinnati  attended 
the  General  Court  at  Detroit.  Five  or  six  of  them  usually  traveled  in 
company  on  horseback  and  took  along  a  packhorse  to  carry  supplies 
additional  to  the  personal  effects  in  the  saddle-bags  of  each  individual. 
Aborigine  camps  were  passed  through  but  it  was  not  safe  to  rely  on 
them  for  assistance,  and  supplies  along  the  route  through  the  forest 
were  uncertain,  even  of  corn  to  feed  their  horses.  There  were  no 
bridges,  and  each  horse  was  a  tried  swimmer  for  crossing  the  deepest 
of  streams.  They  were  generally  from  six  to  eight  days  in  the  wilder- 
ness, and    sometimes    ten    days.      On   one   of    these  journeys   the   party 


arrived  at  the  Ottawa  town  on  the  Autjlaise  River  about  the  middle  of  the 
day,  and  accepted  an  invitation  to  remain  there  until  the  next  morning. 
Jacob  Burnet,  afterwards  judge,  was  often  a  member  of  the  party  and 
he  wrote  the  following  description  of  one  of  their  entertainments/" 

Blue  Jacket  the  Shawnee  chief  who  commanded  in  the  battle  of  the  20th  August, 
]7!)4  [Battle  of  Fallen  Timber]  resided  at  that  village,  but  was  then  absent.  The  party, 
however,  were  received  very  kindly  by  the  venerable  Delaware  chief  Bu-kon-ge-he-las. 
whose  name  has  been  given  to  a  fine  mill-stream  in  Logan  County.  He  was  one  of  the 
chiefs  who  negotiated  the  treaty  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Miami  [Fort  Finney]  with  Gen- 
eral George  R.  Clark  in  17S(i,  in  which  his  name  is  written  Bo-hon-ghe-lass. 

In  the  course  of  the  afternoon  he  got  up  a  game  of  foot-ball,  for  the  amusement  of 
his  guests,  in  the  true  aborigine  style.  He  selected  two  young  men  to  get  a  purse  of 
trinkets  made  up,  to  be  the  reward  of  the  successful  party.  That  matter  was  soon  ac- 
complished and  the  whole  village,  male  and  female  in  their  best  attire,  were  on  the  lawn 
which  was  a  beautiful  plain  of  four  or  five  acres,  in  the  center  of  the  village,  thickly  set 
in  blue  grass.  At  each  of  the  opposite  extremes  of  this  lawn  two  stakes  were  set  up  about 
six  feet  apart.  The  men  played  against  the  women,  and  to  countervail  the  superiority  of 
their  strength  it  was  a  rule  of  the  game  that  they  were  not  to  touch  the  ball  with  their 
hands  on  the  penalty  of  forfeiting  the  purse  ;  while  the  females  had  the  privilege  of  using 
their  hands  as  well  as  their  feet,  being  allowed  to  pick  up  the  ball  and  run  and  throw  it 
as  far  as  their  strength  and  activity  would  permit.  When  a  squaw  succeeded  in  getting 
the  ball  the  men  were  allowed  to  seize,  whirl  her  around  and.  if  necessary,  throw  her  on 
the  grass  for  the  purpose  of  disengaging  the  ball,  taking  care  not  to  touch  it  except  with 
the  feet.  The  contending  parties  arranged  themselves  in  the  center  of  the  lawn,  the  men 
on  one  side  and  the  women  on  the  other,  each  party  facing  the  goal  of  their  opponents. 
The  side  which  succeeded  in  driving  the  ball  through  the  stakes  at  the  goal  of  their  ad- 
versaries, was  proclaimed  victors  and  received  the  purse  to  be  divided  among  them.  All 
things  being  ready,  the  old  chief  came  on  the  lawn  and,  saying  something  in  the  Abori- 
gine language  not  understood  by  his  guests,  threw  up  the  ball  between  the  lines  of  the 
combatants  and  retired.  The  contest  began.  The  parties  were  pretty  fairly  matched  as 
to  numbers,  having  about  a  hundred  on  a  side,  and  for  a  long  time  the  game  appeared 
to  be  doubtful.  The  young  .squaws  were  the  most  active  of  the  party  and  most  frequently 
caught  the  ball,  at  which  time  it  was  amusing  to  see  the  struggle  between  them  and  the 
young  men  which  generally  terminated  in  the  prostration  of  the  squaw  upon  the  grass  be- 
fore the  ball  could  be  forced  from  her  hands.  The  contest  continued  about  an  hour  with 
great  animation  and  varying  prospects  of  success.  It  was  finally  decided  in  fa\'or  of  the 
fair  sex  by  the  herculean  strength  of  a  mammoth  squaw  who  got  the  ball  and  held  it,  in 
spite  of  the  efforts  of  the  men  to  shake  it  from  the  grasp  of  her  uplifted  hand,  till  she  ap- 
proached the  goal  near  enough  to  throw  it  through  the  stakes.  When  the  contending  par- 
ties had  retired  from  the  strife  it  was  pleasant  to  .see  the  exultation  expressed  in  the  faces 
of  the  victors  whose  joy  was  manifestly  increased  by  the  circumstance  that  victory  was 
won  in  the  presence  of  white  men  whom  they  supposed  to  be  highly  distinguished  and 
honored  in  their  nation,  a  conclusion  very  natural  for  them  to  draw  as  they  knew  the 
business  on  which  their  guests  were  journeying  to  Detroit.  The  party  spent  the  night 
very  pleasantly  in  the  village,  and  in  the  morning  resumed  their  journey. 

*  Burnet's  Notes  pages  6H  tu  7r  Henry  Howe  in  his  Historical  Collections  of  Ohio  places  this 
'  Ottawa  town  '  at  the  present  Wapakoneta.  There  were  many  'Ottawa'  towns  alony  these  rivers  and 
this  particular  one  on  the  .\uglaise  River  in  the  opinion  of  the  writer  was  about  the  central  part  of  the 
present  Allen  County,  Ohio,  or  about  the  site  where  Fort  Amanda  was  built  in  1813  in  AuElaise  County 
near  the  line  of  Allen,  and  site  of  General  Wayne's  fort  at  the  '  Head  of  the  Anglaise,' 


On  the  outward  journey  they  [the  lawyers]  took  the  route  by  Dayton,  Piqua,  Loramie, 
St.  Marys,  and  the  Ottawa  town  on  the  Auglaise,  and  thence  down  this  river  to  Defiance; 
thence  down  the  Maumee  to  the  foot  of  the  rapids,  and  thence  to  and  across  the  River 
Raisin  to  Detroit.  On  their  return  they  crossed  the  Maumee  at  Roche  de  Boeuf  [properly 
Roche  de  Bout]  by  the  advice  of  Black  Beard,  a  personal  friend  of  Judge  Symmes,  who 
lived  in  that  neighborhood  and  with  whom  the  party  breakfasted.  As  a  matter  of  pre- 
caution they  hired  his  son  to  accompany  them  in  the  capacity  of  guide.  He  led  them 
through  a  succession  of  wet  prairies  over  some  of  which  it  was  impossible  to  ride, 
and  it  was  with  great  difficulty  they  were  able  to  lead  or  drive  their  horses  through  the 
deep  mud  which  surrounded  them  on  all  sides.  After  two  days  and  a  half  of  incessant 
toil  and  difficulty  they  arrived  at  the  same  village  in  which  they  had  been  so  kindly  treat- 
ed, and  so  much  amused,  on  their  outward  journey.  To  their  great  mortification  and 
disappointment  they  were  informed  that  Blue  Jacket  had  returned  from  Cincinnati  a  day 
or  two  before  with  a  large  quantity  of  whiskey,  and  that  his  people  were  in  a  high  frolic.  This 
information  was  soon  confirmed  by  the  discovery  that  the  people  of  the  whole  village, 
male  and  female  were  drunk.  The  party,  however,  were  received  with  great  kindness, 
but  it  was  in  a  style  they  were  not  disposed  to  permit.  An  old  withered  looking  squaw, 
very  drunk,  was  extremely  officious.  Knowing  that  Mr.  St.  Clair,  one  of  the  party,  was 
the  Attorney  General  of  the  Territory  and  son  of  the  Governor,  her  attentions  were  prin- 
cipally conferred  upon  him.  She  kissed  him  and  exclaimed  'you  big  man — Governor's 
son'.  Then  turning  to  the  rest  of  the  party,  said  with  marked  contempt  '  you  be  milish'* 
and  then  kissed  Mr.  St.  Clair  again.  It  was  certainly  one  of  those  rare  occasions  on 
which  men  of  sensibility  and  delicacy  feel  the  advantage  of  being  placed  at  a  low  grade 
on  the  scale  of  dignity.  It  was  manifestly  impossible  to  remain  in  the  village,  and  the 
only  alternative  was  to  proceed  on  their  journey.  It  was  then  late  in  the  afternoon. 
They  were  much  fatigued,  and  had  a  wet  swampy  path  of  twelve  miles  to  pass  over  to 
the  River  St.  Mary,  through  a  valley  swarming  with  gnats  and  mosquitoes.  It  was  a 
choice  of  evils  ;  but,  as  there  was  no  time  to  hesitate,  they  saddled  their  horses  and 
started.  Night  overtook  them  in  the  middle  of  the  swamp.  There  being  no  moon,  and 
the  forest  being  very  dense,  it  was  found  impossible  to  keep  the  path,  much  less  to  see 
and  avoid  the  quagmires  on  every  side.  They  had  no  alternative,  and  halted  till  morning. 
To  lie  down  was  impossible  from  the  nature  of  the  ground;  and  to  sleep  was  still  more 
difficult  as  they  were  surrounded  with  gnats  and  mosquitoes.  After  remaining  in  that 
uncomfortable  condition  five  or  six  hours,  expecting  every  moment  their  horses  to  break 
away,  daylight  made  its  appearance  for  their  relief.  About  sunrise  they  arrived  at  the  . 
old  Fort  ■'Vdams  on  the  St.  Mary.  This  fort  was  then  occupied  by  Charles  Murray  and 
his  squaw  who  got  them  a  breakfast,  after  which  they  proceeded  to  Cincinnati.  Jour- 
neys of  a  similar  character  were  of  frequent  occurrence  during  the  continuance  of  the 
Territorial  government,  and  for  some  years  after. 

The  Jay  Treaty  with  Great  Britain  was  considered  by  France  as  an 
alteration  and  suspension  of  her  treaty  of  177H  with  the  United  States; 
and  on  the  19th  August,  1796,  a  treaty  of  alliance,  offensive  and  defen- 
sive, was  concluded  between  France  and  Spain,  and  this  at  once  led  to 
some  overt  acts  bv  France  against  the  United  States  on  the  high  seas, 
and  to  agents  of  Spain  and  France  again  becoming  active  to  alienate 
this  Northwestern  Territory  from  the  East.  The  idea  of  a  Western 
Confederac}'  was  again  advocated    b}'  a   few   persons  in  Kentucky.     A 

'■"This  expression  nrobabb'  voiced   the  opinion  of  the  Aborigines  at  this  time  of  the  inilitiatnen,  in 
contradistinction  to  soldiers  of  the  regular  army. 


special  emissar\'  from  Baron  de  Carondelet  the  Spanish  Governor 
General  of  Louisiana  was  again  sent  in  the  person  of  Thomas  Power, 
a  versatile  Irishman  possessing  a  practical  knowledge  of  the  English, 
French  and  Spanish^  languages  who  had  previously  been  in  Kentucky 
and  in  the  Ohio  settlements  to  advance  the  interests  of  Spain  in  the 
Mississippi  Basin.  In  June,  1797,  he  again  proceeded  to  Kentucky  and 
addressed  influential  personages  on  subjects  that  were  in  the  present 
uncertain  and  critical  attitude  of  politics,  highly  imprudent  and  danger- 
ous to  lay  before  them  on  paper'  but  which  were,  in  effect,  that  if  they 
would  'immediately  exert  all  their  influence  in  impressing  on  the  minds 
of  the  inhabitants  of  the  western  country  a  conviction  of  the  necessity 
of  their  withdrawing  and  separating  themselves  from  the  Federal 
Union,  and  forming  an  independent  government  wholly  unconnected 
with    that    of    the  Atlantic    States'  they  would    be  well    rewarded. 

If  a  hundred  thousand  dollars  distributed  in  Kentucky  would  cause  it 
to  rise  in  insurrection,  I  am  verv  certain  that  the  minister,  in  the  pres- 
ent circumstances,  would  sacrifice  them  with  ])leasure:  and  you  may, 
without  exposing  yourself  too  much,  promise  them  to  those  who  enjoy 
the  confidence  of  the  people,  with  another  equal  sum,  in  case  of 
necessity:   and  twenty  pieces  of  field  artillery.'*. 

Meantime  the  Spanish  forts  along  the  Mississippi  River  were  not 
surrendered  to  the  United  States  according  to  the  Treaty  of  1795,  and 
it  was  reported  to  the  Secretary  of  State  by  Winthrop  Sargent  Secre- 
tary of  the  Northwest  Territory,  3rd  June,  1797,  that  General  Howard 
an  Irishman  commissioned  f\v  Spain  as  Commander-in-chief  had 
arrived  at  St.  Louis  with  upwards  of  three  hundred  men  and  had  begun 
the  erection  of  a  formidable  fort;  that  a  large  party  of  Aborigines 
(Delawares)  passed  down  the  White  River,  a  tributary  of  the  Wabash, 
the  first  week  in  May  bearing  a  Spanish  flag  on  their  way  to  reinforce 
the  Spaniards.  Further,  that  the  Spaniards  had  on  the  Mississippi 
above  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio  several  galley  row  boats  with  cannon. 

Thomas  Power  also  traversed  the  Maumee  Valley  in  August  on 
his  way  to  Detroit  to  meet  General  Wilkinson  and  other  influential 
men.  He  was  accompanied,  or  soon  followed,  by  the  Agents  of 
France,  Victor  de  Collot  and  M.  Warin,  who  sketched  maps  of  the 
rivers  and  country.  In  a  letter  from  Detroit  to  Captain  Robert  Buntin 
at  Vincennes  under  date  4th  September,  1797,  General  Wilkinson 
mentions  receiving  a  letter  from  Carondelet  stating  "a  variety  of  frivo- 
lous reasons  for  not  delivering  the  posts,  and  begs  that  no  more  [Amer- 
ican] troops  be  sent  down  the  Mississippi.  I  have  put  aside  all  his 
exceptions,  and  have  called  on  him  in  the  most  solemn  manner  to  fulfill 

*  American  State  Papers,  Miscellaneous  volume  ii.  page  1 


the  treaty.  .  .  Although  Mr.  Power  has  brought  me  this  letter  it  is 
possible  it  might  be  a  mask  to  other  purposes;  I  have  therefore,  for 
his  accommodation  and  safety,  put  him  in  care  of  Captain  Shaumburgh 
who  will  see  him  safe  to  New  Madrid  by  the  most  direct  route.  I  pray 
you  to  continue  your  vigilance,  and  give  me  all  the  information  in  your 
power."   . 

France  refused  to  receive  the  American  Minister  and  permitted 
man}'  unwise  acts  of  her  citizens  while  instigating  others.  Congress, 
also,  adopted  measures  of  defense  and  retaliation,  authorizing  the  form- 
ation of  a  provisional  army,  about  twelve  regiments  of  which  were  to 
gather  at  Fort  Washington  where  boats  were  to  be  built  to  transport 
them  down  the  Mississippi;  commercial  intercourse  with  France  was 
suspended  ;  an  act  was  passed  for  the  punishment  of  alien  and  secret 
enemies  of  the  United  States;  and  for  the  punishment  of  treason  and 

The  Spaniards  of  the  Mississippi  fearing  an  invasion  by  the 
British,  President  John  Adams  ordered  General  Wilkinson  4th  Febru- 
ary, 1798,  to  oppose  all  who  should  presume  to  attempt  a  violation  of 
the  laws  of  the  territory  of  the  United  States  by  an  expedition  through 
it  against  their  enemies.  This  implies  that  the  British  had  designs  on 
the  Spanish  Colony  by  way  of  the  Maumee  or  Illinois.  The  Territory 
of  Mississippi  was  formed  by  Congress  7th  April,  1798,  and  Winthrop 
Sargent  was  nominated  and  approved  as  its  Governor.  The  vacancy 
thus  made  of  Secretary  of  the  Northwestern  Territory,  was  filled  ■26th 
June  by  the  appointment  of   William  H.  Harrison. 

Ex-President  George  Washington  was  chosen  2nd  July,  1798, 
Lieutenant  General  and  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  armies  raised  or  to 
be  raised  for  the  service  of  the  United  States.  There  was  little  to  be 
done,  however,  that  he  could  not  readily  delegate  to  his  subordinates. 
During  the  summer  of  1798  the  Spanish  vacated  their  forts  in  American 
territor}',  and  the  5th  October  General  Wilkinson  took  up  headquarters 
at  Loftus  Heights,  where  Fort  Adams  was  soon  built,  on  the  eastern 
bank  of  the  Mississippi  about  six  miles  north  of  the  31st  degree  of 
north  latitude  the  then  dividing  line  between  the  United  States  and 
Spanish  territory. 

The  first  Wayne  County  was  divided  into  four  townships  according 
to  the  law  of  6th  November,  1790.  The  1st  November,  1798,  these 
townships  bore  the  names  Detroit,  Mackinaw,  Sargent  and  Hamtramck, 
the  last  named  including,  probably,  nearly  all  of  this  Basin.  The  first 
election  in  which  Wayne  County  participated  was  held  at  Detroit,  and 
one  or  two  other  places,  the  third  Monday  of  December,  1798,  accord- 
ing to  proclamation  of  Governor  St.  Clair  the  29th  October;  but  owing 
to  some  irregularity  another  election  was   held   the   14th   January,  1799, 


which  resulted  in  the  election  of  Solomon  Sibley,  Charles  F.  Chobert 
de  Joncaire  (jonquiere?)  and  Jacob  Visger,  all  of  Detroit  and  its 
vicinity,  as  Representatives  to  the  Legislature. 

Territorial    Legislature  —  Indiana    Territory  —  Other 

The  Legislature  convened  at  Cincinnati  the  22nd  January,  1799, 
and  later  selected  ten  citizens  whose  names  were  sent  to  the  President 
of  the  United  States  according  to  the  Ordinance  of  1787,  from  whom 
he  was  to  nominate  a  Legislative  Council  or  Senate  for  the  Territory. 
The  meeting  was  then  prorogued  by  Governor  St.  Clair  to  meet  the 
16th  September. 

The  first  newspaper  in  this  Northwestern  Territory  was  started  9th 
November,  1793,  by  William  Maxwell  later  postmaster  at  Cincinnati. 
It  was  a  half  sheet,  size  10  x  13  inches  and  headed  Centinel  of  the 
Northwestern  Territory.  The  second  newspaper  was  the  Western  Spy 
started  at  Cincinnati  2Mth  May,  1799. 

A  quorum  of  the  General  Assembly  was  not  present  at  the 
adjourned  meeting  until  24th  Sejjtember  when  the  nineteen  Represen- 
tatives reported  as  follows:  two  from  Adams  County,  seven  from 
Hamilton,  one  from  Jefferson,  one  from  Knox,  four  from  Ross,  one 
from  Washington,  and  three  from  this  Wayne  County.  These,  with 
the  five  persons  selected  by  President  Adams  from  the  names  that  had 
been  sent  to  him  (Jacob  Burnet,  James  Findlay,  Henry  Vanderburg, 
Robert  Oliver,  and  David  Vance)  as  Legislative  Council  or  Senate, 
completed  the  first  Territorial  Legislature. 

William  H.  Harrison  was  chosen,  the  3rd  October,  1799,  by  this 
Legislature  as  the  first  Delegate  or  Representative  to  Congress  from 
the  Territory  Northwest  of  the  Ohio  River.  He  at  once  resigned  his 
office  as  Secretary  of  the  Territory,  proceeded  to  Philadelphia  and  took 
his  seat  in  Congress  which  was  there  in  session.  Here,  as  elsewhere 
he  did  good  work  for  his  constituents.  The  office  of  Secretary'  of  the 
Territory  becoming  thus  vacant.  President  Adams  nominated  Charles 
Willing  Byrd  for  the  place  30th  December,  and  the  United  States 
Senate  confirmed  the  choice  the  next  day. 

The  difliculties  attending  the  organization  and  maintenance  of 
government  for  a  vast  extent  of  country  remote  from  officers  and  the 
seat  of  government,  had  long  been  felt,  and  at  length  became  the  sub- 
ject of  Congressional  inquiry.  A  committee  of  Congress  reported  the 
3rd  March,  1800,  that  'in  the  three  western  counties  of  the  Northwest 
Territorv  there  had  been  but  one  court  having  cognizance  of  crimes 
in  five  years;  and  the  immunity  which  offenders  experience,  attracts  as 
to   an  asvlum  the   most  vile  and   abandoned   criminals,  and   at   the  same 




Aftcf  for»T7a^on  o^ 
InoiarM  T(irr\Tori\ 
Law  of  Maij  7.I800 


time    deters   useful   and   virtuous    persons    from   making   settlements   in 
such  society.' 

In  consonance  with    the    recommendations  of   this   committee,   Con- 
gress provided,  the   7th  May,  that  from  and  after  the  4th  of  July,  1800, 

all  that  part  of  the  Territory  of 
the  United  States  Northwest  of 
the  Ohio  River  which  lies  to  the 
Westward  of  a  line  beginning  at 
the  Ohio  opposite  to  the  mouth 
of  Kentucky  River,  and  running 
thence  to  Fort  Recovery,  and 
thence  north  until  it  shall  inter- 
sect the  Territorial  line  between 
the  United  States  and  Canada, 
shall,  for  the  purpose  of  tem- 
porary government,  constitute 
a  separate  territorv,  and  be 
called  the  Indiana  Territory. 
All  east  of  this  line  was  called 
Ohio  Territory;  and  thus  Wayne 
County  was  reduced  about  one- 
half  in  size.  The  Ordinance  of 
1787  was  to  apply  for  the  government  of  Ohio  and  Indiana  Territories 
as  heretofore,  and  William  H.  Harrison  was  appointed  Governor  of 
Indiana  Territory.  Arthur  St.  Clair  was  reappointed  Governor  with 
jurisdiction  over  Ohio  Territory,  notwithstanding  his  increasing  dis- 
favor with  the  people.  Chillicothe  was  occupied  as  the  capitol  of  Ohio 
Territory  in  the  year  1800. 

Four  land  offices  were  established  in  Ohio  Territory  the  10th  May, 
1800;  at  Chillicothe,  Cincinnati,  Marietta  and  Steubenville.  The 
desirability  of  the  United  States  Patent  for  settlers'  lands,  and  more 
compactness  of  jurisdiction,  became  more  apparent  to  settlers  in  Con- 
necticut's Western  Reserve.  Early  in  the  year  1800  the  seekers  of 
homes  therein  numbered  about  one  thousand,  mostly  located  near  Lake 
Erie.  The  30th  May  the  Connecticut  Assembly  transferred  all  her 
rights  of  jurisdiction  to  the  United  States,  which  action  placed  all  of 
Ohio  Territory  upon  a  uniform  land  basis.  This  further  conduced  to 
the  increase  in  this  Reserve  of  settlements,  which  extended  westward 
and  occupied  the  eastern  jiart  of  the  lands  of  the  Aborigines,  they 
receiving  pay  therefor  from  the  Connecticut  Land  Company.  Later  in 
this  year,  1800,  Trumbull  County  was  organized,  its  limits  extending 
westward  to  the  middle  of  Sandusky  Bay  or  about  five  miles  west  of 
the  pi;esent  City  of  Sandusky,  and  including  all  of  the  Western  Reserve, 




Ajfcr  procUrodiloN     oj 
Ju)-^    I0-)9oo 

which  further  curtailed  Wayne  County  east  from  this  line  to  the  Cuya- 
hoga River.  The  second  protestant  missionary  in  northern  Ohio  was  sent 
to  this  Reserve  the  latter  part  of  IHOO  liy  the  Connecticut  Missionary 
Societv.      He  found  no  township  containing  more   than  eleven  families. 

The  Second  ITnited  States  Cen- 
sus, for  the  year  IHOO,  showed 
the  population  of  Ohio  Territorj' 
to  be  45,365,  including,  as  it 
did,  what  is  now  eastern  Michi- 

The  British,  after  their  re- 
moval to  the  Canadian  bank  of 
Detroit  River  in  179fi,  continu- 
ed to  ignore  the  line  of  United 
States  Territory,  officially  cross- 
ing it  at  their  pleasure.  As  late 
as  the  -iOth  October,  IKOO,  one 
of  their  officers  went  to  Detroit, 
broke  into  a  private  house  and 
arrested  Francis  Poquette,  using 
such  violence  that  the  victim 
soon  died  of  the  injuries  he  re- 
ceived. They  also  endeavored  to  retain  their  former  influence  over 
the  Aborigines.  The  rising  power  of  the  United  States,  was  apparent, 
however,  in  the  development  of  the  West.  The  courage  and  prompt- 
ness of  the  Government  in  meeting  the  many  intrigues  and  aggressions 
of  the  Aborigines,  the  French,  Spanish,  and  of  the  unduly  ambitious 
Americans,  had  allayed  visionary  and  chimerical  schemes,  and  given 
impetus  and  more  stability  to  the  Western  settlements.  The  threat- 
ened war  with  France  was  happily  allayed  and,  the  30th  September,  a 
treaty  with  that  power  was  consummated.  The  ambitions  of  Spain, 
through  a  number  of  years  to  possess  this  region,  were  also  defeated, 
and  the  1st  October  she  secretly  ceded  Louisiana  back  to  France  after 
an  ownership  of  thirty-eight  years. 

Nor  did  Napoleon's  first  idea  of  a  new  France  prevail,  but  rather 
that  wise  decision  of  President  Jefferson  and  Congress  for  the  purchase 
by  the  United  States  30th  April,  1803,  of  that  vast  domain,  styled  the 
Louisiana  Purchase.  Thus  was  removed  by  one  master  act  all  object- 
ions to  Americans  navigating  the  Mississippi  and  trading  throughout 
its  course.  This  purchase  also  quieted  the  agitations,  both  foreign  and 
domestic,  for  a  Western  Republic. 

The  first  post  road  between  Cincinnati  and  Detroit  was  established 
3rd  March,  1801.      There  bemg  no  postoffices,  however,  on  the  northern 



end  of  the  route  for  about  two  years  after  thiis  date,  tlie  mail  was  carried 
as  a  military  or  semi-military  express  as  formerly.  There  was  this 
year  also  an  increase  of  carrying  facilities  on  Lake  Erie,  and  on  the 
Ohio  River.  The  first  ship  to  pass  down  the  rivers,  across  the  Gulf  to 
Havana,  and  up  the  Atlantic  coast  to  Philadelphia,  was  launched  this 
)'ear  at  Marietta.  In  1801  the  first  capitol  building  for  Ohio  was  built 
at  Chillicothe  w^here  Congress  had  designated  the  seat  of  government, 
and  in  November  the  first  session  of  the  Second  General  Assembly  met 
there.      Wayne   County   was    represented    by   persons   from    Detroit  as 

follows:  Solomon  Sibley,  as  member  of  the  Council  or  Senate  in 
place  of  Judge  Vanderburg  who  resided  in  the  new  Territory  of  Indiana; 
George  M'Dougall,  Charles  F.  Chobert  Joncaire,  and  Jonathan  Schief- 
flin.  The  two  last  named  aided  the  notorious  Governor  Hamilton  in 
his  cruel  warfare  against  Americans  during  the  Revolutionary  War, 
and  after  the  surrender  of  Detroit  to  the  Americans  in  1796  the  last 
named  yet  declared  himself  a  British  subject  with  determination  to 
remain  such.  The  United  States  has  had  many  similar  examples,  in 
which  the  ignoring  by  the  public  of   a  forceful    man's  ill-advised   state- 


ments  and  actions  has  ^iven  him  opportunity  in  which  he  has  refornit-d 
his  opinion  and  tempered  his  after  life  to  lieneficent  service.  Tliis 
Legislature  continued  in  se'ssion  until  iord  January,  iHOl',  wlun  Gov- 
ernor St.  Clair,  who  as  a  Federalist  had  become  very  officious  and  e.xact- 
ing  against  the  organization  of  Ohio  to  the  displeasure  of  the  i>eo])le 
generally,  adjourned  the  session  to  meet  in  Cincinnati  the  following- 
November.  This  act  greatly  offended  many  people  of  Chillicothe, 
some  of  whom  started  to  mob  the  Governor.  Fortunately  Jonathan 
Schiefilin  of  Detroit  was  present  with  a  pair  of  pistols  whicli,  being 
exhibited  in  a  firm  manner,  caused  the  mob  to  disperse  without  the 
necessity  for  their  further  use. 

In  the  'Estimate  of  all  Posts  and  Stations  where  [military]  Garri- 
sons will  be  expedient,  and  of  the  Number  of  Men  requisite'  made 
December  3,  1801,  but  three  Posts  were  mentioned  for  the  Territory 
Northwest  of  the  Ohio  River,  viz:  Michilimackinac  one  compan\-  of 
artillery  and  one  of  infantry:  Detroit  one  company  of  artillery  and  four 
of  infantry:  Fort  Wayne  one  company  of  infantry.  In  Act  of  Congress 
March,  1802,  for  Reduction  of  the  Army,  Fort  Wayne  was  styled  a 
'frontier  post  with  garrison  of  sixty-four  men.'  In  the  year  1803  Fort 
Wayne  had  garrison  of  fifty-one  men,  viz:  one  Captain,  one  Surgeon's 
Mate,  one  first  and  one  second  Lieutenant,  one  Ensign,  four  Sergeants, 
four  Corporals,  three  Musicians,  and  thirty-five  Privates.  ' 

State  of  Ohio  —  Treaties — Michigan  and  Illinois  Territories. 

The  4th  March,  1802,  with  the  presumption  that  Ohio  Territory 
contained  a  population  of  at  least  sixt\'  thousand  people,  and  a  Con- 
gressional Committee  on  this  Territory  reporting  favorably.  Congress 
voted  the  30th  April  to  call  a  Convention  of  representatives  of  the  Ter- 
ritory to  meet  the  1st  November,  1802,  to  frame  a  Constitution  for  the 
proposed  State  of  Ohio.  This  Convention,  by  a  majority  of  five,  per- 
mitted the  request  of  Governor  St.  Clair  to  deliver  an  address  'on 
those  points  which  he  deems  of  importance.'  In  his  speech  the 
Governor  advised  the  postponement  of  a  State  organization  until  the 
people  of  the  original  (eastern)  division  were  plainly  entitled  to 
demand  it,  and  were  not  subject  to  be  bound  by  conditions.  Unwise 
criticism,  made  at  this  time  in  addition  to  previous  unwise  acts,  caused 
President  Thomas  Jefferson  to  at  once  remove  St.  Clair  from  the 
governorship.  When  the  vote  was  taken  upon  the  question  of  doing 
that  which  St.  Clair  advised  them  not  to  do,  but  one  of  the  thirtv-three 
members  of  the  Convention,  Ephraini  Cutler  of  Washington  County, 
voted  with  the  Governor. t 

'  American  State  Papers,  Military  Affairs  volume  i,  pages  156.  175.  786. 
t  See  Jacob  Burnet's  Letters,  patres  lOH,  llu  and  111, 


The  Constitution  was  agreed  upon  and  signed  with  commendable 
promptness,  being  completed  the  29th  November,  1802  ;  and  the  19th 
February,  1803,  Ohio  was  admitted  to  the  Union  as  a  State,  the  fourth 
under  the  general  Constitution  and  the  seventeenth  in  general  number. 
The  first  Legislature  met  at  Chillicothe  the  first  Tuesday  of  March, 
lb03,  thus  completing  the  State  organization.  The  white  residents  of 
Wayne  County  were  mostly  settled  at  Detroit :  but  some  were  settled 
by  the  water  courses  to,  and  including,  the  Maumee.  They  were 
counted  to  make  the  requisite  number  for  the  Statehood  of  Ohio:  but 
this  Wayne  County  was  given  neither  representation  in  the  Convention 
nor  vote  on  the  Constitution.  In  fact  northwestern  Ohio  over  the 
whole  extent  of  this  Basin  had  no  representation  in  the  government 
until  after  the  organization  of  counties  in  April,  1820.  Naturall\'  the 
Ohio  part  of  this  Basin  reverted  to  Hamilton  Countv  for  its  civil  gov- 
ernment after  the  organization  of  Ohio  as  a  State;  and  at  the  organi- 
zation 1st  May,  1h03,  of  Montgomery  and  Greene  Counties  they  could 
be  supposed  to  extend  north  to  the  State  line.  Thev  exercised  but 
little  if  any  jurisdiction,  however,  in  this  region  which,  with  other  parts 
of  the  Basin,  remained  the  territory  of  the  Aborigines  until  the  treaties 
of  1817,  and  were  directly  subject  to  the  United  States  authorities  at 
Fort  Wayne  and  Detroit.  Wavne  Countv  in  Ohio  was  not  again 
mentioned  until  13th  February,  1808,  when  by  Legislative  Act  the 
present  County  was  organized  with  boundaries  somewhat  as  now 
existing,  widely  separated  from  the  original  Wa\'ne  County  which  has 
been  taken  from  until  it  is  of  ordinary  county  size,  with  Detroit  yet  its 
seat  of   government. 

After  the  Treaty  at  Greenville  in  1795,  the  Aborigines  remained  for 
a  short  time  reasonably  contented  with  the  United  States  Annuity,  and 
with  what  they  received  for  the  peltries  obtained  by  hunting  and  trap- 
ping. They  also  received  many  gratuities  from  the  white  settlers 
among  whom  they  wandered  and  entered  dwellings  at  will,  and  by 
whom  thev  were  generally  treated  with  kindly  consideration  notwith- 
standing their  want  of  regard  for  individual  rights  in  property  desired 
bv  them.  It  became  more  and  more  apparent,  however,  that  British 
influence  was  yet  being  exerted  among  them  and  causing  discontent  to 
be  fostered  among  the  several  tribes. 

Governor  Harrison,  who  was  also  Superintendent  of  the  Affairs  of 
the  Aborigines  for  Indiana  Territory,  completed  at  Fort  Wayne  7th 
June,  1803,  the  treaty  that  was  begun  17th  September,  1802,  at  Vin- 
cennes,  in  which  the  Eel  River,  Kaskaskia,  Kickajjoo,  Miami,  Pianke- 
shaw,  Pottawotami  and  Wea  tribes  formally  deeded  to  the  United 
States  the  lands  about  Vincennes  which  had  previously  been  bought  of 
the   other   Aborigme   tribes:     and    this   act    was    further    confirmed    at 


Vincennes  the  7th  August  by  yet  other  Aborigine  chiefs.  The  13th 
August  the  Illinois  tribes  deeded  to  the  United  States  a  large  portion 
of  the  countr\'  south  and  east  of   the  Illinois  River.      The   13th   August, 

1804,  Governor  Harrison  jiurchased  for  the  United  States  the  claims  of 
the  Delawares  to  the  land  between  the  Wabash  and  Ohio  Rivers.  He 
also  purchased  of  the  Piankeshaws  their  claims  to  lands  deeded  to  the 
United  States  by  the  Kaskaskias  in  1803;  also  by  treaty  and  purchase, 
the  claims  of  the  several  tribes  were  extinguished  to  large  areas  of 
lands  further  west. 

A  treaty  was  also  held  at  Fort  Industry  on  the  4th  July,  1805.* 
At  this  time  and  place  the  chiefs  and  warriors  of  the  Wyandot, 
Ottawa,  Chippewa,  Munsee,  Delaware,  Shawnee,  and  Pottawotami 
tribes,  and  those  of  the  Shawnees  and  Senecas  who  lived  with  the 
Wyandots,  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  of  their  claims  to  the  West- 
ern Reserve  of  Connecticut,  for  and  in  consideration  of  an  annuity  of 
one  thousand  dollars  in  addition  to  sixteen  thousand  dollars  paid  to 
them  by  the  Connecticut  Land  Company  and  the  Proprietors  of  the 
one  half  million  acres  of  Sufferers'  Lands  (  Firelands,  lands  granted  to 
those  persons  who  suffered  by  fire  in  Connecticut  by  acts  of  the  British 
during  the  Revolutionary  War).  Further,  a  treaty  with  and  an 
annuity  to  the  dissatisfied  Pottawotami,  Miami,  Eel  River  and  Wea 
Aborigines  near  Vincennes,  the  21st  August,  1805,  induced  them  to 
relinquish  their  claims  to  the  southeastern  part  of  Indiana  which  was 
also  bought  of  the  Delawares  by  the  United  States  on  the  iWth  of 
August,  1804.  These  several  treaties  and  purchases,  of  1H03-04-05, 
including   yet   another    with    the    Piankeshaws   on    the   30th    December, 

1805,  extinguished  several  times  over  all  alleged  right  of  claim  to  these 
lands  by  the  Aborigines. 

Michigan  was  organized  into  a  separate  Territory  by  Congress  the 
11th  January,  1S05.  The  southern  limit  was  to  be  a  line  running  due 
east  from  the  most  southern  shore  of  Lake  Michigan,  as  it  was  then 
understood ;  and  the  new  government  was  to  go  into  effect  the  30th 
June.      General  William  Hull  was  appointed   Governor. 

'^American  State  Papers.  Aborigine  Aftairs  volume  i,  pa^ie  696.  The  writer  has  been  unable  to 
find  any  further  authentic  mention  of  Fort  Industry  by  several  applications  by  letters  and  in  person  to 
the  Secretaries  of  State  and  War  at  WashiuKton.  and  by  personal  search  there  and  in  the  United  Slates 
Library.  A  writer  some  years  ago  ascribed  its  building  to  General  Wayne  immediately  after  the  Battle 
of  Fallen  Timber  (Knapp's  History  of  the  Maumee  Valley]  and  others  have  copied  his  assertion. 
Henry  Howe  wrote  in  his  Historical  Collections  of  Ohio  that  the  time  of  its  building  was  about  the  year 
1800.  The  writer  has  shown  by  official  reports,  of  all  existing  forts  on  previous  pages  of  this  bool<  that 
Fort  Industry  was  not  built  before  the  winter  or  spring  of  IHO.t;  that  it  was  probably  but  a  stockade 
(probably  an  old  one  repaired)  for  the  accommodation  of  the  troops  present  at  the  treaty  and  called  a 
fort  for  the  effect  of  the  name  on  the  Aborigines;  and  that  it  was  abandoned  soon  after  the  treaty. 
Tradition  alone  gives  its  situation  on  the  left  (north)  bank  of  Swan  Creek  at  its  entrance  into  the 
Maumee  River,  about  the  crossing  of  Summit  and  Monroe  Streets  in  the  present  City  of  Toledo,  Ohio. 
See  the  writer's  article  in  the  Ohio  Archaeologicai  and  Hisiorical  Ouarterly.  vol.  sii  p,  123, 


Aaron  Burr  journeyed,  and  re  journeyed,  through  the  west  and 
southwest  during-  the  vears  IHOo  and  1H06,  and  rumors  became  rife  of 
his  pre]iarations  to  invade  and  conquer  Mexico,  and  to  create  a  West- 
ern Republic  of  which  the  country  west  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains 
was  to  form  a  part.  The  Legislature  of  Ohio  ordered,  the  first  part  of 
December,  1806,  the  seizure  of  fourteen  boats  and  supplies  at  Marietta, 
which  were  about  read}-  to  start  down  the  rivers  in  aid  of  Burr's 
scheme.  Burr  was  arrested  17th  January,  1807,  and  was  released  on 
bail,  which  he  forfeited.  He  was  again  arrested  while  endeavoring  to 
escape,  was  subjected  to  trial  at  Richmond,  and  accjuitted.  Thus 
failed,  however,  the  fourth  and  weakest  effort  to  wrest  this  western 
region  from  the  United  States.  During  these  years  of  scheming  by 
restless,  designing  persons,  and  of  apprehension  by  the  Government, 
there  was  considerable  strengthening  of  United  States  troops  at  Forts 
Washington,  Wavne,  and  Detroit;  and  preparations  were  made  for  their 
active  service.  The  conduct  of  Aaron  Burr  was  a  cause  for  this  :  and 
the  increasing  aggressions  of    the  British  were  also  an  explanation. 

The  ■27th  January,  1H07,  Henry  Dearborn  Secretary  of  War,  sent  a 
commission  to  William  Hull  Governor  of  Michigan  Territorv  and  Suii- 
erintendent  thereof  Aborigine  Affairs,  with  instructions  to  hold  a  treaty 
council  with  the  Aborigines.  Governor  Hull  issued  a  call  to  the  differ- 
ent tribes  for  a  council  at  Detroit;  but  they  did  not  attend.  Two  other 
calls  were  sent,  and  President  Jefferson  directed  him  to  communicate 
to  them  the  continued  friendl\-  intentions  and  offices  of  the  United 
States.  The  setjuel  proved  that  their  desires  to  respond  to  the  invita- 
tions to  council  had  been  thwarted  by  Captain  Alexander  M'Kee 
British  agent.  Finally,  they  evaded  M'Kee  and  his  aids  and  went  to 
Detroit  for  council,  in  which  they  proclaimed  the  intrigue  of  the  British 
to  again  more  closelv  alh'  them  to  their  aid  for  the  war  likelv  to  ensue 
with  the  United  States. '■'  Between  seven  and  eight  hundred  Aborigines 
had  been  invited  to  Maiden,  now  Amherstburg,  where  intoxicating  bev- 
erages and  promises  prevailed.  During  October  and  November  many 
hundreds  of  these  Aborigines  were  unavoidably  fed  at  Detroit  by  Gov- 
ernor Hull  while  on  their  way  to  and  from  Maiden,  and  also  during 
the  council,  notwithstanding  the  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  War  that 
from  fifty  to  one  hundred  was  as  great  a  number  as  ought  to  be  allowed 
to  attend.  A  iirominent  feature  of  this  council,  and  one  that  was 
remembered  and  repeated  by  the  Aborigines,  was  the  expression  of 
President  Jefferson  that  they  should  remain  quiet  spectators,  and  not 
participate  in  any  (piarrels  of  others,  particularly  of  the  white  people; 
that    tht'    ['uited   States  were  strong  enough   to   fight   their  own  battles ; 

■'' Compare  American  State  Papers,  Ab.'iiwiiie  Allairs  Nuhune  i.  pat;c 


and  that  it  was  evidence  of  weakness  on  the  part  of  any  people  to 
want  the  aid  of  the  Aborigines. 

Finally  a  treaty  was  effected  at  Detroit  17th  November,  1S()7,  with 
the  Chippewa,  Ottawa,  Pottawotami  and  Wyandot  tribes  in  which 
they  deeded  to  the  United  States  all  their  claims  to  the  country  north 
of  the  middle  of  the  Maumee  River  from  its  mouth  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Auglaise,  thence  extending  north  to  the  latitude  of  the  south  part  of 
Lake  Huron,  thence  east  to  and  southward  along  the  Canadian  boun- 
dary. For  this  territory-  they  received  ten  thousand  dollars  in  'money 
and  goods'  as  first  payment  and  an  annuity  of  two  thousand  and  four 
hundred  dollars.  They  were  given,  however,  the  option  of  monev, 
goods,  implements  of  husbandry,  and  domestic  animals,  from  which  to 
choose.  Of  these  sums,  the  Chijipewas  received  one-third,  the  Ottawas 
one-third,  and  the  Pottawotamis  and  Wyandots  each  one-sixth.  This 
treaty  further  reads  that  "the  llnited  States,  to  manifest  their  liberalitv, 
and  disposition  to  encourage  the  said  Aborigines  in  agriculture,  further 
stipulate  to  furnish  the  said  Aborigines  with  two  blacksmiths  during 
the  term  of  ten  years — one  to  reside  with  the  Chippewas  at  Saginaw, 
and  the  other  to  reside  with  the  Ottawas  at  the  Maumee.  Said  black- 
smiths are  to  do  such  work  for  the  said  nations  as  shall  be  most  useful 
to  them."  As  in  former  treaties,  the  Aborigines  were  to  have  the 
privilege  of  hunting  on  the  ceded  lands  as  long  as  they  remained  the 
distinctive  property  of  the  United  States. 

Certain  tracts  of  this  land  were  also  reserved  for  the  exclusive  use 
of  the  Aborigines.  These  reservations  within  this  Basin  were  as 
follows  :  Six  miles  square  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Maumee  above 
Roche  de  Bout  'to  include  the  village  where  Tondagame  [Tontogany] 
or  the  dog,  now  lives  '  probably  at  the  Grand  Rapids.  Another  reser- 
vation three  miles  square  on  the  Maumee  "above  the  twelve  miles 
square  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  the  Treaty  at  Greenville,  includ- 
ing what  is  called  Presque  Isle:  also,  four  miles  square  on  the  Miami 
[Maumee]  Bay,  including  the  villages  where  Meshkemau  and  Waugau 
now  live.  .  .  It  is  further  understood  and  agreed,  that  whenever 
the  reservations  cannot  convenientl>-  be  laid  out  in  squares,  they  shall 
be  laid  out  in  parallelograms  or  other  figures  as  found  most  practicable 
and  convenient,  so  as  to  obtain  the  area  specified  in  miles  :  and  in  all 
cases  they  are  to  be  located  in  such  manner  and  in  such  situations  as 
not  to  interfere  with  any  improvements  of  the  French  or  other  white 
people,  or  any  former  cession." 

American  settlers  continued  to  gather  in  Ohio,  and  some  took  resi- 
dence on  the  United  States  Reservations  at  the  Foot  of  the  Rapids  of 
the  Maumee.  The  necessity  for  roads  to  connect  the  settlements  in 
Ohio  with  those  in    Michigan,  becoming  more  ap]iarent,  Governor  Hull 


was  directed  to  secure  cession  of  lands  for  such  roads  from  the  Aborigi- 
nes. Accordingly  a  treaty  was  held  at  Brownstown,  Michigan,  25th 
November,  IKOH,  with  the  sachems,  chiefs  and  warriors  of  the  Chip- 
pewa, Ottawa,  Pottawotami,  Shawnee,  and  Wa\'ndot  tribes  in  which 
they  quitclaimed  a  tract  of  land  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  in  width 
for  a  road  from  the  foot  of  the  lowest  rapids  in  the  Maumee  River  to 
the  western  line  of  the  Connecticut  Reserve;  also  all  the  land  within 
one  mile  of  each  side  of  this  roadway  for  the  settlement  of  white 
people:  "also  a  tract  of  land,  for  a  road  only,  of  one  hundred  and 
twenty  feet  in  width  to  run  southwardly  from  what  is  called  Lower 
Sandusky  [now  Fremont]  to  the  boundary  line  established  by  the 
Treatv  of  Greenville,  with  the  privilege  of  taking,  at  all  times,  such 
timber  and  other  materials  from  the  adjacent  lands  as  may  be  necessary 
for  making  and  keeping  in  repair  the  said  road,  with  the  bridges  that 
mav  be  required  along  the  same."  .  .  No  compensation  was  given 
the  Aborigines  in  money  or  merchandise  for  these  roadways,  as  they 
were  desirable  and  beneficial  to  the  Aborigine  nations  as  well  as  to  the 
United  States,  reads  a  clause  in  the  cession. 

Indiana  Territory  from  its  organization  in  1M02  had  extended  to 
the  Mississippi  River.  The  settlements  had  increased  so  much,  how- 
ever, that  the  Illinois  country  was  organized  into  a  separate  Territory 
the  3rd  Februarv,  IHO'J. 

Tecumseh's  Conspiracy  with   British   Against  Americans. 

For  several  years  the  Aborigines  had  manifested  an  increasing 
restlessness,  which  was  attributed  by  Captain  Dunham  and  other  Amer- 
ican officers  principally  to  the  influence  of  foreigners  who  were  trading 
among  them.'''  The  idea  first  taught  to  the  savages  by  the  early 
French  in  opposition  to  the  British,  then  exploited  by  Pontiac  in  1763, 
and  then  amplified  with  greater  force  by  the  British  against  the  Amer- 
icans from  the  beginning  of  the  Revolutionary  War — of  a  confedera- 
tion of  all  the  tribes,  and  that  all  lands  should  be  claimed  by  them  col- 
lectively, and  that  no  claim  should  be  disposed  of,  nor  any  advance  of 
the  Americans  upon  the  lands  be  permitted — was  being  revived  and 
again  urged  before  the  Aborigines  by  the  British  and  a  few  French. 

Tecumseh,  an  energetic  Shawnee  brave,  began  in  1805  therefrom 
to  repeat  the  history  of  Pontiac,  the  Americans  being  the  people  con- 
spired against.  The  increasing  purchases  of  claims  b\'  the  United 
States,  and  the  rapid  increase  of  American  settlers  thereon  who  at 
once  began  to  clear  away  the  forest;  the  organization  of  Territories, 
State   and   Counties,  with    their  courts   and   closer  government,  all    had 


ipaie  American  State  Papers.  Aborigine  Atfairs  volume  i.  page  T9y. 


excited  apprehension  among  lawless  traders  and  loungers  in  the  camps 
of  the  Aborigines,  and  had  also  excited  afresh  the  chronically  meddle- 
some British  officers  and  agents,  inciting  them  to  renewed  intrigues. 

Tecumseh's  reputed  brother, 
lilskwatawa,  had  recently  remov- 
ed with  other  Shawnees  from  the 
Scioto  River,  Ohio,  to  the  Tippe- 
canoe, Indiana,  where  he  soon 
gained  something  of  a  notoriety 
as  a  sorcerer.  He  began  to  tell 
of  his  dreams  and  visions,  and  to 
claim  the  knowledge  and  power  of 
a  prophet  inspired  and  commis- 
sioned by  the  Great  Spirit  to  lead 
the  Aborigines  l>ack  to  the  con- 
dition of  their  ancestors  before 
the  coming  of  the  Americans.  His 
remarkable  pretensions  s  [ire  ad 
Irom  the  Shawnee  town  by  the 
Tipjiecanoe  River  to  other  and 
distant  tribes,  being  carried  by 
runners  including  Tecumseh  who 
traveled  rapidly  from  tribe  to  tribe 
between  Lake  Erie  and  the  Mis- 
sissippi, and  from  the  u|i]ier  lakes 
to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 
These  actions  of  Tecumseh  and  the  'Prophet'  were  understood  by 
Governor  Harrison  as  a  concerted  effort  to  marshal  the  Aborigines  in 
the  interest  of  their  British  allies  again  against  the  United  States. 
Since  the  campaign  of  General  Wavne  a  new  generation  of  young  men, 
fed  from  the  rations  supplied  their  jiarents  by  the  United  States,  had 
developed  into  warriors  anxious  for  excitement  and  ready  at  short 
notice  to  follow  an\'  leader  whose  project  appeared  probable  to  gratify 
their  savage  impulses.  Letters  were  soon  received  by  the  Secretary  of 
War  from  the  several  military  jaosts  throughout  the  western  country 
regarding  the  increasing  hostility  of  the  Aborigines  and  their  threaten- 
ings  to  exterminate  Americans,  also  of  their  being  aided  by  the  British; 
but,  notwithstanding  accumulating  proof  of  their  designs  both  parties, 
Tecumseh  and  the  'Prophet'  and  the  British,  denied  any  hostile  inten- 
tion against  the  United  States.  Excerjits  from  some  of  the  letters  to  the 
Secretary  of  War  in  proof  of  the  contrarv  are  here  presented,  viz:'' 


The  Shawnee  Sorcerer  and  Prophet.  Born 
probably  about  1770.  'A  cunning,  unprincipled 
man.  in  earl.v  life  remarkable  for  nothim,'  but 
stupidity  and  intoxication.'  The  last  years  of  his 
life  were  obscured. 

''^'  For  much  other  proof,  see  American  Stale  Papers  volume  iv.  paye  798  et  sequentia. 


General  William  Clark  wrote  from  St.  Louis  April  5,  1809,  that 
the  Aborigine  prophet's  emissaries  have  been  industriously  employed 
the  latter  part  of  winter  and  spring  privately  councillinsi  with,  and 
attempting  to  seduce  the  Kickapoos,  Saukeys,  and  other  bands  of 
Aborigines  by  the  Mississippi  and  Illinois  Rivers,  to  war  against  the 
frontiers  of  this  country.  William  Wells  wrote  from  Fort  Wayne  Hth 
April  that  the  Aborigines  appear  to  be  agitated  respecting  the  conduct  and 
as  they  say  the  intentions  of  the  Shawnee  Prophet.  The  Chippewas, 
Ottawas,  and  Pottawotamis  are  hurrying  away  from  him  and  say  that 
their  reason  for  doing  so  is  because  he  has  told  them  to  receive  the 
tomahawk  from  him  and  destroy  all  the  white  people  at  Vincennes  and 
Ohio,  as  low  down  as  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio  and  as  high  up  as  Cincin- 
nati :  that  the  Great  Spirit  had  directed  that  they  should  do  so,  at  the 
same  time  threatening  them  with  destruction  if  they  refused  to  comply 
with  what  he  proposed.  General  Clark  wrote  from  St.  Louis  April 
30th:  I  have  the  honor  to  enclose  you  a  cop\'  of  a  letter  which  con- 
firms my  suspicions  of  the  British  interference  with  our  Aborigine 
affairs  in  this  country.  The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  enclosed 
letter  from  Boilvin:  'l  am  at  present  in  the  fire  receiving  Aborigine 
news  every  da}'.  A  chief  of  the  Puant  nation  appears  to  be  employed 
b}'  the  British  to  get  all  the  nations  of  Aborigines  to  Detroit  to  see 
their  fathers  the  British,  who  tell  them  that  they  pity  them  in  their 
situation  with  the  Americans,  because  the  Americans  had  taken  their 
lands  and  their  game;  that  they  must  join  and  send  them  off  from  their 
lands.  They  said  they  had  but  one  father  that  had  helped  them  in 
their  misfortunes,  and  that  they  would  assemble,  defend  their  father, 
and  keep  their  lands.'  It  appears  that  four  English  subjects  have  been 
at  Riviere  a  la  Roche  this  winter  in  disguise :  they  have  been  there  to 
get  the  nations  together  and  send  them  on  the  American  front- 
iers. Governor  Harrison  wrote  from  Vincennes  3rd  May,  1809, 
of  his  decided  opinion  that  the  Prophet  will  attack  our  settlements. 
About  eight  days  ago  he  had  with  him  three  hundred  and  fifty  warriors 
well  armed  with  rifles;  they  have  also  bows  and  arrows,  war  clubs,  and 
a  kind  of  spear.  The  Factor  (Agent)  of  the  Trading  Post  at  San- 
dusky, S.  Tupper,  wrote  7th  June  that  the  conduct  of  the  British 
traders  in  introducing  spirituous  liquors  among  the  Aborigines  in  this 
part  of  the  country,  and  their  determined  hostility  to  the  measures  of 
our  Government,  have  long  been  subjects  of  complaint;  and  their 
infamous  stories  have  embarrassed  our  operations.  Governor  William 
Hull  wrote  from  Detroit  June  16th  that  the  influence  of  the  Prophet 
has  been  great,  and  his  advice  to  the  Aborigines  injurious  to  them  and 
to  the  United  States.  We  have  the  fullest  evidence  that  his  object  has 
been  to  form  a  combination  of   them  in  hostility  to  the  United   States, 


The  powerful  influence  of  the  British  has  been  exerted  in  a  wav  alluring 
to  the  savage  character.  Complaints  also  came  to  the  Secretary  of 
War  that  British  agents  were  inciting  the  Aborigines  along  the  western 
shore  of  Lake  Michigan  and  supplying  them  with  guns  and  ammuni- 
tion. General  Harrison  wrote  from  Vincennes  5th  July  that  the 
Shawanese  Prophet  and  about  forty  followers  arrived  here  about  a  week 
ago.  He  denies  most  strenuously  any  participation  in  the  late  combi- 
nation to  attack  our  settlements.  .  .  I  must  confess  that  my  sus- 
picions of  his  guilt  have  been  rather  strengthened  than  diminished  at 
every  interview  I  have  had  with  him  since  his  arrival.  He  acknowl- 
edged that  he  received  an  invitation  to  war  against  us  from  the  British 
last  fall,  and  that  he  was  apprised  of  the  intention  of  the  Sacs,  Foxes, 
etc.,  early  in  the  spring,  and  was  warmlv  solicited  to  join  in  their 
league.  .  .  The  result  of  all  my  enquiries  on  the  subject  is,  that  the 
late  combination  was  produced  bv  British  intrigue  and  influence  in 
anticipation  of  war  between  them  and  the  United  States.  It  was,  how- 
ever, premature  and  ill-judged. 

Governor  Harrison,  in  council  with  Aborigines  at  Fort  Wayne 
30th  September,  1809,  succeeded,  however,  in  further  purchasing  their 
claims  to  two  tracts  of  land  in  Indiana  Territory  west  of  the  Greenville 
Treaty  Line  and  adjoining  former  purchases,  the  stipulated  price  being 
permanent  annuities  of  five  hundred  dollars  to  the  Delawares,  five 
hundred  dollars  to  the  Miamis,  two  hundred  and  fiftv  dollars  to  the 
Eel  River  Miamis,  and  five  hundred  dollars  to  the  Pottawotamis.  The 
Miamis,  by  separate  article  of  same  date,  as  additional  compensation 
were  promised  to  receive  at  Fort  Wayne  the  next  spring  domestic 
animals  to  the  amount  of  five  hundred  dollars,  and  the  like  number  for 
the  two  following  years;  and  that  an  armorer  should  be  also  main- 
tained at  Fort  Wayne  for  the  use  of  the  Aborigines  as  heretofore.  In 
treaty  with  the  Kickapoos  at  Vincennes  9th  December,  1H09,  Governor 
Harrison  purchased  claims  to  land  northwest  of  the  Wabash  River 
adjoining  the  Vincennes  tract,  the  consideration  being  a  permanent 
annuity  of  four  hundred  dollars,  and  goods  to  the  amount  of  eight 
hundred  dollars.  By  this  last  treatv  the  Miamis  were  to  receive  a 
further  annuity  of  two  hundred  dollars,  and  the  Eel  River  tribes  one 
hundred  dollars  each. 

Trading  Agencies  —  Continued  Conspiracy  of  Tecumseh. 

The  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War  31st  December,  1809,  of 
J.  Mason  Superintendent  of  the  Trading  House  Establishments  or 
agencies  styled  Factories  among  the  Aborigines,  possesses  features  of 
interest  in  this  connection.  There  were  at  this  date  twelve  establish- 
ments of  this  character,  eight  of  which  were  in  the  South  and  South- 
west; and  the  net  assets  involved   in   them  amounted  to  ?235,461.64. 


The  Trading  House  in  this  Basin  was  established  at  Fort  Wayne  in 
the  year  1802.  Colonel  John  Johnston  was  the  Factor  (yVgent)  in  1809 
with  salars'  of  $1000  per  year  and  a  subsistence  allowance  of  $365. 
William  Oliver  his  clerk  received  a  salary  of  $250  a  year  and  $150  for 
subsistence.  Inventory  of  the  assets  of  this  Fort  Wayne  Trading 
House  October  5th  showed:  Merchandise,  Peltries,  etc.,  on  hand 
$5,020.75;  Accounts  Receivable  per  return  of  March  $2,112.72;  Build- 
ings estimated  at  about  one  half  of  cost  $500.  Merchandise  forwarded 
by  the  Government  to  Fort  Wayne  9th  June  and  2Hth  July  not  included 
in  the  above  amounted  to  $4,686.87.  A  Trading  Agency  was  also 
established  in  Detroit  in  1802,  but  it  was  discontinued  in  1805.  Those 
in  operation  nearest  this  Basin  in  1809,  were:  Sandusky  established  in 
1806;  Chicago  1805;  and  Michilimackinac  1808.  The  peltries  taken  in 
exchange  for  merchandise  at  these  Trading  Houses  were;  Beaver, 
first  quality  valued  at  two  dollars  each,  and  second  tjuality  one  dollar 
Dressed  Deer  Skins  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents;  Wolf  Skins  one  dollar 
Muskrat,  Raccoon,  Wildcat,  and  Fox  Skins,  twenty-five  cents  each 
Otter  two  dollars  and  fifty  cents;  Bear  first  quality  one  dollar  and  fifty 
cents,  second  quality  one  dollar.  Tallow  at  twelve  and  a  half  cents  a 
pound,  and    Beeswax  at   twenty   cents,  also  entered    into   the   accounts. 

Tecumseh  and  the  Prophet  continued  active.  The  additional 
councils  and  purchases  of  land  at  F"ort  Wayne  and  Vincennes  were 
alleged  as  new  incentives.  General  Harrison  wrote  to  the  Secretary 
of  War  14th  June,  1810,  that  I  have  received  information  from  various 
sources  which  has  produced  entire  conviction  on  my  mind,  that  the 
Prophet  is  organizing  a  most  extensive  combination  against  the  United 
States.  Another  letter  dated  the  26th  June  informs  that  Winemac 
[a  friendly  Aborigine]  assured  me  that  the  Prophet  not  long  since  pro- 
posed to  the  young  men  to  murder  the  principal  chiefs  of  all  the  tribes  ; 
observing  that  their  hands  would  never  be  untied  until  this  was 
effected  ;  that  these  were  the  men  who  had  sold  their  lands,  and  who 
would  prevent  them  from  opposing  the  encroachments  of  the  white 
people.  An  Iowa  Aborigine  informs  me  that  two  years  ago  this 
summer  an  agent  from  the  British  arrived  at  the  Prophet's  town  and, 
in  his  presence  delivered  the  message  with  which  he  was  charged,  the 
substance  of  which  was  to  urge  the  Prophet  to  unite  as  many  tribes  as 
he  could  against  the  United  States,  but  not  to  commence  hostilities 
until  they  gave  the  signal.''' 

The  11th  Juh'  General    Harrison  again  wrote   that    I   have  received 

*  The  reader  will  bear  in  mind  the  strained  relations  between  the  L'nited  States  and  Great  Hrit- 
ain  whicli  had  existed  for  several  years,  and  which  fre'inently  received  fresh  incentives  from  the  im- 
pressment of  American  seaman,  the  search  of  American  ships,  and  unjust  discriminations  in  trade.  The 
continued  arrocance  of  the  British  in  Canada,  and  their  conduct  toward  the  Aborigines  on  American 
soil,  show  that  their  former  ulterior  desiKns  on  this  western  country  were  unabated. 


a  letter  from  Fort  Wayne  which  confirms  the  information  of  the  hostile 
designs  and  combination  of  the  Aborigines.  The  people  in  the  neigh- 
borhood where  the  horses  were  stolen  are  so  much  alarmed  that  thev 
are  collecting  together  for  their  defense.  Again,  July  iHth:  From  the 
lowas  I  learn  that  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  have  actually  received  the 
tomahawk  [declared  for  war]  and  are  ready  to  strike  whenever  the 
Prophet  gives  the  signal.  A  considerable  number  of  Sacs  went  some 
time  since  to  see  the  British  superintendent  and,  on  the  first  instant, 
fifty  more  passed  Chicago  for  the  same  destination.  A  Miami  chief 
who  has  just  returned  from  his  annual  visit  to  Maiden,  after  having 
received  the  accustomed  donation  of  goods  was  thus  addressed  by  the 
British  agent:  '  My  son  keep  your  eyes  fixed  on  me;  my  tomahawk  is 
now  up:  be  you  ready,  but  do  not  strike  until  I  give  the  signal.' 
General  Clark  wrote  from  St.  Louis  July  20th  that  a  few  weeks  ago  the 
post-rider  on  his  way  from  Vincennes  to  this  place  was  killed,  and  the 
mail  lost;  since  that  time  we  have  had  no  communication  with 
Vincennes.  A  part  of  the  Sacs  and  the  greatest  part  of  the  Kickapoos 
who  reside  east  of  the  Mississippi  have  been  absent  some  time  on  a 
visit  to  the  Aborigine  Prophet.  One  hundred  and  fifty  Sacs  are  on  a 
visit  to  the  British  agent  by  invitation,  and  a  smaller  party  on  a  visit 
to  the  island  of  St.  Joseph  in  Lake  Huron.  On  July  "ioth  General 
Harrison  again  wrote  that  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  designs  of  the 
Prophet  and  the  British  agent  of  Aborigine  affairs  [Alexander  M'Kee?] 
to   do   us    injury.      This   agent  is  a  refugee    from    the    neighborhood    of 

[Pittsburg]    and    his   implacable    hatred   of    his   native    country 

prompted  him  to  take  part  with  the  Aborigines  in  the  battle  between 
them  and  General  Wayne's  army.  He  has,  ever  since  his  appointment 
to  the  principal  agency  used  his  utmost  endeavors  to  excite  hostilities, 
and  the  lavish  manner  in  which  he  is  allowed  to  scatter  presents 
amongst  them,  shews  that  his  government  participates  in  his  enmity 
and  authorizes  his  measures.  Governor  Hull  wrote  from  Detroit  Juh' 
■27th  that  large  bodies  of  Aborigines  from  the  westward  and  southward 
continue  to  visit  the  British  post  at  Amherstburg  [Maiden]  and  are 
supplied  with  provisions,  arms,  ammunition,  etc.  Much  more  atten- 
tion is  paid  to  them  than  usual.  On  August  7th  Captain  John  Johns- 
ton, agent  of  the  Fort  Wayne  Trading  Post,  wrote  that  since  writing 
\-ou  on  the  25th  ultimo,  about  one  hundred  Sawkevs  [Sacs]  have  re- 
turned from  the  British  agent  who  supplied  them  liberally  with  every- 
thing they  stood  in  want  of.  The  party  received  forty-seven  rifles  and 
a  number  of  fusils  [flintlock  muskets]  with  plenty  of  powder  and  lead. 
This  is  sending  firebrands  into  the  Mississijipi  country  inasmuch  as  it 
will  draw  numbers  of  our  Aborigines  to  the  British  side  in  the  hope  of 
being   treated    with  the  same  liberality.      On    the   1st   August    General 


Harrison  reported  that  a  number  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  northern 
frontier  of  the  Je'ffersonville  district  had  been  driven  away  by  the  Abo- 
rigines and  much  of  their  property  destroyed.  Many  other  letters  were 
written  to  the  Secretary  of  War  from  the  widely  separated  posts  evi- 
dencing the  continued  preparations  of  the  Aborigines  for  war  under 
the  incitements  of  the  British.  But  few  other  extracts  will  be  here 
given:  February  6,  1811,  Captain  John  Johnston  again  wrote  from 
Fort  Wavne  that  has  been  at  this  place.  The  information  de- 
rived from  him  is  the  same  I  have  been  in  possession  of  for  several 
years,  to  wit:  the  intrigues  of  the  British  agents  and  partisans  in 
creating  an  influence  hostile  to  our  people  and  Government,  within  our 
territory.  I  do  not  know  whether  a  garrison  [fort]  is  to  be  erected  on 
the  Wabash  or  not;  but  every  consideration  of  sound  policy  urges  the 
earlv  establishment  of  a  post  somewhere  contiguous  to  the  Prophet's 
residence.  Hostilities  were  continued  to  the  westward,  some  murders 
and  captivities  being  reported;  and  some  blockhouses  were  built  along 
the  frontier  for  the  refuge  and  defense  of  the  settlers. 

Governor  Harrison  had  not  remained  idle.  He  had  instituted 
preparations  for  defense  and,  also,  for  advance.  By  appointment  he 
was  visited  by  the  chief  leader  of  the  hostile  Aborigines,  his  written 
report  of  the  same  on  6th  August,  1811,  being  in  part  as  follows:  The 
Shawanee  Chief  Tecumseh  has  made  a  visit  to  this  place  with  about 
three  hundred  Aborigines,  though  he  promised  to  bring  but  a  few 
attendants;  his  intentions  hostile,  though  he  found  us  prepared  for  him. 
Tecumseh  did  not  set  out  till  yesterday ;  he  then  descended  the  Wabash 
attended  by  twenty  men  on  his  way  to  the  southward.  After  having 
visited  the  Creeks  and  Choctaws  he  is  to  visit  the  Osages,  and  return 
by  the  Missouri.  The  spies  say  his  object  in  coming  with  so  many 
was  to  demand  a  retrocession  of  the  late  purchase  [of  Aborigine  claims 
to  land].  At  the  moment  he  was  promising  to  bring  but  a  few  men 
with  him  he  was  sending  in  every  direction  to  collect  his  people.  That 
he  meditated  a  blow  at  this  time  was  believed  by  almost  all  the  neutral 

It  appears,  wrote  J.  Shaw  Agent  at  Fort  Wayne  the  18th  August, 
that  the  fruit  of  the  Shawanee  Prophet  and  his  band,  is  making  its 
appearance  i-n  more  genuine  colors  than  heretofore.  I  have  lately  had 
opportunities  of  seeing"  many  of  the  Aborigines  of  this  Agencv  from 
different  quarters,  and  by  what  I  have  been  able  to  learn  from  them, 
particularly  the  Pottawotamis,  I  am  induced  to  believe  the  news  circu- 
lating   in   the    papers    respecting    the    depredations   committed    in    the 

*  In  Drake's  Life  of  Tecumseh  there  is  description  of  a  dramatic  scene  at  this  council,  in  which 
Teciunseh's  men  at  a  given  sit;na)  sprang  to  arms  and  were  instantly  faced  by  a  strong  guard  of  Ameri- 
can troops  who  had  been  held  in  the  background  for  any  emergency. 


Illinois  Territory  by  the  Aborigines,  is  mostly  correct,  and  is  thought 
by  them  to  have  proceeded  from  Mar  Poe  [or  Marpack  a  Pottawotami 
chief]  and  the  influence  of  the  Shawanee  Prophet.  Several  of  the 
tribes  have  sent  to  me  for  advice.  Governor  Harrison  wrote  Septem- 
ber  17,    1811,    from   Vincennes    to    the    Secretary   of    War  as    follows: 

states    that    almost    every    Aborigine    from    the    countrv 

above  this  had  been  or  was  then  gone  to  Maiden  on  a  visit  to  the 
British  agent.  We  shall  probably  gain  our  destined  point  at  the 
moment  of  their  return.  If  then  the  British  agents  are  reall\'  endeav- 
oring to  instigate  the  Aborigines  to  make  war  upon  us,  we  shall  be  in 
their  neighborhood  at  the  very  moment  when  the  impressions  which 
have  been  made  against  us  are  most  active  in  the  minds  of  the  savages. 

succeeded  in  getting  the  chiefs   together  at   Fort  Wayne, 

though  he  found  them  all  preparing  to  go  to  Maiden.  The  result  of 
the  council  discovered  that  the  whole  tribes  ( including  the  Weas  and 
Eel  Rivers,  for    they    are   all    Miamis )    were   about    equally    divided    in 

favor   of    the    Prophet  and    the    United   States. reports 

that  all  the  Aborigines  of  the  Wabash  have  been  or  now  are  on  a  visit 
to  the  British  agent  at  Maiden  ;  he  has  never  known  more  than  one- 
fourth  as  many  goods  given  to  the  Aborigines  as  they  are  now  distrib- 
uting. He  examined  the  share  of  one  (not  a  chief)  and  found  that  he 
had  received  an  elegant  rifle,  twenty-five  pounds  of  powder,  fiftv 
pounds  of  lead,  three  blankets,  three  strouds  of  cloth,  ten  shirts,  and 
several  other  articles.  He  says  every  Aborigine  is  furnished  with  a 
gun  (either  rifle  or  fusil)  and  an  abundance  of  ammunition.  A  trader 
of  this  country  was  lately  in  the  King's  store  at  Maiden,  and  was  told 
that  the  quantity  of  goods  for  the  .\borigine  department  which  had  been 
sent  out  this  year,  exceeded  that  of  common  years  by  i:/20,000  sterling. 
It  is  impossible  to  ascribe  this  profusion  to  any  other  motive  than  that 
of  instigating  the  Aborigines  to  take  up  the  tomahawk;  it  cannot  be  to 
secure  their  trade  for  all  the  peltries  collected  on  the  waters  of  the 
Wabash  in  one  year  if  sold  on  the  London  market  would  not  pay  the 
freight  of  the  goods  which  have  been  given  to  the  Aborigines.'  . 
Tecumseh  and  the  Prophet  advocated  discontinuance  of  trade  with 
Americans.  Action  on  this  advice  led  to  clandestine  trading,  to  more 
fraudulent  practices,  and  to  some  violence.  But  the  principal  result 
was  observed  as  an  additional  incentive  to  turn  the  savages  to  the 
British  whose  lavish  gifts  had  already  operated  to  draw  the  most  of 
them  to  Maiden. 

The  report  of  Captain  John  Johnston  Factor  [Agent]  of  the  United 
States  Aborigine  Factory  [trading  agency]  at  Fort  Wayne  the  30th 
September,  1811,  to  J.  Mason  Superintendent  of  Trade  with  the  Abo- 
rigines, shows  the  Inventory  of    Merchandise  on  hand    30th    December, 


1807,  as  $13,046.84;  Accounts  of  Aborigines  $-2,459.29;  Amount  of 
Merchandise  received  from  1st  January,  1808,  $15,226.91;  Expenses 
since  1st  January,  1808,  $6,048.62.  To  tlie  credit  side  of  the  report 
there  is  the  Inventory  of  Merchandise  on  hand  30th  September,  1811, 
$10,281.66;  Furs,  Peltries,  etc.,  principally  hatters'  furs  of  good  sale 
[beaver  skins]  $689.62;  Cash  in  hand  $76.37/1':  Accounts  against 
Aborigines  $2,747.56  and  Buildings  $400.  The  two  last  items  were 
included  as  loss.  There  had  been  received  during  these  years  for  Furs 
and  Peltries  sold  $27,547.07;  the  value  of  Furs  and  Peltries  on  the  way 
to  market  $3,053.12:  Goods  returned  to  the  Government  $1,752.34; 
New  York  Auctioneer  paid  State  Duty  which  was  refunded  $195.42; 
Salary  transferred  $572.30  all  of  which  shows  a  profit  of  $10,502.77  for 
the  three  years  and  ten  months. 

There  were  at  this  time  ten  Trading  Agencies  in  operation  with 
a  total  capital  of  $290,000.  They  were  situate  as  follows:  Fort 
Hawkins,  Georgia;  Chickasaw  Bluffs,  Mississippi  Territory:  Fort 
Stephenson,  Mobile  River  Mississippi  Territory;  Fort  Osage,  by 
Missouri  River:  Fort  Madison,  bv  upper  Mississippi  River  Louisiana 
Territory :  Natchitoches,  by  Red  River  Orleans  Territory :  Fort 
Waj'ne  by  the  Miami  of  the  Lakes  [Maumee  River]  ;  Chicago,  San- 
dusky, and  Michilimackinac.  Several  of  these  agencies  were  conducted 
at  a  loss  to  the  Government,  viz:  Sandusky  $3,366.50;  Fort  Stephen- 
son $10,352.54;  Natchitoches  $11,718.73  and  Fort  Hawkins  $1,023. 
The  nominal  profit  at  the  others  was:  Chicago  $3,454.24;  Michili- 
mackinac $1,945.71  ;  Fort  Wayne  $10,502.77  ;  Fort  Osage  over  two 
hundred  dollars  less  than  Fort  Wayne,  and  Fort  Madison  $10,026.39. 
The  Agencies  showing  gain  received  more  of  hatters'  furs,  the  greatlv 
coveted  beaver,  which  were  constant!)'  in  greater  demand  than  the  sup- 
ply. The  Agencies  showing  loss  were  at  a  disadvantage  from  carriage 
■charges  and  the  -barter,  which  was  mostly  for  deer  skins  formerly 
marketed  in  Europe,  and  latterly  much  injured  by  vermin  from  the 
delay  in  sale  on  account  of  the  British  obstruction. 

Meetings  of  citizens  along  the  frontier  were  held  during  the  sum- 
mer of  1811  and  memorials  stating  the  depredations  and  murders  b\- 
the  Aborigines,  accompanied  by  petitions  for  protection,  were  sent  to 
President  James  Madison.  Governor  Harrison  was  given  additional 
regular  troops  and  militia  and,  the  second  week  in  October,  iHll,  they 
advanced  up  the  Wabash  towards  the  Prophet's  town  on  the  Tippe- 
canoe to  stop  his  influence  for  further  murderous  raids.  Peace  mes- 
sengers were  sent  forward,  but  they  were  violently  treated  and  the 
night  of  the  10th  a  sentinel  of  the  American  army  was  severely-  wounded 
by  the  Prophet's  warriors.  Governor  Harrison  commanded  in  person.  • 
The  army    advanced   cautiously  and,  the    6th    November,  meeting  some 


of  the  Prophet's  messengers  near  his  town  an  aj^'reement  was  made  for 
a  council  the  next  morniny;.  But,  true  to  the  treacherous  nature  of  the 
savages,  they  made  a  stealthy  attack  in  the  dark  about  a  quarter  past 
four  o'clock  in  the  morninjj  when,  in  the  words  of  Governor  Harrison's 
report,  they  manifested  a  ferocity  uncommon  to  them.  To  their 
savage  fury  our  troops,  nineteen-twentieths  of  whom  had  not  before 
been  in  battle,  opposed  that  cool  and  deliberate  valor  which  is  charac- 
teristic of  the  Christian  soldier.'  The  savages  retreated.  The  Ameri- 
cans in  this  Battle  of  Tippecanoe  numbered  a  few  over  seven  hundred  ; 
and  the  number  of  savages  was  estimated  as  nearly  the  same.  The 
American  loss  was  sixty-two  killed  and  one  hundred  and  twentv-six 
wounded.      The  loss  of   the  savages  was  estimated  at  a  greater  number. 

The  condition  of  the  frontier  settlements  was  not  much  improved 
by  this  defeat  of  the  Shawnee  Prophet's  army.  Depredations  and 
murders  continued  in  the  west,  and  grave  apprehensions  pervaded  the 
whole  country.  Among  the  i)etitioners  to  the  President  and  Congress 
for  protection  were  some  of  the  prominent  citizens  of  the  Territorv  of 
Michigan  living  at  Detroit,  who  gave  statistics  from  which  the  follow- 
ing are  extracted,  viz:  The  population  of  the  Territory  on  the  lUth 
December,  IHll,  was  given  as  four  thousand  seven  hundred  and  sixty- 
two,  about  four-fifths  of  whom  were  French,  the  remainder  being 
largely  Americans,  with  a  few  British  and  some  servants  of  African 
blood. "^  They  were  distributed  in  nine  principal  settlements  each 
having  a  double  frontier  '  —  the  British  on  one  side,  the  savages  on 
the  other.  The  first  three  of  these  settlements  were  named  as  1,  the 
mouth  of  the  Maumee  River;  "2,  the  River  Raisin;  3,  the  River  Huron. 
The  population  of  these  three  settlements  was  given  as  one  thousand 
three  hundred  and  forty  (not  including  the  savages)  the  males  over 
sixteen  years  of  age  being  three  hundred  and  ninety-one.  There  were 
two  forts,  one  at  Detroit  with  a  garrison  of  ninet\'-four  soldiers,  and 
the  other  at  Michilimackinac  with  seventy-nine  soldiers.  Additional 
forts  were  pt-titioned  for,  with  stronger  garrisons,  and  cavalrv. 

The  following  extracts  of  letters  show  the  continued  hostilitv  of 
the  savages  and  the  influence  of  the  British  against  the  Americans  : 
William  Wells  wrote  from  Fort  Wayne  10th  February,  1812,  that  at 
the  request  of  Little  Turtle  I  enclose  you  his  speech  to  Governor 
Harrison  of  the  25th  ultimo.  On  the  12th  ult.  two  British  emissaries 
passed  through  this  neighborhood  on  their  way  to  see  the  Prophet. 
On  the  21st  ultimo  they  called  at  my  house  on  their  return  to  Maiden; 
they  were  two  Munsey  Aborigines.  It  appears  that  their  business  was 
to  invite  all  the  Aborigines  to  meet  at   Maiden  very  early  in  the  spring. 

"  African  slaves  were  brought   info  this   Basin   by  the  Aborigines,  and  taken  to  Detroit  from  early 
date.     They  were  bought  by  the  army  ofiicers  and  merchants  and  retained  as  servants  for  many  years. 


What  took  place  between  them  and  the  Prophet,  I  have  not  yet  learnt. 
The  Pottawotamy  chief  Marpack  has  been  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Maiden  since  August  last;  he  now  is  near  the  white  settlement  on  the 
River  Raisin  in  Michigan  Territory  and  visits  Maiden  every  eight  or 
ten  days.  He  has  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  of  the  best  warriors 
in  this  country  with  him,  stationed  in  such  a  manner  as  to  be  unob- 
served by  the  white  settlers;  that  is  to  say,  eight  or  ten  in  one  place, 
fifteen  or  twenty  in  another,  and  so  on;  but  within  such  distance  of 
each  other  as  to  enable  him  to  collect  them  all  in  twenty-four  hours. 
I  know  this  chief  is  hostile-inclined  towards  the  United  States,  and 
have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  he  is  kept  at  that  place  by  the  British 
agents  at  Maiden  ;  and  in  case  the  United  States  have  war  with  that 
Power,  this  chief  will  attack  our  settlements  immediately.  I  believe 
many  of  the  warriors  that  fought  Governor  Harrison  have,  and  are  now 
about  to  join  him.'  The  speech  of  Little  Turtle  referred  to  above 
acknowledges  receipt  of  the  letters  of  Governor  Harrison,  and  states 
that  their  contents  had  been  communicated  to  the  Miami  tribes,  includ- 
ing those  of  Eel  River.  He  stated  that  none  of  these  tribes  was  in  the 
Battle  of  Tippecanoe.  He  expressed  regret  that  the  Aborigines  had 
become  hostile,  and  promised  his  influence  to  prevent  further  like 
action.  William  Wells  wrote  again  1st  March,  from  Fort  Wayne  as 
follows  :  In  my  letter  of  the  lOth  ultimo  I  informed  you  that  the 
Aborigine  chief  Tecumseh  had  arrived  on  the  Wabash.  I  have  now  to 
state  to  you  that  it  appears  he  has  determined  to  raise  all  the  Al^origi- 
nes  he  can,  immediately,  with  intention  no  doubt  to  attack  our  front- 
iers. He  has  sent  runners  to  raise  the  Aliorigines  on  the  Illinois  and 
the  upper  Mississippi;  and  I  am  told  has  gone  himself  to  hurry  on  the 
aid  he  was  promised  by  the  Cherokees  and  Creeks.  The  Prophet's 
orator,  who  is  considered  the  third  man  in  this  hostile  band,  passed 
within  twelve  miles  of  this  place  on  the  23rd  ultimo  with  eight  Shawa- 
nese,  eight  Winnebagoes  and  seven  Kickapoos,  in  all  twenty-four,  on 
their  way  as  they  say  to  Sandusky,  where  the\-  expected  to  receive  a 
quantit\-  of  powder  and  lead  from  their  father  the  British. 

Had  the  petitions  of  the  settlers  for  more  forts  and  stronger  garri- 
sons been  granted,  and  such  bands  as  above  mentioned  been  arrested  and 
imprisoned,  the  influence  of  the  British  could  have  been  greatly 
reduced  and  many  American  lives  saved  that  were  lost  in  later  conflicts 
when  the  British  and  their  savage  allies  were  again  fully  organized. 
Governor  Howard  of  Missouri  Territory  wrote  from  St.  Louis  March 
19,  1812,  detailing  depredations  and  '  most  barbarous  murders  '  by 
savages  ;  and  the  letters  of  like  import  from  Captam  Nathan  Heald 
were  frequent  from  Chicago,  including  the  killing  and  eating  of  two 
Americans    by    Winnebagoes  at    the    lead    mines    near   the    Mississippi. 


Captain  J.  Rhea  of  the  13th  Regiment  of  Infantry,  stationed  at  Fort 
Wavne,  wrote  March  14th,  you  say  if  we  have  a  British  war  we  shall 
have  an  Aborigine  war.  From  the  best  information  I  can  get,  I  have 
everv  reason  to  believe  we  shall  have  an  Aborigine  war  this  spring 
whether  we  have  a  British  war  or  not.  I  am  told  the  Aborigines  are 
making  every  preparation.  There  is  certainly  a  very  deep  plan  going 
on  among  the  Aborigines.  Captain  John  Whistler,  in  'command  of 
Fort  Lernoult  at  Detroit,  wrote  2nd  April,  that  Lieutenant  Eastman 
arrived  here  on  the  evening  of  the  ■29th  ultimo  from  Cincinnati.  About 
six  miles  on  this  side  of  the  foot  of  the  Miami  [Maumee]  rapids  he  met 
twenty-four  Aborigines  who  were  in  the  action  against  Governor  Har- 
rison [Battle  of  Tippecanoe].  They  were  on  their  return  from  Maiden, 
and  had  been  there  for  a  length  of  time  this  winter  and  had,  when  Mr. 
Eastman  met  them,  each  a  new  stand  of  arms,  some  of  them  were 
rifles  others  smooth  bore;  also  a  quantit\-  of  ammunitiijn.  One  of 
these  Aborigines  has  shown  in  this  town  several  wounds  he  had  received 
in  the  action.  The  15th  .\pril  Captain  Nathan  Heald,  in  command  of 
Fort  Dearborn  at  Chicago,  wrote  that  the  Aborigines  had  commenced 
hostilities  in  that  vicinity  by  murdering  two  men  about  three  miles 
from  the  fort.  Other  murders  were  reported  from  different  parts  of 
the  west.  The  first  of  May  Captain  John  Johnston  reported  from 
Piqua,  Ohio,  that  three  Americans  had  been  killed  at  Defiance  and  two 
at  Sandusky  by  the  savages.  A  general  uprising  of  the  savages  was 
now  apparent  to  the  westward,  and  the  frontier  settlers  there  were 
generally  gathered  in  hastily  constructed  and  uncomfortable  block- 

Benjamin  F.  Stickney,  who  had  recently  succeeded  John  Johnston 
as  Aborigine  agent  at  Fort  Wayne,  wrote  on  May  25th  that  My  last  was 
on  the  15th  instant.  I  told  you  then  of  the  measures  I  had  taken  to 
make  peace  with  the  relatives  of  the  two  Aborigines  who  were  killed  at 
Greenville.  Before  receiving  this  you  will  undoubtedly  have  received 
more  correct  information  of  the  circumstances  than  I  could  give  \'ou. 
The  women  and  child  who  were  taken  prisoners  were  sent  to  me  by 
Mr.  Johnson  with  three  or  four  horses  and  as  much  of  the  other 
property  that  was  taken  as  he  could  obtain,  under  the  care  and  pro- 
tection of  two  Shawanee  chiefs  and  ten  warriors.  The\-  arrived  four 
days  ago  when  there  was  a  general  collection  of  Aborigines  forming  to 
inform  me  what  had  been  doing  at  a  grand  council  they  had  been  hold- 
ing on  the  Wabash  where  twelve  tribes  were  represented,  consisting  of 
the  Wyandots,  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  Pottawotamies,  Delawares, 
Miamis,  Eel  River  Miamis,  Weas,  Piankeshaws,  Shawanese,  Kicka- 
poos,  and  Winnebagoes.  The  council  here  continued  two  days  and 
amounted    to  but  verv  little  more   than   that    they   had   united    to  secure 


and  maintain  peace.  I  cannot  explain  the  whole  better  than  by  enclos- 
ing you  a  copy  of  my  letter  to  Governor  Hull  [at  Detroit]  viz  :  .  .  . 
'  The  time  appears  to  have  arrived  when  it  is  necessary,  if  possible,  to 
cut  off  all  communication  between  the  Aborigines  within  the  territory 
of  the  United  States  and  Canada.'   . 

This  was  a  very  tardy  suggestion  of  a  policy  the  wisdom  of  the 
enforcement  of  which  should  have  seemed  a  necessity  years  before. 
Many  Aborigines  in  this  Basin,  recipients  of  United  States  annuities 
and  favors  and  more  immediately  under  control  of  United  States  agents, 
had  been  loath  to  join  Tecumseh  and  the  Prophet;  but  band  after 
band,  including  several  hundred  Ottawas  of  the  lower  Maumee,  with 
the  other  tribes  before  named,  had  been  enticed  to  remove  to  Tippe- 
canoe, or  to  near  Maiden,  and  to  ally  themselves  with  the  hostiles. 


First  Year  of  the   War  of    1812. 

Notwithstanding  the  many  reports  to  the  Secretary  of  War  through 
several  years  of  depredations  and  murders  bv  the  Aborigines,  and  the 
accumulated  evidence  of  the  incitements  by  British  traders,  agents  and 
officers,  it  was  not  until  the  13th  June,  181"2,  that  a  committee  of 
Congress  reported  it  proved  that  the  British  had  been  working  among 
these  Aborigines  with  the  intention  of  securing  them  as  allies  against 
the  United  States;  that  the  British  had  incited  them  to  hostilities  and 
presented  them  with  weapons  of  warfare  which  had  already  been  used 
against  the  Americans  ;  and  that  it  was  the  duty  of  the  President  of  the 
United  States  to  use  the  necessary  means  to  protect  the  frontiers  from 
the  attacks  with  which  they